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  1. Homo deceptus: How language creates its own reality.Bruce Bokor - manuscript
    Homo deceptus is a book that brings together new ideas on language, consciousness and physics into a comprehensive theory that unifies science and philosophy in a different kind of Theory of Everything. The subject of how we are to make sense of the world is addressed in a structured and ordered manner, which starts with a recognition that scientific truths are constructed within a linguistic framework. The author argues that an epistemic foundation of natural language must be understood before laying (...)
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  2. Pluralist-Monism. Derived Category Theory as the Grammar of n-Awareness.Shanna Dobson & Robert Prentner - manuscript
    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of awareness based on the idea of plurality. Instead of positing a singular principle, telos, or essence as noumenon, we model it as plurality accessible through multiple forms of awareness (“n-awareness”). In contrast to many other approaches, our model is committed to pluralist thinking. The noumenon is plural, and reality is neither reducible nor irreducible. Nothing dies out in meaning making. We begin by mathematizing the concept of awareness by appealing to the (...)
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  3. Another Other: The Foreigner.Gabriel Furmuzachi - manuscript
  4. Semantic Equivalence and the Language of Philosophical Analysis.Jorge J. E. Gracia - manuscript
    For many years I have maintained that I learned to philosophize by translating Francisco Suárez’s Metaphysical Disputation V from Latin into English. This surely is a claim that must sound extraordinary to the members of this audience or even to most twentieth century philosophers. Who reads Suárez these days? And what could I learn from a sixteenth century scholastic writer that would help me in the twentieth century? I would certainly be surprised if one were to find any references to (...)
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  5. Authorship and Date of the Book of Proverbs.Lascelles G. B. James - manuscript
    It is evident from studies of Proverbs that the book has a number of authors and was compiled over an extended period of time. Bible scholars differ in their opinions concerning the authorship and date of compilation of the book. There are a number of critics who believe that references to the names of some authors of Proverbs are symbolic. There are others who believe that the final compilation date of the book was around the 2nd century B.C. On the (...)
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  6. Reply to John Searle's Conjunctive Conditions for Non-defective Promising.Kim S. Mendoza - manuscript
    John Searle’s Speech Act Theory enumerates necessary and sufficient conditions for a non-defective act of promising in producing sincere promises. This paper seeks to demonstrate the conjunctive insufficiency of the foregoing conditions due to the inadequacy of the sincerity condition to guarantee predicated acts being fulfillable. Being the definitive condition which contains the psychological state distinct in promises as illocutionary acts, that is the expression of intention (S intends to A), I purport that not all sincere promises are non-defective. To (...)
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  7. DO IGNORANT ASSESSORS CASES POSE A CHALLENGE TO RELATIVISM ABOUT EPISTEMIC MODALS?Heidi Furey - forthcoming - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 16.
    Epistemic modality concerns what is possible given a body of knowledge or evidence. Cases involving epistemic modals, present an interesting semantic challenge: in order to give a semantic treatment of epistemic modals, we must explain how informational states figure in the semantic representation of these terms. According to John MacFarlane’s (2011, 2014) view – Assessor Relativism – epistemic modal claims are assessment-sensitive in that their truth depends on what is known by the assessor at the time he or she assesses (...)
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  8. Does polysemy support radical contextualism? On the relation between minimalism, contextualism and polysemy.Guido Löhr - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1–25.
    Polysemy has only recently entered the debate on semantic minimalism and contextualism. This is surprising considering that the key linguistic examples discussed in the debate, such as ‘John cut the grass’ or ‘The leaf is green’ appear to be prime examples of polysemy. Moreover, François Recanati recently argued that the mere existence of polysemy falsi!es semantic minimalism and supports radical contextualism. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the minimalism-contextualism debate relates to polysemy. This connection turns out to (...)
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  9. Reality and Concepts (in French).Francois-Igor Pris - forthcoming - AL-MUKHATABAT المخاطبات Revue Philosophique de Logique Et d'Epistémologie مجلّة فلسفية في المنطق و الإبستمولوجيا Philosophical Journal For Logic and Epistemology.
    I present the new realist philosophy by Jocelyn Benoist, in particular, his solution to the problem of the explanatory gap in the philosophy of mind.
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  10. Counterfactual Probability.Ginger Schultheis - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    Stalnaker's Thesis about indicative conditionals is, roughly, that the probability one ought to assign to an indicative conditional equals the probability that one ought to assign to its consequent conditional on its antecedent. The thesis seems right. If you draw a card from a standard 52-card deck, how confident are you that the card is a diamond if it's a red card? To answer this, you calculate the proportion of red cards that are diamonds -- that is, you calculate the (...)
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  11. Arthur Schopenhauer: Logic and Dialectic.Jens Lemanski - 2023 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    For Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), logic as a discipline belongs to the human faculty of reason, more precisely to the faculty of language. This discipline of logic breaks down into two areas. Logic or analytics is one side of the coin; dialectic or the art of persuasion is the other. The former investigates rule-oriented and monological language. The latter investigates result-oriented language and persuasive language...
