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  1. Sorites arguments, a myth of genius, and overpopulation.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper responds to Theron Pummer’s distinction between Sorites arguments and repugnant conclusion arguments by presenting a Sorites overpopulation argument. Also I present a Sorites argument in favour of myths of genius.
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  2. Vagueness without indefiniteness.Gerald Hull - manuscript
    Contemporary discussions do not always clearly distinguish two different forms of vagueness. Sometimes focus is on the imprecision of predicates, and sometimes the indefiniteness of statements. The two are intimately related, of course. A predicate is imprecise if there are instances to which it neither definitely applies nor definitely does not apply, instances of which it is neither definitely true nor definitely false. However, indefinite statements will occur in everyday discourse only if speakers in fact apply imprecise predicates to such (...)
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  3. Sorites, Curry and Suitable Models.Bruno Da Ré & Paula Teijeiro - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    In this paper we present two new approaches for dealing with semantic paradoxes and soritical predicates based on fuzzy logic. We show that both of them have conceptual advantages over the more traditional Łukasiewicz approach, and that the second one even avoids standard proofs of ω-nconsistency.
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  4. Fine on the Possibility of Vagueness.Andreas Ditter - forthcoming - In Federico L. G. Faroldi & Frederik van De Putte (eds.), Outstanding Contributions to Logic: Kit Fine.
    Fine (2017) proposes a new logic of vagueness, CL, that promises to provide both a solution to the sorites paradox and a way to avoid the impossibility result from Fine (2008). The present paper presents a challenge to his new theory of vagueness. I argue that the possibility theorem stated in Fine (2017), as well as his solution to the sorites paradox, fail in certain reasonable extensions of the language of CL. More specifically, I show that if we extend the (...)
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  5. Vague Disagreements and the Sorites Paradox.Ted Everett - forthcoming - In Otavio Bueno & Ali Abasnezhad (eds.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science 33: On the Sorites Paradox. New York: Springer.
    When you and I seriously argue over whether a man of seventy is old enough to count as an "old man", it seems that we are appealing neither to our own separate standards of oldness nor to a common standard that is already fixed in the language. Instead, it seems that both of us implicitly invoke an ideal, shared standard that has yet to be agreed upon: the place where we ought to draw the line. As with other normative standards, (...)
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  6. Neutralism and the Observational Sorites Paradox.Patrick Greenough - forthcoming - In Ali Abasnezhad & Otavio Bueno (eds.), Synthese Special Edition. Springer.
    Neutralism is the broad view that philosophical progress can take place when (and sometimes only when) a thoroughly neutral, non-specific theory, treatment, or methodology is adopted. The broad goal here is to articulate a distinct, specific kind of sorites paradox (The Observational Sorites Paradox) and show that it can be effectively treated via Neutralism.
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  7. Essential Vagueness: Two Models, One Simple Truth.Patrick Grim - forthcoming - In Ali Abasenezhad & Otavio Bueno (eds.), On the Sorites. Springer.
    What the Sorites has to tell us is a simple truth regarding our categories. It appears to saddle us with something other than a simple truth—something worse, a contradiction or a problem or a paradox—only when we insist on viewing it through a discrete logic of categories. Discrete categories and discrete logic are for robots. We aren’t robots, and the simple truth is that we don’t handle categories in the way any discrete logic would demand. For us non-robots, what the (...)
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  8. Vagueness.Hans Kamp & Galit W. Sassoon - forthcoming - In Paul Dekker Maria Aloni (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Formal Semantics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 389-441.
    Vagueness is an ultimate challenge. An enormous diversity of literature on the topic has accumulated over the years, with no hint of a consensus emerging. In this light, Section 1 presents the main aspects of the challenge vagueness poses, focusing on the category of adjectives, and then gives some brief illustrations of the pervasive manifestations of vagueness in grammar.Section 2 deals with theSorites paradox, which for many philosophers is the hallmark of vagueness: By assigning avague predicate step by apparently inescapable (...)
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  9. Can We Really See A Million Colours.David Papineau - forthcoming - In Paul Coates & Sam Coleman (eds.), The Nature of Phenomenal Qualities. Oxford University Press.
