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Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) was the greatest American philosopher of the 19th century and the founder of philosophical pragmatism. He is best known for his distinctive conception of philosophical method (his ‘pragmatic maxim’, a rule for the clarification of ‘intellectual concepts’, reflecting his highly original theory of meaning), his ‘semeiotic’ or theory of signs, his conception of truth as indefeasible belief, and his profound contributions to philosophical logic. He is also known for anticipating numerous significant developments in philosophy and other disciplines, many of them only fully realized long after his death. Sometimes dubbed ‘the American Aristotle’, he was “a prolific and perpetually over-extended polymath” (Crease), the scale of whose work is staggering and virtually impossible to summarize. Even today, Peirce’s work has yet enjoy a fraction of the attention or recognition it deserves. There are numerous reasons for this: his work is often extremely technical, his papers were left in disarray for decades after his death, and the majority of them remain unpublished; he also had a fraught, scandal-ridden career. He died ‘in abject poverty and almost completely forgotten’ (de Waal). Interest in and appreciation for Peirce has only grown in recent decades, however, and Peirce scholarship is an unusually lively field in the history of philosophy.  

Key works

Despite his systematic ambitions, Peirce never succeeded in producing a single comprehensive statement of his philosophical views.  As such, Peirce’s interpreters have had to reconstruct them from a series of lectures and articles scattered across various journals over several decades, along with a vast wealth of unpublished material. His most important published works are as follows: 1) The three “Cognition series” essays published in the Journal of Speculative Philosophy (1868-9): 1868, 1868, and 1869; in which Peirce critiques Cartesianism and seeks to outline an alternative. 2) The “Berkeley Review” of Alexander Campbell Fraser’s The Works of George Berkeley, published in North American Review (1871); in which Peirce expresses sympathy for a Kantian methodology which secures empirical realism by way of a ‘Copernican’ or ‘anthropocentric’ turn. 3) The six “Illustrations of the Logic of Science” essays, originally published in Popular Science Monthly (1877-8), but collected in 2014 in which Peirce outlines his theory of inquiry and scientific reasoning. The first two papers of the series were later described by William James as providing the “birth-certificate” of American pragmatism. 1878 contains the earliest public statement of what would later become known as “the Pragmatic Maxim”. 4) The five “Monist Metaphysical Series” essays published in The Monist (1891-3): 1891, 1892, 1892, 1892, and 1893; in which Peirce develops a speculative idealist metaphysics inspired by Schelling and Hegel. (5) The “Cambridge Conference Lectures” (1898), available in 1992; in which Peirce responds to James’s invitation to give a series of popular lectures. Peirce is understood to have resented the recommendation that he speak on “matters of vital importance” and the first of the lectures, “Philosophy and the Conduct of Life” is a source of considerable disagreement amongst his interpreters. 6) The “Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism” (1903) in 1997; in which Peirce offers an outline of his architectonic system. 7) The “Lowell Lectures” delivered under the title “Some Topics of Logic Bearing on Questions Now Vexed” (1903); in which Peirce further addresses matters of scientific reasoning and distinguishes his position from others then popular. The two-volume The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings is an ideal introductory compilation of Peirce’s works. The principal resources for scholars of Peirce’s thought are the eight-volume Writings of Charles S. Peirce and the eight-volume Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce.

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  1. Theological Insights into the Notion of Order in Physics and the Natural Sciences.Timothy Rogers - manuscript
    An exploration of the metaphysics of process-ordering in Quantum Theory and Relativity Theory that is guided by Bohm, Peirce, Levinas, and Torrance.
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  2. Peirce's Theory of Semiotics.Albert Atkin - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  3. Pierce's Theory of Science.A. Atkins - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  4. The Inferences That Never Were: Peirce, Perception, and Bernstein's The Pragmatic Turn.Richard Kenneth Atkins - forthcoming - In Judith Green (ed.), Richard J. Bernstein and the Pragmatist Turn in Contemporary Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  5. On Three Levels of Abstractness in Peirce’s Beta Graphs.Richard Kenneth Atkins - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-17.