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  12. Davida Kaplana metafizyka słów.Maciej Głowacki - 2022 - Filozofia Nauki 29 (116):103-129.
    This paper presents the fundamental problems of metaphysics of words and reconstructs David Kaplan’s intentional metaphysics of words. I critically analyze Kaplan’s proposal and present the most important objections. I also propose some possible answers to the objections.
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  13. A rich-lexicon theory of slurs and their uses.Dan Zeman - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (7):942-966.
    ABSTRACT In this paper, I present data involving the use of the Romanian slur ‘țigan’, consideration of which leads to the postulation of a sui-generis, irreducible type of use of slurs. This type of use is potentially problematic for extant theories of slurs. In addition, together with other well-established uses, it shows that there is more variation in the use of slurs than previously acknowledged. I explain this variation by construing slurs as polysemous. To implement this idea, I appeal to (...)
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  14. Hard and Blind: On Wittgenstein’s Genealogical View of Logical Necessity.Sorin Bangu - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 102 (2):439-458.
    My main aim is to sketch a certain reading (‘genealogical’) of later Wittgenstein’s views on logical necessity. Along the way, I engage with the inferentialism currently debated in the literature on the epistemology of deductive logic.
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  15. Gender in conditionals.Fabio Del Prete & Alessandro Zucchi - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44:953–980.
    The 3sg pronouns “he” and “she” impose descriptive gender conditions on their referents. These conditions are standardly analysed as presuppositions. Cooper argues that, when 3sg pronouns occur free, they have indexical presuppositions: the gender condition must be satisfied by the pronoun’s referent in the actual world. In this paper, we consider the behaviour of free 3sg pronouns in conditionals and focus on cases in which the pronouns’ gender presuppositions no longer seem to be indexical and project locally instead. We compare (...)
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  16. Language and Reality.Menno Lievers - 2021 - In Second Thoughts. Tilburg, Netherlands: pp. 261-277.
    An introduction to philosophy of language since Frege, focusing on the 20th century.
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  17. La grammatica è un'opinione? breve riflessione sul linguaggio naturale.Giorgio Marchetti & Pier Celeste Marchetti - 2021 - 02100 Rieti RI, Italia: PlaceBook Publishing.
    Dopo la loro prima esperienza di scrittura a quattro mani, sfociata nel volume "Il visibile o l'Invisibile? Dialoghi tra il serio e il faceto sulla conoscenza", gli autori hanno deciso di intraprendere in comune una nuova avventura letteraria. -/- Ne Il visibile o l'invisibile? Dialoghi tra il serio e il faceto sulla conoscenza, gli interventi dei due autori si alternavano in capitoli scritti singolarmente da ognuno dei due. Questa nuova opera, invece, vede esplicitarsi il loro pensiero in compresenza in ogni (...)
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  18. Editors’ Introduction: The Challenge from Non-Derogatory Uses of Slurs.Bianca Cepollaro & Dan Zeman - 2020 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 97 (1):1-10.
    The Introduction to "Non-Derogatory Uses of Slurs", special issue of Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  19. On Reading.Jeffrey Goodman - 2020 - Acta Analytica 35 (1):51-59.
    What is reading? Seeing and comprehending a contentful, written text counts as reading, of course, but that is simply the paradigm; it is not reading itself. Blind people, e.g., often read using Braille. So, my project in this paper is to address this question: What is the proper analysis of person S reads text W? Surprisingly, no philosophical attempts to analyze reading exist; this question has yet to be tackled. Can other sensory modalities be used to read? What more can (...)
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  20. Critical Discourse Analysis, by Terry Locke, London and New York: Continuum, 2004; 94 pp.,£ 14.51 (paperback), ISBN: 0 8264 6486 6. [REVIEW]Emerson Abraham Jackson - 2020 - Journal of Applied Thought 7 (2):144-148.
  21. Against Conventional Wisdom.Alexander W. Kocurek, Ethan Jerzak & Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (22):1-27.
    Conventional wisdom has it that truth is always evaluated using our actual linguistic conventions, even when considering counterfactual scenarios in which different conventions are adopted. This principle has been invoked in a number of philosophical arguments, including Kripke’s defense of the necessity of identity and Lewy’s objection to modal conventionalism. But it is false. It fails in the presence of what Einheuser (2006) calls c-monsters, or convention-shifting expressions (on analogy with Kaplan’s monsters, or context-shifting expressions). We show that c-monsters naturally (...)
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  22. Między językami: przekład, motyw, ciało. Pytanie o bycie / Between Languages: Translation, Motive, Body. The Question of Being (in Polish).Anton Marczyński - 2020 - In Mateusz Falkowski (ed.), Myślenie dziś VII. Warsaw: Barbara Skagra Foundation for Thinking. pp. 61-71.