  10. Vagueness and Intuitionistic Logic.Ian Rumfitt - forthcoming - In Alexander Miller (ed.), Language, Logic,and Mathematics: Themes from the Philosophy of Crispin Wright. Oxford University Press.
    In his essay ‘“Wang’s Paradox”’, Crispin Wright proposes a solution to the Sorites Paradox (in particular, the form of it he calls the ‘Paradox of Sharp Boundaries’) that involves adopting intuitionistic logic when reasoning with vague predicates. He does not give a semantic theory which accounts for the validity of intuitionistic logic (and the invalidity of stronger logics) in that area. The present essay tentatively makes good the deficiency. By applying a theorem of Tarski, it shows that intuitionistic logic is (...)
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  11. Consonance and Dissonance in Solutions to the Sorites.Nicholas J. J. Smith - forthcoming - In Otavio Bueno & Ali Abasnezhad (eds.), On the Sorites Paradox. Springer.
    A requirement on any theory of vagueness is that it solve the sorites paradox. It is generally agreed that there are two aspects to such a solution: one task is to locate the error in the sorites argument; the second task is to explain why the sorites reasoning is a paradox rather than a simple mistake. I argue for a further constraint on approaches to the second task: they should conform to the standard modus operandi in formal semantics, in which (...)
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  12. The Boolean Many-Valued Solution to the Sorites Paradox.Ken Akiba - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-25.
    This paper offers the Boolean many-valued solution to the Sorites Paradox. According to the precisification-based Boolean many-valued theory, from which this solution arises, sentences have not only two truth values, truth and falsity, but many Boolean values between 0 and 1. The Boolean value of a sentence is identified with the set of precisifications in which the sentence is true. Unlike degrees fuzzy logic assigns to sentences, Boolean many values are not linearly but only partially ordered; so there are values (...)
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  13. Vagueness: A Global Approach by Kit Fine. [REVIEW]Chad Carmichael - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (3):594-595.
    A review of Kit Fine's book, Vagueness: A Global Approach.
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  14. The Epistemic Consequences of Paradox.Bryan Frances - 2022 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    By pooling together exhaustive analyses of certain philosophical paradoxes, we can prove a series of fascinating results regarding philosophical progress, agreement on substantive philosophical claims, knockdown arguments in philosophy, the wisdom of philosophical belief, the epistemic status of metaphysics, and the power of philosophy to refute common sense. As examples, this Element examines the Sorites Paradox, the Liar Paradox, and the Problem of the Many – although many other paradoxes can do the trick too.
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  15. Cut-off points for the rational believer.Lina Maria Lissia - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-19.
    I show that the Lottery Paradox is just a version of the Sorites, and argue that this should modify our way of looking at the Paradox itself. In particular, I focus on what I call “the Cut-off Point Problem” and contend that this problem, well known by Sorites scholars, ought to play a key role in the debate on Kyburg’s puzzle. Very briefly, I show that, in the Lottery Paradox, the premises “ticket n°1 will lose”, “ticket n°2 will lose”… “ticket (...)
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  16. Sorites On What Matters.Theron Pummer - 2022 - In Jeff McMahan, Timothy Campbell, Ketan Ramakrishnan & Jimmy Goodrich (eds.), Ethics and Existence: The Legacy of Derek Parfit. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 498–523.
    Ethics in the tradition of Derek Parfit’s Reasons and Persons is riddled with sorites-like arguments, which lead us by what seem innocent steps to seemingly false conclusions. Take, for example, spectrum arguments for the Repugnant Conclusion that appeal to slight differences in quality of life. Several authors have taken the view that, since spectrum arguments are structurally analogous to sorites arguments, the correct response to spectrum arguments is structurally analogous to the correct response to sorites arguments. This sorites analogy is (...)
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  17. How to Swim in Sinking Sands: The Sorites Paradox and the Nature and Logic of Vague Language.Inga Bones - 2021 - Paderborn, Deutschland: Mentis.
