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Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) was the greatest American philosopher of the 19th century and the founder of philosophical pragmatism. He is best known for his distinctive conception of philosophical method (his ‘pragmatic maxim’, a rule for the clarification of ‘intellectual concepts’, reflecting his highly original theory of meaning), his ‘semeiotic’ or theory of signs, his conception of truth as indefeasible belief, and his profound contributions to philosophical logic. He is also known for anticipating numerous significant developments in philosophy and other disciplines, many of them only fully realized long after his death. Sometimes dubbed ‘the American Aristotle’, he was “a prolific and perpetually over-extended polymath” (Crease), the scale of whose work is staggering and virtually impossible to summarize. Even today, Peirce’s work has yet enjoy a fraction of the attention or recognition it deserves. There are numerous reasons for this: his work is often extremely technical, his papers were left in disarray for decades after his death, and the majority of them remain unpublished; he also had a fraught, scandal-ridden career. He died ‘in abject poverty and almost completely forgotten’ (de Waal). Interest in and appreciation for Peirce has only grown in recent decades, however, and Peirce scholarship is an unusually lively field in the history of philosophy.  

Key works

Despite his systematic ambitions, Peirce never succeeded in producing a single comprehensive statement of his philosophical views.  As such, Peirce’s interpreters have had to reconstruct them from a series of lectures and articles scattered across various journals over several decades, along with a vast wealth of unpublished material. His most important published works are as follows: 1) The three “Cognition series” essays published in the Journal of Speculative Philosophy (1868-9): 1868, 1868, and 1869; in which Peirce critiques Cartesianism and seeks to outline an alternative. 2) The “Berkeley Review” of Alexander Campbell Fraser’s The Works of George Berkeley, published in North American Review (1871); in which Peirce expresses sympathy for a Kantian methodology which secures empirical realism by way of a ‘Copernican’ or ‘anthropocentric’ turn. 3) The six “Illustrations of the Logic of Science” essays, originally published in Popular Science Monthly (1877-8), but collected in 2014 in which Peirce outlines his theory of inquiry and scientific reasoning. The first two papers of the series were later described by William James as providing the “birth-certificate” of American pragmatism. 1878 contains the earliest public statement of what would later become known as “the Pragmatic Maxim”. 4) The five “Monist Metaphysical Series” essays published in The Monist (1891-3): 1891, 1892, 1892, 1892, and 1893; in which Peirce develops a speculative idealist metaphysics inspired by Schelling and Hegel. (5) The “Cambridge Conference Lectures” (1898), available in 1992; in which Peirce responds to James’s invitation to give a series of popular lectures. Peirce is understood to have resented the recommendation that he speak on “matters of vital importance” and the first of the lectures, “Philosophy and the Conduct of Life” is a source of considerable disagreement amongst his interpreters. 6) The “Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism” (1903) in 1997; in which Peirce offers an outline of his architectonic system. 7) The “Lowell Lectures” delivered under the title “Some Topics of Logic Bearing on Questions Now Vexed” (1903); in which Peirce further addresses matters of scientific reasoning and distinguishes his position from others then popular. The two-volume The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings is an ideal introductory compilation of Peirce’s works. The principal resources for scholars of Peirce’s thought are the eight-volume Writings of Charles S. Peirce and the eight-volume Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce.

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  1. Theological Insights into the Notion of Order in Physics and the Natural Sciences.Timothy Rogers - manuscript
    An exploration of the metaphysics of process-ordering in Quantum Theory and Relativity Theory that is guided by Bohm, Peirce, Levinas, and Torrance.
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  2. A Formal Model of Primitive Aspects of Cognition and Learning in Cell Biology as a Generalizable Case Study of Peircean Logic.Timothy M. Rogers - manuscript
    A formal model of the processes of digestion in a hypothetical cell is developed and discussed as a case study of how the threefold logic of Peircean semiotics works within Rosen’s paradigm of relational ontology. The formal model is used to demonstrate several fundamental differences between a relational description of biological processes and a mechanistic description. The formal model produces a logic of embodied generalization that is mediated and determined by the cell through its interactions with the environment. Specifically, the (...)