  23. Kit Fine.Mike Raven - 2020 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Kit Fine is an English philosopher who is among the most important philosophers of the turn of the millennium. He is perhaps most influential for reinvigorating a neo-Aristotelian turn within contemporary analytic philosophy. Fine’s prolific work is characterized by a unique blend of logical acumen, respect for appearances, ingenious creativity, and originality. His vast corpus is filled with numerous significant contributions to metaphysics, philosophy of language, logic, philosophy of mathematics, and the history of philosophy. Although Fine is well-known for favoring (...)
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  24. Talking about appearances: the roles of evaluation and experience in disagreement.Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (1):197-217.
    Faultless disagreement and faultless retraction have been taken to motivate relativism for predicates of personal taste, like ‘tasty’. Less attention has been devoted to the question of what aspect of their meaning underlies this relativist behavior. This paper illustrates these same phenomena with a new category of expressions: appearance predicates, like ‘tastes vegan’ and ‘looks blue’. Appearance predicates and predicates of personal taste both fall into the broader category of experiential predicates. Approaching predicates of personal taste from this angle suggests (...)
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  25. Recensione di Making the Social World di John Searle (2010) (recensione rivista 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 9-29.
    Prima di commentare in dettaglio su making il mondo sociale (MSW) offrirò prima alcuni commenti sulla filosofia (psicologia descrittiva) e il suo rapporto con la ricerca psicologica contemporanea come esemplificato nelle opere di Searle (S) e Wittgenstein (W), dal momento che sento che questo è il modo migliore per posizionare Searle o qualsiasi comportamento commentatore, nella giusta prospettiva. Aiuterà molto vedere le mie recensioni di PNC, TLP, PI, OC, TARW e altri libri di questi due geni della psicologia descrittiva. S (...)
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  26. La Estructura Lógica de Conciencia.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Es mi afirmación que la tabla de intencionalidad (racionalidad, mente, pensamiento, lenguaje, personalidad, etc.) que presenta prominentemente aquí describe más o menos con precisión, o al menos sirve como heurística para, cómo pensamos y nos comportamos, y por lo tanto no abarca simplemente filosofía y psicología, sino todo lo demás (historia, literatura, matemáticas, política, etc.). Tenga en cuenta especialmente que la intencionalidad y racionalidad como yo (junto con Searle, Wittgenstein y otros) lo veo, incluye tanto el Sistema Linguístico deliberativo consciente (...)
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  27. وهم الإيثار: اللياقة الوراثية و انهيار الحضارة.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    إن الاستعداد الوراثي لمساعدة أقاربنا المقربين ("الإيثار")، الذي كان حيوياً للبقاء على قيد الحياة في أسلافنا في سهول أفريقيا قبل عشرات الآلاف إلى عشرات الملايين من السنين، هو عيب قاتل في عالم مكتظ حيث لم يعد جيراننا على صلة وثيقة ومنخرطين في صراع حياة أو موت من أجل البقاء. لقد أشرت إلى هذا باسم "وهم الأسرة السعيدة الكبيرة" وهو أمر محوري للأوهام الطوباوية الانتحارية لليسار السياسي، والتي تنشأ بسبب الوفرة المؤقتة للموارد والسلام النسبي الذي أمكن تحقيقه بسبب اغتصاب الأرض بلا (...)
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  28. परोपकारिता का भ्रम: समावेशी फिटनेस और सभ्यता का पतन.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    आनुवंशिक गड़बड़ी हमारे करीबी रिश्तेदारों ("परोपकारिता"), जो अफ्रीका के मैदानों पर हमारे पूर्वजों में अस्तित्व के लिए महत्वपूर्ण था हजारों की दसियों हजारों साल पहले की मदद करने के लिए, एक भीड़ दुनिया में एक घातक दोष है जहां हमारे पड़ोसियों अब बारीकी से संबंधित है और अस्तित्व के लिए एक जीवन और मौत के संघर्ष में लगे हुए हैं । मैं ' के रूप में एक बड़ा खुश परिवार भ्रम ' का उल्लेख किया है और यह राजनीतिक छोड़ दिया (...)
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  29. Un altro ritratto di cartone animato della mente dai metafisici riduzionisti -un recensione di Peter Carruthers 'L'opacità della mente' (The Opacity of Mind) (2011) (recensione rivista 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 124-149.
    Il materialismo, il riduzionismo, il comportamentalismo, il funzionalismo, la teoria dei sistemi dinamici e il computazionalismo sono punti di vista popolari, ma sono stati mostrati da Wittgenstein come incoerenti. Lo studio del comportamento comprende tutta la vitaumana, ma il comportamento è in gran parte automatico e inconscio e anche la parte cosciente, per lo più espressa nel linguaggio (che Wittgenstein equivale alla mente), non è perspicua, quindi è fondamentale avere un quadro che Searle chiama la struttura logica della razionalità (LSR) (...)
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  30. 约翰·西尔的《新世纪的哲学评论 2008年 Review of ‘Philosophy in a New Century’ by John Searle (2008)— (2019年修订版).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 30-48.