    This book examines philosophical approaches to linguistic vagueness, a puzzling feature of natural language that gives rise to the ancient Sorites paradox and challenges classical logic and semantics. -/- The Sorites, or Paradox of the Heap, consists in three claims: (1) One grain of sand does not make a heap. (2) One billion grains of sand do make a heap. (3) For any two amounts of sand differing by at most one grain: either both are heaps of sand, or neither (...)
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  18. Qualitative versus quantitative representation: a non-standard analysis of the sorites paradox.Yair Itzhaki - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (5):1013-1044.
    This paper presents an analysis of the sorites paradox for collective nouns and gradable adjectives within the framework of classical logic. The paradox is explained by distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative representations. This distinction is formally represented by the use of a different mathematical model for each type of representation. Quantitative representations induce Archimedean models, but qualitative representations induce non-Archimedean models. By using a non-standard model of \ called \, which contains infinite and infinitesimal numbers, the two paradoxes are shown (...)
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  19. Prefaces, Sorites and Guides to Reasoning.Rosanna Keefe - 2021 - In Conditionals, Paradox and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington. Oxford, UK: pp. 212-226.
    Is there an interesting relation between the Preface paradox and the Sorites paradox that might be used to illuminate either or both of those paradoxes and the phenomena of rationality and vagueness with which they, respectively, are bound up? In particular, if we consider the analogy alongside a familiar response to the Preface Paradox that employs degrees of belief, does this give any support to the thought that we should adopt some kind of degree-theoretic treatment of vagueness and the sorites? (...)
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  20. Interview with Paul Égré.Lina M. Lissia - 2021 - The Reasoner 15 (1):1-3.
  21. Intuitionism and the Modal Logic of Vagueness.Susanne Bobzien & Ian Rumfitt - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (2):221-248.
    Intuitionistic logic provides an elegant solution to the Sorites Paradox. Its acceptance has been hampered by two factors. First, the lack of an accepted semantics for languages containing vague terms has led even philosophers sympathetic to intuitionism to complain that no explanation has been given of why intuitionistic logic is the correct logic for such languages. Second, switching from classical to intuitionistic logic, while it may help with the Sorites, does not appear to offer any advantages when dealing with the (...)
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  22. Defeasible Tolerance and the Sorites.Ivan Hu - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy 117 (4):181-218.
    I propose a novel solution to the Sorites Paradox. The account vindicates the tolerance of vague predicates in a way that properly addresses the normativity of vagueness while avoiding sorites contradiction, by treating sorites reasoning as a type of defeasible reasoning. I show how this can be done within the setting of a nonmonotonic deontic logic. Central to the proposal is its deontic interpretation of tolerance. I draw a key distinction between two types of tolerance, based on different deontic notions, (...)
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  23. A Teoria Supervalorativista da Vagueza e o Problema da Precisão.Sagid Salles - 2020 - In Marcus José Alves de Souza & Maxwell Morais de Lima Filho (ed.), Escritos de Filosofia IV: Linguagem e Cognição. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil: pp. 100-119.
    O fenômeno da vagueza é quase onipresente na linguagem natural. Por um lado, a vagueza abrange variadas categorias lógicas, incluindo predicados, termos singulares e quantificadores. Por outro, é argumentável que a maioria das expressões em cada uma destas categorias, principalmente termos singulares e predicados, é vaga. Isto não seria um problema, não tivesse o fenômeno da vagueza relacionado ao paradoxo sorites, que supostamente mostra a incoerência destas expressões. O Supervalorativismo fornece uma explicação do fenômeno, acompanhado de uma solução do paradoxo, (...)
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  24. The Sorites Paradox in Practical Philosophy.Hrafn Asgeirsson - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 229–245.
    The first part of the chapter surveys some of the main ways in which the Sorites Paradox has figured in arguments in practical philosophy in recent decades, with special attention to arguments where the paradox is used as a basis for criticism. Not coincidentally, the relevant arguments all involve the transitivity of value in some way. The second part of the chapter is more probative, focusing on two main themes. First, I further address the relationship between the Sorites Paradox and (...)
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  25. Tolerance and the distributed sorites.Zach Barnett - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):1071-1077.