    Peirce’s beta graphs are roughly equivalent to our first-order predicate logic. However, Bellucci and Pietarinen have recently argued that the beta graphs are not well-equipped to handle asymmetric relative terms. I survey four proposed solutions to the problem and find them all wanting. I offer a fifth solution according to which Peirce’s beta graphs function at three different levels of abstractness from natural language. I diagnose the problem of asymmetric relative terms as arising when we transition from the first to (...)
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  6. Peirce’s Triadic Logic and Its (Overlooked) Connexive Expansion.Alex Belikov - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    In this paper, we present two variants of Peirce’s Triadic Logic within a language containing only conjunction, disjunction, and negation. The peculiarity of our systems is that conjunction and disjunction are interpreted by means of Peirce’s mysterious binary operations Ψ and Φ from his ‘Logical Notebook’. We show that semantic conditions that can be extracted from the definitions of Ψ and Φ agree (in some sense) with the traditional view on the semantic conditions of conjunction and disjunction. Thus, we support (...)
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  7. What’s in a face? Making sense of tangible information systems in terms of Peircean semiotics.Paul Beynon-Davies - forthcoming - European Journal of Information Systems.
    Within this paper, we utilise a delimited area of philosophy to help make sense of a delimited area of design science as it pertains to a class of contemporary information systems. The philosophy is taken from that of Charles Sanders Peirce; the design science is directed at the construction of visual devices in that area known as visual management. The utilisation of such devices within their wider visual management systems we take to be instances of what we refer to as (...)
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  8. Correction: C.S. Peirce on Mathematical Practice: Objectivity and the Community of Inquirers.Maria Regina Brioschi - forthcoming - Topoi:1-1.
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  9. The Dismissal of ‘Substance’ and ‘Being’ in Peirce’s Regenerated Logic.Maria Regina Brioschi - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy.
    After introducing the debate between substance philosophy and process philosophy, and clarifying the relevance of the category of ‘substance’ in Peirce’s thought, the present paper reconstructs the role of ‘substance’ and ‘being’ from Peirce’s early works to his theory of the proposition, provided after his studies on the logic of relatives. If those two categories apparently disappear in Peirce’s writings from the mid-1890s onwards, the account of ‘subject’ and ‘copula’ in Peirce’s analysis of the proposition allows one to grasp the (...)
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  10. Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Members January 23, 2008 Laguna Hills Community Center.Nancy Bruce, DeeDee Gollwitzer, Gerald Zettel, Gary Steinberg & Karen Boepple - forthcoming - Laguna.
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  11. Charles Sanders Peirce: 10. Mind and Semeiotic.Robert W. Burch - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Available At: Http://Plato. Stanford. Edu/Entries/Peirce/# Mind.
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  12. The Structure of C. S. Peirce's Neglected Argument for the Reality of God: A Critical Assessment.ClantonJ Caleb - forthcoming - .
    Despite the attention it has received in recent years, C. S. Peirce's so-called neglected argument for God's reality remains somewhat obscure. The aim of this essay is to clarify the basic structure of Peirce's three-part argument and to show how it falls prey to several objections. I argue that his overall argument is ultimately unsuccessful in demonstrating the reality of God, even if it provides some degree of warrant for the belief in God's reality to those who are uncontrollably drawn (...)
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  13. Session of the Charles S. Peirce society.S. Charles - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  14. PEIRCE, LE LANGAGE ET L'ACTION: Sur la théorie peircienne de l'assertion.Christiane Chauviré - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
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  15. a: Gerard de Nerval: Oeuvres-in.Carlo-ree Cordié - forthcoming - Paideia.
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  16. Peirce and Aesthetic Education.Julianaacosta López de Mesa - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy of Education.
  17. Prolegomenon to Horosemiotics - Semiotic Ramifications of a Peircean Borderline Distinction.André De Tienne - forthcoming - Semiotics:1-14.
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  18. Gesture from a critical realist perspective: beyond Peirce’s triangle.Pierpaolo Donati - forthcoming - Journal of Critical Realism:1-21.