    在评论这本书之前,我提出了对维特根斯坦和西尔和理性的逻辑结构的评论。这里的文章大多在过去十年中已经出版(尽管有些已经更新),还有一个未发表的项目,这里没有什么会令那些跟上他的作品的人感到惊讶。和W一样 ,他被认为是他时代最好的站立哲学家,他的书面作品是坚如磐石,自始至终具有开创性。然而,他未能足够重视后来的W,导致一些错误和混乱。仅举几个例子:在第7页,他两次指出,我们对基本事实的确定性是由于支持我 们主张的压倒性理由,但W在《关于确定性》中明确表明,不可能怀疑我们的系统1感知,记忆和思想,因为它本身就是判断的基础,不能判断本身。在第8页的第一句中,他告诉我们确定性是可更新的,但是这种" 确定性",我们称之为确定性2,是通过经验扩展我们的公理和不可更新的确定性(确定性1)的结果,它完全不同于它命题(真或假)。这当然是W反复展示的"用语言来打击我们智力的魔咒" ;的一个经典例子。一个词- 两个(或许多)不同的用途。 他的最后一章"命题的统一"(以前未出版)也将受益匪浅,阅读W的"关于确定性"或DMS的两本书的OC(见我的评论),因为他们清楚地区分了真正的只有句子描述S1和真 或假描述 S2 的命题。这让我觉得S把S1观念视为命题的一种超优方法,因为他们在S2中开始思考它们后才变成T或F。然而,他的观点是,命题允许陈述实际或潜在的真理和虚假,过去和未来和幻想,从而提供了一个巨大的进步,超过 前或原语言社会,是令人信服的。正如他所指出的,"一个命题是任何可以决定满足条件的东西...和满足的条件...就是这样的。或者,需要补充的是,这可能是或可能想象成这种情况。 总体而言,PNC很好地总结了在维特根斯坦的半个世纪的工作,许多实质性的进展,但在我看来,W仍然是无与伦比的,一旦你明白他在说什么。理想情况下,它们应该一起阅读:西尔为清晰的连贯的散文和概括,用W的敏锐 例子和辉煌的格言来说明。如果我年轻得多,我会写一本书。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日(2019年)。.
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  31. Examen de la Métaphilosophie de Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein’s Metaphilosophy) par Paul Horwich 248p (2013) (examen révisé 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Bienvenue en Enfer sur Terre : Bébés, Changement climatique, Bitcoin, Cartels, Chine, Démocratie, Diversité, Dysgénique, Égalité, Pirates informatiques, Droits de l'homme, Islam, Libéralisme, Prospérité, Le Web, Chaos, Famine, Maladie, Violence, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 53-75.
    Horwich donne une belle analyse de Wittgenstein (W) et est un érudit W de premier plan, mais à mon avis, ils sont tous en deçà d’une pleine appréciation, comme je l’explique longuement dans cet examen et beaucoup d’autres. Si l’on ne comprend pas W (et de préférence Searle aussi) alors je ne vois pas comment on pourrait avoir plus qu’une compréhension superficielle de la philosophie et de la pensée de l’ordre supérieur et donc de tout comportement complexe (psychologie, sociologie, anthropologie, (...)
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  32. स्टीवन प िं कर (2008) द्वारा सोचा की सामग्री की समीक्षा--Review of The Stuff of Thought by Steven Pinker (2008).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In पृथ्वी पर नर्क में आपका स्वागत है: शिशुओं, जलवायु परिवर्तन, बिटकॉइन, कार्टेल, चीन, लोकतंत्र, विविधता, समानता, हैकर्स, मानव अधिकार, इस्लाम, उदारवाद, समृद्धि, वेब, अराजकता, भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता, युद्ध. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 84-98.
    मैं दार्शनिक (मनोवैज्ञानिक) लुडविग Wittgenstein द्वारा कुछ प्रसिद्ध टिप्पणियों के साथ शुरू क्योंकि पिंकर ज्यादातर लोगों के साथ शेयरों (हमारे विकसित सहज मनोविज्ञान के डिफ़ॉल्ट सेटिंग्स के कारण) मन के कामकाज के बारे में कुछ पूर्वाग्रहों, और क्योंकि Wittgenstein भाषा, सोचा और वास्तविकता के कामकाज में अद्वितीय और गहरा अंतर्दृष्टि प्रदान करता है (जो वह अधिक या कम coextensive के रूप में देखा) कहीं और नहीं मिला. पुनः केवल इस मात्रा में Wittgenstein के लिए संदर्भ है, जो सबसे दुर्भाग्यपूर्ण विचार (...)
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  33. La Struttura Logica Della Coscienza.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    È mia contesa che la tabella dell'intenzionalità (razionalità, coscienza, mente, pensiero, linguaggio, personalità, etc.) che figura in primo piano qui descrive più o meno accuratamente, o almeno serve come euristica per, come pensiamo e ci comportiamo, e quindi comprende non solo la filosofia e la psicologia, ma tutto il resto (storia, letteratura, matematica, politica ecc.). Si noti in particolare che l'intenzionalità e la razionalità come io (insieme a Searle, Wittgenstein e altri) lo vedono, include sia il sistema linguistico deliberativo cosciente (...)