    On some accounts of vagueness, predicates like “is a heap” are tolerant. That is, their correct application tolerates sufficiently small changes in the objects to which they are applied. Of course, such views face the sorites paradox, and various solutions have been proposed. One proposed solution involves banning repeated appeals to tolerance, while affirming tolerance in any individual case. In effect, this solution rejects the reasoning of the sorites argument. This paper discusses a thorny problem afflicting this approach to vagueness. (...)
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  26. Contextualism and the Sorites paradox.Inga Bones & Diana Raman - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  27. Supervaluationism, Subvaluationism and the Sorites Paradox.Pablo Cobreros & Luca Tranchini - 2019 - In Elia Zardini & Sergi Oms (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge, Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38-62.
    One way in which we might approach the challenge posed by the Sorites Paradox is considering that Sorites-susceptible predicates have several candidate extensions, or several ways in which these expressions can be made precise. For example, a candidate extension for the predicate ‘is a baby’ is the set of humans of less than two years, but also the set of those less than two years and one second, and of those less than two years and two seconds. In this chapter (...)
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  28. Incoherentism and the Sorites Paradox.Matti Eklund - 2019 - In Elia Zardini & Sergi Oms (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
  29. The Sorites paradox in psychology.Paul Égré, David Ripley & Steven Verheyen - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  30. Rampant Non‐Factualism: A Metaphysical Framework and its Treatment of Vagueness.Alexander Jackson - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (2):79-108.
    Rampant non-factualism is the view that all non-fundamental matters are non-factual, in a sense inspired by Kit Fine (2001). The first half of this paper argues that if we take non-factualism seriously for any matters, such as morality, then we should take rampant non-factualism seriously. The second half of the paper argues that rampant non-factualism makes possible an attractive theory of vagueness. We can give non-factualist accounts of non-fundamental matters that nicely characterize the vagueness they manifest (if any). I suggest (...)
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  31. The Sorites paradox in linguistics.Chris Kennedy - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  32. Epistemicism and the Sorites paradox.Ofra Magidor - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  33. The Sorites paradox in philosophy of logic.Sergi Oms - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  34. The Sorites Paradox.Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.) - 2019 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    For centuries, the Sorites Paradox has spurred philosophers to think and argue about the problem of vagueness. This volume offers a guide to the paradox which is both an accessible survey and an exposition of the state of the art, with a chapter-by-chapter presentation of all of the main solutions to the paradox and of all its main areas of influence. Each chapter offers a gentle introduction to its topic, gradually building up to a final discussion of some open problems. (...)
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  35. Degree theory and the Sorites paradox.Francesco Paoli - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  36. Dialetheism and the Sorites paradox.Graham Priest - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  37. Rejection of excluded middle and the Sorites paradox.Scott Soames - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  38. Intuitionism and the Sorites paradox.Crispin Wright - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  39. Non-transitivism and the Sorites paradox.Elia Zardini - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge University Press.
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  40. On the Borders of Vagueness and the Vagueness of Borders.Rory Collins - 2018 - Vassar College Journal of Philosophy 5:30-44.
    This article argues that resolutions to the sorites paradox offered by epistemic and supervaluation theories fail to adequately account for vagueness. After explaining the paradox, I examine the epistemic theory defended by Timothy Williamson and discuss objections to his semantic argument for vague terms having precise boundaries. I then consider Rosanna Keefe's supervaluationist approach and explain why it fails to accommodate the problem of higher-order vagueness. I conclude by discussing how fuzzy logic may hold the key to resolving the sorites (...)
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  41. Why the Vagueness Paradox is Amazing.Bryan Frances - 2018 - Think 17 (50):27-38.
    One of the hardest problems in philosophy, one that has been around for over two thousand years without generating any significant consensus on its solution, involves the concept of vagueness: a word or concept that doesn't have a perfectly precise meaning. There is an argument that seems to show that the word or concept simply must have a perfectly precise meaning, as violently counterintuitive as that is. Unfortunately, the argument is usually so compressed that it is difficult to see why (...)
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  42. Sorites Paradox.Dominic Hyde & Diana Raffman - 2018 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  43. Spectrum arguments and hypersensitivity.Theron Pummer - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (7):1729-1744.