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  3. Peirce's Theory of Semiotics.Albert Atkin - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  4. Pierce's Theory of Science.A. Atkins - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  5. The Inferences That Never Were: Peirce, Perception, and Bernstein's The Pragmatic Turn.Richard Kenneth Atkins - forthcoming - In Judith Green (ed.), Richard J. Bernstein and the Pragmatist Turn in Contemporary Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  6. Peirce’s Triadic Logic and Its (Overlooked) Connexive Expansion.Alex Belikov - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    In this paper, we present two variants of Peirce’s Triadic Logic within a language containing only conjunction, disjunction, and negation. The peculiarity of our systems is that conjunction and disjunction are interpreted by means of Peirce’s mysterious binary operations Ψ and Φ from his ‘Logical Notebook’. We show that semantic conditions that can be extracted from the definitions of Ψ and Φ agree (in some sense) with the traditional view on the semantic conditions of conjunction and disjunction. Thus, we support (...)
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  7. What’s in a face? Making sense of tangible information systems in terms of Peircean semiotics.Paul Beynon-Davies - forthcoming - European Journal of Information Systems 27 (3):295-314.
    Within this paper, we utilise a delimited area of philosophy to help make sense of a delimited area of design science as it pertains to a class of contemporary information systems. The philosophy is taken from that of Charles Sanders Peirce; the design science is directed at the construction of visual devices in that area known as visual management. The utilisation of such devices within their wider visual management systems we take to be instances of what we refer to as (...)
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  8. The Dismissal of ‘Substance’ and ‘Being’ in Peirce’s Regenerated Logic.Maria Regina Brioschi - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy.
    After introducing the debate between substance philosophy and process philosophy, and clarifying the relevance of the category of ‘substance’ in Peirce’s thought, the present paper reconstructs the role of ‘substance’ and ‘being’ from Peirce’s early works to his theory of the proposition, provided after his studies on the logic of relatives. If those two categories apparently disappear in Peirce’s writings from the mid-1890s onwards, the account of ‘subject’ and ‘copula’ in Peirce’s analysis of the proposition allows one to grasp the (...)
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  9. Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Members January 23, 2008 Laguna Hills Community Center.Nancy Bruce, DeeDee Gollwitzer, Gerald Zettel, Gary Steinberg & Karen Boepple - forthcoming - Laguna.
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  10. Charles Sanders Peirce: 10. Mind and Semeiotic.Robert W. Burch - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Available At: Http://Plato. Stanford. Edu/Entries/Peirce/# Mind.
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  11. The Structure of C. S. Peirce's Neglected Argument for the Reality of God: A Critical Assessment.ClantonJ Caleb - forthcoming - .
    Despite the attention it has received in recent years, C. S. Peirce's so-called neglected argument for God's reality remains somewhat obscure. The aim of this essay is to clarify the basic structure of Peirce's three-part argument and to show how it falls prey to several objections. I argue that his overall argument is ultimately unsuccessful in demonstrating the reality of God, even if it provides some degree of warrant for the belief in God's reality to those who are uncontrollably drawn (...)
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  12. Los viajes europeos de Charles S. Peirce: 1870-1883, de Sara Barrena y Jaime Nubiola.Felicitas Casillo - forthcoming - Cuadernos de Filosofía.
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  13. Session of the Charles S. Peirce society.S. Charles - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  14. PEIRCE, LE LANGAGE ET L'ACTION: Sur la théorie peircienne de l'assertion.Christiane Chauviré - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
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  15. a: Gerard de Nerval: Oeuvres-in.Carlo-ree Cordié - forthcoming - Paideia.
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  16. Peirce and Aesthetic Education.Julianaacosta López de Mesa - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy of Education.
  17. Prolegomenon to Horosemiotics - Semiotic Ramifications of a Peircean Borderline Distinction.André De Tienne - forthcoming - Semiotics:1-14.
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  18. Review of Cheryl Misak's 'The American Pragmatists'. [REVIEW]Jeremy Dunham - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
  19. Topology of Modal Propositions Depicted by Peirce’s Gamma Graphs: Line, Square, Cube, and Four-Dimensional Polyhedron.Jorge Alejandro Flórez - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-14.