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  34. الهيكل المنطقي للسلوك البشري.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    وزعم ي أن جدول التعمد (العقلانية والعقل والفكر واللغة والشخصية وما إلى ذلك) الذي يتميز بشكل بارز هنا يصف أكثر أو أقل دقة، أو على الأقل بمثابة الاستدلال ل، كيف نفكر وتصرفنا، وهكذا لا يشمل مجرد الفلسفة وعلم النفس، ولكن كل شيء آخر (التاريخ والأدب والرياضيات والسياسة وما إلى ذلك). لاحظ بشكل خاص أن التعمد والعقلانية كما أنا (جنبا إلى جنب مع سيرل، فيتغنشتاين وغيرها) نرى ذلك، ويشمل كل من النظام اللغوي التداولي واعية 2 واللاوعي الآلي قبل اللغوية نظام 1 (...)
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  35. 约翰·西尔的《创造社会世界》回顾(2010年) (Review of Making the Social World by John Searle (2010) (2019年修订版).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 9-30.
    在详细评论社会世界(MSW)之前,我将首先就哲学(描述性心理学)及其与当代心理学研究的关系提出一些评论,如西尔(S)和维特根斯坦(W),因为我觉得这是把西尔或任何评论者的行为,在正确的视角最好的方式。 这将是很大的帮助,看到我对PNC,TLP,PI,OC,TARW和其他书籍的评论,这两个天才的描述心理学。 S没有提到W在TLP中作为机制的先见之明的思想陈述,以及他在后来的工作中对它的破坏。自W以来,S已经成为这些机械行为观的主要解构者,以及最重要的描述性心理学家(哲学家),但没有意识到W如何完全期待他, 也没有意识到,总的来说,做别人(但看到许多论文和普劳福和科普兰在W,图灵和AI的书)。S 的工作比 W 的工作要容易得多,尽管有一些行话,但如果你从正确的方向接近它,它几乎非常明显。有关更多详细信息,请参阅我对 W S 和其他书籍的评论。 总体而言,MSW很好地总结了在维特根斯坦的半个世纪的工作带来的许多实质性进展,但在我看来,W仍然是无与伦比的基本心理学,一旦你掌握了他在说什么(见我的评论)。理想情况下,它们应该一起阅读:Searle 对S2/S3操作的明确连贯的散文和概括,用W对S1/S2操作的敏锐例子,以及他辉煌的格言来说明。如果我年轻得多,我会写一本书。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日 (2019).
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  36. 史蒂文·平克的《思想的东西》回顾(2008年) (Review of The Stuff of Thought by Steven Pinker (2008)) (2019年修订版).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 70-81.
    我首先从哲学家(心理学家)路德维希·维特根斯坦的一些著名评论开始,因为平克与大多数人(由于我们进化的先天心理学的默认设置)分享了对心灵功能的某些偏见,以及因为维特根斯坦提供了独特而深刻的见解,了解语言 、思想和现实(他认为或多或少是共性)在其他地方所没有的。本卷只提到维特根斯坦,这是最不幸的,因为他是最聪明和原始的语言分析家。 在最后一章中,他用柏拉图洞穴的著名比喻,完美地概括了这本书,概述了头脑(语言、思想、故意心理)——盲目自私的产物,只是通过自动利他主义来缓和。携带我们基因副本的亲戚(包容性健身)——自动工作,但试图以 乐观的结局结束,给我们希望,我们仍然可以利用其巨大的能力进行合作,使世界成为一个体面的生活场所。 平克当然知道,但很少说,我们的心理被遗漏了比包括更多。在人类自然的窗口,被排除在外或给予最少的关注是数学和几何,音乐和声音,图像,事件和因果关系,本体论(类的东西或我们所知道的),大多数认识论(我们如 何知道),处置(相信,思考,判断,打算等)和行动,神经递质和内生,精神状态(如,萨托里和启蒙,大脑刺激和记录,脑损伤和行为的故意心理学的其余部分缺陷和障碍,游戏和运动,决策理论(包括博弈论和行为经济学 ),动物行为(很少语言,但10亿年的共同遗传学)。许多关于有意心理学领域的书籍已经写好了。本书中的数据是描述,而不是说明为什么我们的大脑这样做或它是如何做到的解释。我们怎么知道用各种方式使用句子(即, 知道它们的所有含义)?这是进化心理学,在更基本的水平运作——维特根斯坦最活跃的水平。人们对使用词语的背景关注甚少——这是维特根斯坦开创的舞台。 然而,这是一部经典作品,这些警告仍然值得一读。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日 (2019) .
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  37. Bienvenue en Enfer sur Terre.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    L’Amérique et le monde sont en train de s’effondrer à cause d’une croissance démographique excessive, la plupart pour le siècle dernier et maintenant tout cela en raison de la 3e population mondiale. La consommation de ressources et l’ajout d’un ou deux milliards de dollars de plus vers 2100 vont effondrer la civilisation industrielle et provoquer la famine, la maladie, la violence et la guerre à une échelle stupéfiante. Des milliards vont mourir et la guerre nucléaire est presque certaine. En Amérique, (...)