    Larry Temkin famously argues that what he calls spectrum arguments yield strong reason to reject Transitivity, according to which the ‘all-things-considered better than’ relation is transitive. Spectrum arguments do reveal that the conjunctions of independently plausible claims are inconsistent with Transitivity. But I argue that there is very strong independent reason to reject such conjunctions of claims, and thus that the fact that they are inconsistent with Transitivity does not yield strong reason to reject Transitivity.
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  44. Coin trials.Martin Smith - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 48 (5):726-741.
    According to the JUSTIFIED FAIR COINS principle, if I know that a coin is fair, and I lack justification for believing that it won’t be flipped, then I lack justification for believing that it won’t land tails. What this principle says, in effect, is that the only way to have justification for believing that a fair coin won’t land tails, is by having justification for believing that it won’t be flipped at all. Although this seems a plausible and innocuous principle, (...)
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  45. Vagueness and Family Resemblance.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2017 - In Hans-Johann Glock (ed.), A Companion to Wittgenstein. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 407-419.
    Ben-Yami presents Wittgenstein’s explicit criticism of the Platonic identification of an explanation with a definition and the alternative forms of explanation he employed. He then discusses a few predecessors of Wittgenstein’s criticisms and the Fregean background against which he wrote. Next, the idea of family resemblance is introduced, and objections answered. Wittgenstein’s endorsement of vagueness and the indeterminacy of sense are presented, as well as the open texture of concepts. Common misunderstandings are addressed along the way. Wittgenstein’s ideas, as is (...)
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  46. A New Semantics for Vagueness.Joshua D. K. Brown & James W. Garson - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):65-85.
    Intuitively, vagueness involves some sort of indeterminacy: if Plato is a borderline case of baldness, then there is no fact of the matter about whether or not he’s bald—he’s neither bald nor not bald. The leading formal treatments of such indeterminacy—three valued logic, supervaluationism, etc.—either fail to validate the classical theorems, or require that various classically valid inference rules be restricted. Here we show how a fully classical, yet indeterminist account of vagueness can be given within natural semantics, an alternative (...)
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  47. Pavelka-style fuzzy justification logics.Meghdad Ghari - 2016 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 24 (5):743-773.
    Justification logics provide a framework for reasoning about justifications and evidence. In this article, we study a fuzzy variant of justification logics in which an agent’s justification for a belief has certainty degree between 0 and 1. We replace the classical base of justification logics with Hájek’s rational Pavelka logic. We introduce fuzzy possible world semantics with crisp accessibility relation and also single world models for our logics. We establish soundness and graded-style completeness for both kinds of semantics. We also (...)
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  48. Papers on Formal Logic.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2016 - reateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
    This volume brings together some of Dr. Kuczynski's most important work on mathematical logic. The crushing power of Kuczynski's intellect is on full display in these paper, in which he introduces the neophyte to the basic principles of set theory and logic while at the very same time articulating new and important theorems of his own.
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  49. The Non-Conservativeness of Legal Definitions.Marc Andree Weber - 2016 - In Geert Keil & Ralf Poscher (eds.), Vagueness and Law. Philosophical and Legal Perspectives . Oxford, UK: pp. 189–203.
    What philosophers have in mind when they think about vagueness are sorites cases. Unlike vague scientific or artificial expressions, however, vague natural language expressions do not display the kind of vagueness that we associate with the sorites; they rather display what I call cluster vagueness. A non-trivial consequence of this is that those legal definitions that state precisifications of natural language concepts not only add aspects of meaning to existing expressions but also effectively change the meanings of these expressions. From (...)
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  50. Epistemicism and modality.Juhani Yli-Vakkuri - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):803-835.
    What kind of semantics should someone who accepts the epistemicist theory of vagueness defended in Timothy Williamson’s Vagueness (1994) give a definiteness operator? To impose some interesting constraints on acceptable answers to this question, I will assume that the object language also contains a metaphysical necessity operator and a metaphysical actuality operator. I will suggest that the answer is to be found by working within a three-dimensional model theory. I will provide sketches of two ways of extracting an epistemicist semantics (...)
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