    This paper presents the topological arrangements in four geometrical figures of modal propositions and their derivative relations by means of Peirce's gamma graphs and their rules of transformation. The idea of arraying the gamma graphs in a geometric and symmetrical order comes from Peirce himself who in a manuscript drew two cubes in which he presented the derivative relations of some gamma graphs. Therefore, Peirce's insights of a topological order of gamma graphs are extended here backwards from the cube to (...)
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  20. A Peircean contribution to the sensorimotor account of perception.R. Fusaroli - forthcoming - Acta Philosophica Fennica.
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  21. A Peircean contribution to the contemporary debate on perception: the sensorimotor theory and diagrams.Riccardo Fusaroli - forthcoming - Acta Philosophica Fennica.
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  22. On Peirce's Methodology of Logic and Philosophy.Leila Haaparanta - forthcoming - Cognitio: Revista Deffilosofia.
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  23. “Pragmatism’s Family Feud: Peirce, James and the Spirit of 1872”.Jackman Henry - forthcoming - In Robert Talisse & Scott Aikin (eds.), Routledge Companion to Pragmatism. New York City: Routledge.
    While William James and Charles Sanders Peirce are considered the two fathers of American Pragmatism, Peircian Pragmatism is often being presented as the comparatively ‘objective’ alternative to metaphysical realism, with the Jamesian version being castigated as an overly ‘subjective’ departure from Peirce’s position. However, while James clearly does put more of an emphasis on ‘subjective’ factors than does Peirce, his doing so is often the result of his simply drawing out consequences of the framework that Peirce presented in an 1872 (...)
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  24. “James’s Pragmatic Maxim and the ‘Elasticity’ of Meaning”.Henry Jackman - forthcoming - In The Jamesian Mind. New York, NY, USA: pp. 274-284.
    To the extent that William James had an account of ‘meaning,’ it is best captured in his “pragmatic maxim”, but James’s maxim has notoriously been open to many conflicting interpretations. It will be argued here that some of these interpretive difficulties stem from the fact that (1) James seriously understates the differences between his own views and those presented by Peirce in “How to Make our Ideas Clear”, and (2) James’s understanding of the maxim typically ties meaning to truth, but (...)
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  25. Nature semiotics: The icons of nature.Y. L. Kergosien - forthcoming - Biosemiotics.
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  26. Semantic Contents and Pragmatic Perspectives: The Social and the Real in Brandom and Peirce.Vitaly Kiryushchenko - forthcoming - Pragmatism Today.
    This paper compares Charles Peirce’s and Robert Brandom’s conceptions of normative objectivity. According to Brandom, discursive norms are instituted by practical attitudes of the members of a community, and yet the objectivity of these norms is not reducible to social consensus. Peirce’s conception of normative objectivity, on the contrary, is rooted in his idea of a community of inquiry, which presupposes a consensus achievable in the long run. The central challenge in both cases is to explain how the norms that (...)
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  27. Logical reduction of relations: From relational databases to Peirce’s reduction thesis.Sergiy Koshkin - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    We study logical reduction (factorization) of relations into relations of lower arity by Boolean or relative products that come from applying conjunctions and existential quantifiers to predicates, i.e. by primitive positive formulas of predicate calculus. Our algebraic framework unifies natural joins and data dependencies of database theory and relational algebra of clone theory with the bond algebra of C.S. Peirce. We also offer new constructions of reductions, systematically study irreducible relations and reductions to them and introduce a new characteristic of (...)
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  28. How To Do Things With Signs: Semiotics in Legal Theory, Practice, and Education.Harold Anthony Lloyd - forthcoming - University of Richmond Law Review.
    Note: This draft was updated on November 10, 2020. Discussing federal statutes, Justice Scalia tells us that “[t]he stark reality is that the only thing that one can say for sure was agreed to by both houses and the president (on signing the bill) is the text of the statute. The rest is legal fiction." How should we take this claim? If we take "text" to mean the printed text, that text without more is just a series of marks. If (...)
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  29. Peirce as a philosopher of science.Mousa Mohammadian - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  30. Peirce’s iconicity and his image-diagram-metaphor triad revisited: complements to Stjernfelt’s Sheets, Diagrams, and Realism.Winfried Nöth - forthcoming - Semiotica.