    The paper deals with the theory of gesture from the point of view of relational sociology. On the one hand, the thesis of the ‘complete gesture’ developed by Giovanni Maddalena is appreciated as a...
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  19. Review of Cheryl Misak's 'The American Pragmatists'. [REVIEW]Jeremy Dunham - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
  20. Topology of Modal Propositions Depicted by Peirce’s Gamma Graphs: Line, Square, Cube, and Four-Dimensional Polyhedron.Jorge Alejandro Flórez - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-14.
    This paper presents the topological arrangements in four geometrical figures of modal propositions and their derivative relations by means of Peirce's gamma graphs and their rules of transformation. The idea of arraying the gamma graphs in a geometric and symmetrical order comes from Peirce himself who in a manuscript drew two cubes in which he presented the derivative relations of some gamma graphs. Therefore, Peirce's insights of a topological order of gamma graphs are extended here backwards from the cube to (...)
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  21. A Peircean contribution to the sensorimotor account of perception.R. Fusaroli - forthcoming - Acta Philosophica Fennica.
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  22. A Peircean contribution to the contemporary debate on perception: the sensorimotor theory and diagrams.Riccardo Fusaroli - forthcoming - Acta Philosophica Fennica.
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  23. On Peirce's Methodology of Logic and Philosophy.Leila Haaparanta - forthcoming - Cognitio: Revista Deffilosofia.
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  24. “Pragmatism’s Family Feud: Peirce, James and the Spirit of 1872”.Jackman Henry - forthcoming - In Robert Talisse & Scott Aikin (eds.), Routledge Companion to Pragmatism. New York City: Routledge.
    While William James and Charles Sanders Peirce are considered the two fathers of American Pragmatism, Peircian Pragmatism is often being presented as the comparatively ‘objective’ alternative to metaphysical realism, with the Jamesian version being castigated as an overly ‘subjective’ departure from Peirce’s position. However, while James clearly does put more of an emphasis on ‘subjective’ factors than does Peirce, his doing so is often the result of his simply drawing out consequences of the framework that Peirce presented in an 1872 (...)
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  25. “James’s Pragmatic Maxim and the ‘Elasticity’ of Meaning”.Henry Jackman - forthcoming - In The Jamesian Mind. New York, NY, USA: pp. 274-284.
    To the extent that William James had an account of ‘meaning,’ it is best captured in his “pragmatic maxim”, but James’s maxim has notoriously been open to many conflicting interpretations. It will be argued here that some of these interpretive difficulties stem from the fact that (1) James seriously understates the differences between his own views and those presented by Peirce in “How to Make our Ideas Clear”, and (2) James’s understanding of the maxim typically ties meaning to truth, but (...)
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  26. Nature semiotics: The icons of nature.Y. L. Kergosien - forthcoming - Biosemiotics.
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  27. Semantic Contents and Pragmatic Perspectives: The Social and the Real in Brandom and Peirce.Vitaly Kiryushchenko - forthcoming - Pragmatism Today.
    This paper compares Charles Peirce’s and Robert Brandom’s conceptions of normative objectivity. According to Brandom, discursive norms are instituted by practical attitudes of the members of a community, and yet the objectivity of these norms is not reducible to social consensus. Peirce’s conception of normative objectivity, on the contrary, is rooted in his idea of a community of inquiry, which presupposes a consensus achievable in the long run. The central challenge in both cases is to explain how the norms that (...)
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  28. How To Do Things With Signs: Semiotics in Legal Theory, Practice, and Education.Harold Anthony Lloyd - forthcoming - University of Richmond Law Review.
    Note: This draft was updated on November 10, 2020. Discussing federal statutes, Justice Scalia tells us that “[t]he stark reality is that the only thing that one can say for sure was agreed to by both houses and the president (on signing the bill) is the text of the statute. The rest is legal fiction." How should we take this claim? If we take "text" to mean the printed text, that text without more is just a series of marks. If (...)
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  29. The Effect of Peirce's Philosophical Position on His Understanding of the Sign.Şeyma Gülsüm Önder - forthcoming - Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi:185-210.