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  38. Логическая структура сознания (поведение, личность, рациональность, мысль высшего порядка, преднамеренность).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В АД НА НАШЕМ МИРЕ : Дети, Изменение климата, Биткойн, Картели, Китай, Демократия, Разнообразие, Диссигеника, Равенство, Хакеры, Права человека, Ислам, Либерализм, Процветание, Сеть, Хаос, Голод, Болезнь, Насилие, Искусственный интелле. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 2-8.
    После полувека в забвении, природа сознания в настоящее время горячая тема в поведенческих наук и философии. Начиная с новаторской работы Людвига Витгенштейна в 1930-х (Голубые и коричневые книги) и от 50-х до настоящего времени его логическим преемником Джоном Сирлом, я создал следующую таблицу как эвристик для дальнейшего этого исследования. Строки показывают различные аспекты или способы изучения и колонки показывают непроизвольные процессы и добровольное поведение, включающее две системы (двойные процессы) Логической Структуры Сознания (LSC), которые также могут рассматриваться как Логическая структура Рациональности (...)
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  39. 意识的逻辑结构(行为、人格、理性、更高层次的思想、故意) The Logical Structure of Consciousness (behavior, personality, rationality, higher order thought, intentionality) (2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 2-9.
    经过半个世纪的遗忘,意识的本质现在是行为科学和哲学中最热门的话题。从路德维希·维特根斯坦在20世纪30年代的开创性工作(蓝本和布朗书),到50年代到现在,他的逻辑继承者约翰·西尔尔(John Searle)的开创性工作开始,我创建了下表,作为推进这项研究的启发。行显示学习的各个方面或方式,列显示由意识逻辑结构(LSC)的两个系统(双过程)组成的非自愿过程和自愿行为,也可以视为逻辑结构理性( LSR-Searle),行为(LSB),人格(LSP),现实(LSOR),故意性(LSI)——古典哲学术语,意识的描述性心理学(DPC),思维的描述性心理学(DPT)——或者更好,思想描述心理学(LD PT)的语言,这里介绍的术语,以及我最近的其他著作中介绍的术语。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日(2019年)。.
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  40. La Estructura Lógica de Conciencia.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Es mi afirmación que la tabla de intencionalidad (racionalidad, mente, pensamiento, lenguaje, personalidad, etc.) que presenta prominentemente aquí describe más o menos con precisión, o al menos sirve como heurística para, cómo pensamos y nos comportamos, y por lo tanto no abarca simplemente filosofía y psicología, sino todo lo demás (historia, literatura, matemáticas, política, etc.). Tenga en cuenta especialmente que la intencionalidad y racionalidad como yo (junto con Searle, Wittgenstein y otros) lo veo, incluye tanto el Sistema Linguístico deliberativo consciente (...)
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  41. Recensione di Philosophy in a New Century ('Filosofia in un Nuovo Secolo') di John Searle (2008) (revisione 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellig. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 30-47.
    Prima di commentare il libro, offro commenti su Wittgenstein e Searle e sulla struttura logica della razionalità. I saggi qui sono per lo più già pubblicati nell'ultimo decennio (anche se alcuni sono stati aggiornati), insieme a un elemento inedito, e nulla qui verrà come una sorpresa per coloro che hanno tenuto il passo con il suo lavoro. Come W, è considerato il miglior filosofo del suo tempo e il suo lavoro scritto è solido come una roccia e innovativo in tutto. (...)
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  42. जॉन Searle (2010) द्वारा सामाजिक दुनिया बनाने की समीक्षा Review of Making the Social World by John Searle (समीक्षा संशोधित 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In पृथ्वी पर नर्क में आपका स्वागत है: शिशुओं, जलवायु परिवर्तन, बिटकॉइन, कार्टेल, चीन, लोकतंत्र, विविधता, समानता, हैकर्स, मानव अधिकार, इस्लाम, उदारवाद, समृद्धि, वेब, अराजकता, भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता, युद्ध. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 10-34.
    एम making सामाजिक दुनिया पर विस्तार से टिप्पणी करने से पहले(MSW) मैं पहली बार दर्शन पर कुछ टिप्पणी की पेशकश करेगा (वर्णनात्मक मनोविज्ञान) और समकालीन मनोवैज्ञानिक अनुसंधान के लिए अपने रिश्ते के रूप में Searle के कार्यों में उदाहरण के रूप में (एस) और Wittgenstein (डब्ल्यू), जब से मुझे लगता है कि यह सबसे अच्छा तरीका है Searle या व्यवहार पर किसी भी टीकाकार जगह है, उचित परिप्रेक्ष्य में. यह बहुत वर्णनात्मक मनोविज्ञान के इन दो प्रतिभाशाली द्वारा पीएनसी, TLP, पीआई, (...)