    This review article of Frederik Stjernfelt’s Sheets, Diagrams, and Realism (2022) argues that Peirce’s theory of iconicity with its subdivision into the image-diagram-metaphor triad must not be reduced to diagrammatic iconicity. The foundation of the triadic subdivision of the icon is not in Peirce’s diagrammatic logic but in Peirce’s cenopythagorean categories. A focus is on misinterpretations of Peirce’s concept of thirdness in the firstness of the icon. The paper argues that not only metaphors, but also comparisons, analogies, analogic arguments, and (...)
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  31. The Effect of Peirce's Philosophical Position on His Understanding of the Sign.Şeyma Gülsüm Önder - forthcoming - Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi:185-210.
    Göstergenin bilimsel olarak incelenme sürecinde etkin rol oynayan zihinsel arka plan farklılığı, temel unsurlarının şekil ve formlarında görülen değişiklikler başta olmak üzere, gösterme eyleminin işlevi ve gayesine ilişkin birtakım görüş ayrılıklarına zemin hazırlar. Nitekim göstergebilimin kurucuları Ferdinand de Saussure ve C. S. Peirce, göstergeyi birbirinden farklı iki bağlamda ele alır. Saussure göstergebilimin, dilbilimi de içine alan bir bilim dalı olarak kurulması gerekliliğine değinmekle yetinirken Peirce, onu, mantık ve anlam-yorum çalışmalarına hız kazandırmak amacı ile bilimsel zemine taşır. Peirce’ün göstergeye bakışı, yalnızca (...)
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  32. Analysis and synthesis in mathematics from the perspective of Charles S. Peirce's philosophy.Michael Otte - forthcoming - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
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  33. Gerard Deledalle ur. W marcq-en-baroeul 17 października 1921 R., zm. W Montpellier 11 czerwca 2003 R. gćrard Deledalle pojawił się W społeczności iass (international associa-tion for semiotic studies—association internationale de sćmiotique) sto. [REVIEW]Jerzy Pelc - forthcoming - Studia Semiotyczne.
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  34. Charles Sanders Peirce, OEuvres I: Pragmatisme et pragmaticisme.R. Pouivet - forthcoming - Revue Internationale de Philosophie.
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  35. Charles Peirce’s Philosophy and the Intersection Between Biosemiotics and the Philosophy of Biology.Claudio Rodríguez Higuera - forthcoming - Biological Theory:1-11.
    Charles S. Peirce’s philosophy of signs, generally construed as the foundation of current semiotic theory, offers a theory of general perception with significant implications for the notion of subjectivity in organisms. In this article, we will discuss Peirce’s primary claims in semiotic theory, particularly focusing on their relevance to biosemiotics. We argue that these claims align with certain areas of the philosophy of biology, specifically epistemological and ontological considerations, despite the limited formal interaction between disciplines. This article serves as a (...)
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  36. Pragmatism and Experimental Bioethics.Henrik Rydenfelt - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-11.
    Pragmatism gained considerable attention in bioethical discussions in the early 21st century. However, some dimensions and contributions of pragmatism to bioethics remain underexplored in both research and practice. It is argued that pragmatism can make a distinctive contribution to bioethics through its concept, developed by Charles S. Peirce and John Dewey, that ethical issues can be resolved through experimental inquiry. Dewey’s proposal that policies can be confirmed or disconfirmed through experimentation is developed by comparing it to the confirmation of scientific (...)
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  37. Tableau method of proof for Peirce’s three-valued propositional logic.José Renato Salatiel - forthcoming - Filosofia Unisinos:1-10.
    Peirce’s triadic logic has been under discussion since its discovery in the 1960s by Fisch and Turquette. The experiments with matrices of three-valued logic are recorded in a few pages of unpublished manuscripts dated 1909, a decade before similar systems have been developed by logicians. The purposes of Peirce’s work on such logic, as well as semantical aspects of his system, are disputable. In the most extensive work about it, Turquette suggested that the matrices are related in dual pairs of (...)
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  38. Vi. deconstructive interpretations of semiosis.Deconstructive Interpretations Of Semiosis - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  39. Peirce's logic.Sun-Joo Shin - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  40. Science, dualities and the phenomenological map.H. G. Solari & Mario Natiello - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-28.