    Göstergenin bilimsel olarak incelenme sürecinde etkin rol oynayan zihinsel arka plan farklılığı, temel unsurlarının şekil ve formlarında görülen değişiklikler başta olmak üzere, gösterme eyleminin işlevi ve gayesine ilişkin birtakım görüş ayrılıklarına zemin hazırlar. Nitekim göstergebilimin kurucuları Ferdinand de Saussure ve C. S. Peirce, göstergeyi birbirinden farklı iki bağlamda ele alır. Saussure göstergebilimin, dilbilimi de içine alan bir bilim dalı olarak kurulması gerekliliğine değinmekle yetinirken Peirce, onu, mantık ve anlam-yorum çalışmalarına hız kazandırmak amacı ile bilimsel zemine taşır. Peirce’ün göstergeye bakışı, yalnızca (...)
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  30. Analysis and synthesis in mathematics from the perspective of Charles S. Peirce's philosophy.Michael Otte - forthcoming - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
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  31. Gerard Deledalle ur. W marcq-en-baroeul 17 października 1921 R., zm. W Montpellier 11 czerwca 2003 R. gćrard Deledalle pojawił się W społeczności iass (international associa-tion for semiotic studies—association internationale de sćmiotique) sto. [REVIEW]Jerzy Pelc - forthcoming - Studia Semiotyczne.
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  32. From Turing to Peirce. A semiotic interpretation of computation.Luca M. Possati - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-26.
    The thesis of the paper is that semiotic processes are intrinsic to computation and computational systems. An explanation of computation that does not take this semiotic dimension into account is incomplete. Semiosis is essential to computation and therefore requires a rigorous definition. To prove this thesis, the author analyzes two concepts of computation: the Turing machine and the mechanistic conception of physical computation. The paper is organized in two parts. The first part (Sects. 2 and 3) develops a re-interpretation of (...)
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  33. Charles Sanders Peirce, OEuvres I: Pragmatisme et pragmaticisme.R. Pouivet - forthcoming - Revue Internationale de Philosophie.
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  34. Democratic freedom as an aesthetic achievement: Peirce, Schiller and Cavell on aesthetic experience, play and democratic freedom.Michael Räber - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    In this essay, I reconsider the constitution of democratic freedom in aesthetic terms. My interest is in articulating a conception of aesthetic freedom that can be mapped onto a conception of democ...
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  35. Democratic freedom as an aesthetic achievement: Peirce, Schiller and Cavell on aesthetic experience, play and democratic freedom.Michael Räber - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    In this essay, I reconsider the constitution of democratic freedom in aesthetic terms. My interest is in articulating a conception of aesthetic freedom that can be mapped onto a conception of democ...
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  36. Tableau method of proof for Peirce’s three-valued propositional logic.José Renato Salatiel - forthcoming - Filosofia Unisinos:1-10.
    Peirce’s triadic logic has been under discussion since its discovery in the 1960s by Fisch and Turquette. The experiments with matrices of three-valued logic are recorded in a few pages of unpublished manuscripts dated 1909, a decade before similar systems have been developed by logicians. The purposes of Peirce’s work on such logic, as well as semantical aspects of his system, are disputable. In the most extensive work about it, Turquette suggested that the matrices are related in dual pairs of (...)
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  37. Vi. deconstructive interpretations of semiosis.Deconstructive Interpretations Of Semiosis - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  38. Peirce's logic.Sun-Joo Shin - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  39. Science, dualities and the phenomenological map.H. G. Solari & Mario Natiello - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-28.
    We present an epistemological schema of natural sciences inspired by Peirce's pragmaticist view, stressing the role of the \emph{phenomenological map}, that connects reality and our ideas about it. The schema has a recognisable mathematical/logical structure which allows to explore some of its consequences. We show that seemingly independent principles as the requirement of reproducibility of experiments and the Principle of Sufficient Reason are both implied by the schema, as well as Popper's concept of falsifiability. We show that the schema has (...)
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  40. The Peirce Quote Book.Torkild Thellefsen & Bent Sorensen (eds.) - forthcoming - De Gruyter Mouton.