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  43. पॉल होर्विच 248p (2013) द्वारा विटगेनस्टीन के मेटापोपैलोसिस की समीक्षा--Review of Wittgenstein's Metaphilosophy by Paul Horwich (समीक्षा संशोधित 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In पृथ्वी पर नर्क में आपका स्वागत है: शिशुओं, जलवायु परिवर्तन, बिटकॉइन, कार्टेल, चीन, लोकतंत्र, विविधता, समानता, हैकर्स, मानव अधिकार, इस्लाम, उदारवाद, समृद्धि, वेब, अराजकता, भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता, युद्ध. Las Vegas, NV , USA: Reality Press. pp. 58-83.
    Horwich Wittgenstein (डब्ल्यू) का एक अच्छा विश्लेषण देता है और एक अग्रणी डब्ल्यू विद्वान है, लेकिन मेरे विचार में, वे सब एक पूर्ण प्रशंसा की कमी है, के रूप में मैं इस समीक्षा में लंबाई में समझा और कई अन्य. यदि एक डब्ल्यू समझ में नहीं आता (और अधिमानतः Searle भी) तो मुझे नहीं लगता कि कैसे एक दर्शन की एक सतही समझ से अधिक हो सकता है और उच्च आदेश सोचा और इस प्रकार सभी जटिल व्यवहार (मनोविज्ञान, समाजशास्त्र, मानव (...)
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  44. 利他主义的妄想:包容性健身与文明的崩溃.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    帮助我们近亲的遗传倾向("利他主义")对于我们几万至数千万年前在非洲平原上祖先的生存至关重要,在拥挤不堪的世界里是一个致命的缺陷,我们的邻居不再关系密切,正在为生存而进行生死斗争。 我称之为"一个大幸福家庭妄想",它是政治左派自杀的乌托邦妄想的核心,这种妄想是由于地球无情地强奸而带来的暂时丰富的资源和相对和平。 过去有意义的自由政治观点正在导致现代民主社会的崩溃,或许也带来了文明本身的崩溃。 虽然这是显而易见的任何明亮的10岁,访问网络,甚至卫星电视, 它完全不透明的自由/民主/新马克思主义/新法西斯主义/第三世界至上主义/20,30,40的东西Googloids和iPhoners,谁将很快接管和破坏繁荣与和平在美国和英国,然后世界,无论是直接,并通 过开放它由墨西哥卡特尔,伊斯兰圣战者和超越,统治中国的七个社会路径。美国和世界正处于人口过度增长的崩溃过程中,大部分都发生在上个世纪,现在由于第三世界人民,这一切都在崩溃。资源消耗和增加20亿美元,将 使工业文明崩溃,造成饥饿、疾病、暴力和战争。地球每年至少损失1%的表土,因此,随着接近2100,大部分粮食生长能力将不复存在。数十亿人将死去,核战争几乎可以肯定。在美国,大规模移民和移民再生产,加上民 主带来的滥用,正在大大加速这一速度。堕落的人性无情地把民主和多样性的梦想变成犯罪和贫穷的噩梦。对基本生物学和心理的无知导致部分受过教育的人的社会工程错觉,他们控制着民主社会。很少有人明白,如果你帮助一 个人,你伤害了别人——没有免费的午餐,任何人消费的每一件物品都会破坏地球,无法修复。因此,世界各地的社会政策都是不可持续的,如果不严格控制自私,所有社会都会陷入无政府状态或独裁。几乎从未提及的最基本事 实是,美国或世界没有足够的资源来使相当一部分穷人摆脱贫困,并让他们留在贫困中。这样做的企图使美国破产,毁灭世界。地球生产食物的能力每天都在下降,我们的遗传质量也是如此。现在,一如既往,穷人的最大敌人是 其他穷人,而不是富人。如果不立即作出戏剧性改变,就没有希望阻止美国或任何遵循民主制度的国家的崩溃。.
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  45. 의식의 논리적 구조 (행동, 성격, 합리성, 높은 질서 생각, 의도).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 지구상의 지옥에 오신 것을 환영합니다 : 아기, 기후 변화, 비트 코인, 카르텔, 중국, 민주주의, 다양성, 역학, 평등, 해커, 인권, 이슬람, 자유주의, 번영, 웹, 혼돈, 기아, 질병, 폭력, 인공 지능, 전쟁. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 2-9.
    반세기 후에 잊혀진 의식의 본질은 이제 행동 과학과 철학에서 가장 인기있는 주제입니다. 1930 년대 (블루와 브라운 북)의 루트비히 위트 겐슈 타인 (Ludwig Wittgenstein)의 개척적인 작품부터 시작하여 50 년대부터 현재까지 그의 논리적 후임 존 시일 (John Searle)이이 연구를 추론하기위한 휴리스틱으로 다음 표를 만들었습니다. 행은 다양한 측면 또는 연구 방법을 보여주고 열은 LCS (의식의 논리적 구조) 의 두 시스템 (이중 프로세스)을 포함하는 비자발적 프로세스와 자발적인 행동을 보여줍니다. -Searle), 행동 (LSB), 성격 (LSP), 현실 (LSOR), 의도 (LSI)-고전적 철학적 용어, 의식적 심리학 (DPC), 사고 적 (...)