    We present an epistemological schema of natural sciences inspired by Peirce's pragmaticist view, stressing the role of the \emph{phenomenological map}, that connects reality and our ideas about it. The schema has a recognisable mathematical/logical structure which allows to explore some of its consequences. We show that seemingly independent principles as the requirement of reproducibility of experiments and the Principle of Sufficient Reason are both implied by the schema, as well as Popper's concept of falsifiability. We show that the schema has (...)
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  41. The structure of intentionality. Insights and challenges for enactivism.Pierre Steiner - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The purpose of the paper is twofold. It first aims at clarifying and developing an important tension within enactivism concerning the relations between intentionality and content, once representationalism has been abandoned. In which sense(s) do enactivists (still) say that intentionality is contentful and not contentful? Secondly, it puts this tension in perspective with two paradigmatic ways of defining the relations between intentional states and their objects: Husserl’s theory of intentionality in the Logical Investigations, and Charles Sanders Peirce’s triadic semiotics.
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  42. The Peirce Quote Book.Torkild Thellefsen & Bent Sorensen (eds.) - forthcoming - De Gruyter Mouton.
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  43. Varieties of semiosis.T. Von Uexküll - forthcoming - Biosemiotics: The Semiotic Web.
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  44. Minutes of the meeting of the academic council of Duke university on 21 April, 1988.Richard L. Watson - forthcoming - Minerva.
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  45. Advances in Peircean Mathematics: The Colombian School ed. by Fernando Zalamea (review).Gianluca Caterina - 2024 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 59 (3):373-376.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Advances in Peircean Mathematics: The Colombian School ed. by Fernando ZalameaGianluca CaterinaFernando Zalamea (Ed.) Advances in Peircean Mathematics: The Colombian School Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2022. 212 pp. (incl. index).The volume Advances in Peircean Mathematics is an important, very much needed contribution towards a deeper understanding of the impact of Peirce's work especially in the fields of mathematics, logic, and semiotic. It fills a gap in the current (...)
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  46. The Oxford handbook of Charles S. Peirce.Cornelis De Waal (ed.) - 2024 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Charles S. Peirce brings together 35 essays on the American philosopher and polymath Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) with the aim of showing how his work is still relevant today. The volume takes its cues from Peirce's work in phenomenology and normative philosophy-where the latter includes, besides aesthetics and ethics, also logic. Within the domain of logic, attention is given to his work in formal logic as well as his work in graphical or diagrammatic logic. Ample attention (...)
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  47. A Science Like Any Other: A Peircean Philosophy of Sex.Shannon Dea - 2024 - In Cornelis DeWaal (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Charles S. Peirce. Oxford: Oxford. pp. 499-513.
    This chapter argues that a Peircean philosophy of sex offers a non-reductionist approach to sex as a biological category. The chapter surveys traditional biological accounts of sex categories and several social constructivist accounts of sex. It then provides an overview of Peirce’s scholastic realism and his ethics of inquiry. While Peirce regarded the distinction between the sexes as a rare “polar distinction”, the chapter works to recover the nuanced view of sex that Peirce ought to have adopted had he extended (...)
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  48. Charles Sanders Peirce and Effective Altruism.Michael Haiden - 2024 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 59 (3):263-290.
    Abstract:When confronted with moral dilemmas, Charles S. Peirce would recommend that we trust our sentiments, not our reasoning. A scientific exploration of ethics may affect our daily conduct but should only do so gradually. Some modern approaches take the opposite stance and deny the significance of moral sentiments. Considering both Peirce and his opponents, I aim to contribute to the discussion of a radical moral theory: effective altruism. Stating that we should strive to do the most objective good we can, (...)
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  49. Peirce on biology : a critical review.Kalevi Kull - 2024 - In Cornelis De Waal (ed.), The Oxford handbook of Charles S. Peirce. Oxford University Press.
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  50. Afterword.John Lachs & Michael Hodges - 2024 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 59 (3):366-368.
    Abstract:A brief response to papers presented by Herman Saatkamp, Krzysztof Skowroński, Eric Weber, and John Stuhr on the occasion of John Lachs' retirement from Vanderbilt University.
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