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  41. Varieties of semiosis.T. Von Uexküll - forthcoming - Biosemiotics: The Semiotic Web.
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  42. Minutes of the meeting of the academic council of Duke university on 21 April, 1988.Richard L. Watson - forthcoming - Minerva.
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  43. Using Peircean abduction to understand teacher mentoring.Cathal de Paor - 2023 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 55 (1):89-99.
    Lesson observation is frequently used in teacher induction programmes to support newly-qualified teachers in their reflection and classroom enquiry. This article uses an elaboration of Peirce’s abduction to illustrate how the post-observation conversation supports a teacher’s reflection on her teaching, and in particular, her teaching of language to young children. It shows that abduction involves an expert-like intuition, where the interaction and co-enquiry with the advisor was crucial. The analytical framework used is based on six modes of abductive reasoning or (...)
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  44. Peirce’s Imaginative Community: On the Esthetic Grounds of Inquiry.Bernardo Andrade - 2022 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 58 (1):1-21.
    Departing from Anderson’s (2016) suggestion that there are three communities in Peirce’s thought corresponding to his three normative sciences of logic, ethics, and esthetics, I argue that these communities partake in a relationship of dependence similar to that found among the normative sciences. In this way, just as logic relies on ethics which relies on esthetics, so too would a logical community of inquirers rely on an ethical community of love, which would rely on an esthetic community of artists. A (...)
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  45. Peirce's Speculative Grammar: Logic as Semiotics. [REVIEW]A. K. Atkin - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (4):398-400.
    In 1897, Peirce famously avows that ‘Logic, in its general sense, is, as I believe I have shown, only another name for semiotic’ (Peirce 1932, 2.227). Moreover, in his later attempts to classify di...
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  46. The Natural History of the Sign: Peirce, Vygotsky and the Hegelian Model of Concept Formation.Chris Barnham - 2022 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    Our understanding of CS Peirce, and his semiotics, is largely influenced by a twentieth century perspective that prioritizes the sign as a cultural artifact, or as one that that 'distorts', in some way, our understanding of the empirical world. Such a perspective will always undermine appreciation of Peirce as a philosopher who viewed signs as the very mechanisms that enable us to understand reality through concept formation. The key to this repositioning of Peirce is to place his work in the (...)
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  47. Charles S. Peirce and Religion: Biographic Elements and Main Writings.Sara Barrena - 2022 - Human Review. International Humanities Review / Revista Internacional de Humanidades 11 (1):1-10.
    Peirce's relationship with religion, both in his personal life and in his thought, was deeper than has been considered so far. The question of God was for him more important than it might seem at first glance. His writings contain numerous references to religious issues, closely linked to his most important notions of philosophy and science. In this article, the most important biographical data to understand Peirce's relationship with religion are provided; his main notions about God are also examined and, (...)
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  48. Pragmatism’s Evolution: Organism and Environment in American Philosophy: by Trevor Pearce, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2020, 384 pp., $35.00 (paperback), ISBN 9780226719917. [REVIEW]Brandon Beasley - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (1):105-108.
    Trevor Pearce has done something remarkable and all too rare: written a book at the intersection of philosophy, science, and history that is equally excellent in all three respects.
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  49. Taking Peirce’s Graphs Seriously. [REVIEW]Dave Beisecker - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (4):438-445.
    There is a saying in the energy industry that hydrogen is the fuel of the future … and so it will always remain. The jab might equally be leveled at Peirce’s graphical systems of logic. Though Peir...
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  50. Two Neglected Arguments for a Pragmatist Metaphysics: Peirce and James on Individuals and Generals.Michela Bella & Maria Regina Brioschi - 2022 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 3:511-535.
    This article proposes an integrative reading of Peirce's and James's philosophies, which aims to figure out the main features of a shared pragmatist metaphysics. Two methodologies are adopted to reach this goal: a historical scrutiny of sources, prevalent in the first part, and a theoretical investigation of Peirce's and James's philosophies, in the second and third parts. The first part analyzes Peirce's and James's proximity, which lies in their common understanding of pragmatism as an anti-dogmatic method in philosophy, and their (...)
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