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  46. Wittgenstein의 메타 철학 검토—(Wittgenstein’s Metaphilosopy) Paul Horwich.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 지구상의 지옥에 오신 것을 환영합니다 : 아기, 기후 변화, 비트 코인, 카르텔, 중국, 민주주의, 다양성, 역학, 평등, 해커, 인권, 이슬람, 자유주의, 번영, 웹, 혼돈, 기아, 질병, 폭력, 인공 지능, 전쟁. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 58-83.
    Horwich는 Wittgenstein (W)의 미세한 분석을 제공하고 선도적 인 W 학자이지만, 내관점에서, 그들은 모두 내가이 리뷰와 많은 다른 사람의 길이에 설명으로, 전체 감사에 미치지. 하나는 W를 이해하지 않는 경우 (그리고 바람직하게는 Searle도) 나는 사람이 철학과 높은 질서 생각의 피상적 인 이해이상을 가질 수있는 방법을 볼 수 없습니다 따라서 모든 복잡한 행동 (심리학, 사회학, 인류학, 역사, 문학, 사회). 간단히 말해서 W는 문장이 관심의 맥락에서 어떻게 사용되는지 보여 주었을 때 더 이상 말할 것이 없다는 것을 보여주었습니다. 나는 몇 가지 주목할만한 따옴표로 시작하고 내가 (...)
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  47. स्टे रॉयड पर वै ज्ञानिकता: स्वतं त्रता की एक रे वीडब्ल्यू डै नियल Dennettद्वारा ववकसित (2003) Scientism on Steroids-a Review of Freedom Evolves by Daniel Dennett (िमीक्षा िं शोधित 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In पृथ्वी पर नर्क में आपका स्वागत है: शिशुओं, जलवायु परिवर्तन, बिटकॉइन, कार्टेल, चीन, लोकतंत्र, विविधता, समानता, हैकर्स, मानव अधिकार, इस्लाम, उदारवाद, समृद्धि, वेब, अराजकता, भुखमरी, बीमारी, हिंसा, कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता, युद्ध. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 111-129.
    [लोग बार बार कहते हैं कि दर्शन वास्तव में प्रगति नहीं करता है, कि हम अभी भी एक ही दार्शनिक समस्याओं के साथ कब्जा कर रहे हैं के रूप में यूनानियों थे. लेकिन जो लोग यह कहते हैं, वे समझ नहीं पा रहे हैं कि ऐसा क्यों होना चाहिए। ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि हमारी भाषा वही रही है और हमें एक ही सवाल पूछने में seducing रहता है. जब तक कोई क्रिया होती रहती है, तब तक ऐसा प्रतीत होता है (...)
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  48. La Struttura Logica del Comportamento Umano.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - las vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    È mia contesa che la tabella dell'intenzionalità (razionalità, coscienza, mente, pensiero, linguaggio, personalità, ecc.) che figura in primo piano qui descrive più o meno accuratamente, o almeno serve come euristica per, come pensiamo e ci comportiamo, e quindi comprende non solo la filosofia e la psicologia, ma tutto il resto (storia, letteratura, matematica, politica ecc.). Si noti in particolare che l'intenzionalità e la razionalità come io (insieme a Searle, Wittgenstein e altri) lo vedono, include sia il sistema linguistico deliberativo cosciente (...)
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  49. البنية المنطقية للوعي.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    وزعمي أن جدول التعمد (العقلانية، والوعي، والعقل، والفكر، واللغة، والشخصية، وما إلى ذلك) الذي يتميز بشكل بارز هنا يصف بشكل أكثر أو أقل دقة، أو على الأقل بمثابة مُهَرَق، كيف نفكر ونتصرف، وبالتالي فهو لا يشمل الفلسفة وعلم النفس فحسب، بل كل شيء آخر (التاريخ، الأدب، الرياضيات، السياسة إلخ). لاحظ بشكل خاص أن التعمد والعقلانية كما أنا (جنبا إلى جنب مع سيرل، فيتغنشتاين وغيرها) نرى ذلك، ويشمل كل من النظام اللغوي التداولي واعية 2 واللاوعي الآلي قبل اللغوية نظام 1 الإجراءات (...)
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  50. Bevissthetens Logiske Struktur.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Det er min strid at tabellen av intensjonalitet (rasjonalitet, bevissthet, sinn, tanke, språk, personlighet etc.) som har fremtredende her beskriver mer eller mindre nøyaktig, eller i det minste fungerer som en heuristisk for, hvordan vi tenker og oppfører oss, og så omfatter det ikke bare filosofi og psykologi, men alt annet (historie, litteratur, matematikk, politikk etc.). Legg spesielt merke til at intensjonalitet og rasjonalitet som jeg (sammen med Searle, Wittgenstein og andre) ser det, inkluderer både bevisst deliberativspråklig system 2 og (...)
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