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Summary Epicurus (341-271 BCE) was one of the most influential Hellenistic philosophers. He revived the atomism of Democritus and rejected the teleology of Aristotle and the immaterial soul and forms of Plato. All events are the result of indivisible bodies (atoms) interacting in the void, and the gods have no role in the workings of the world. Epicurus' ethics is a form of ascetic egoistic hedonism. Only one's own pleasure is intrinsically valuable, but the limit of pleasure is freedom from bodily distress and (especially) peace of mind, and the way to acquire peace of mind is by limiting your desires. Epicurus' arguments against the fear of death have been especially influential: death is annihilation, and so your death is bad for you neither when you are alive (as you are not dead) nor when you are dead (as you no longer exist).
Key works Most of Epicurus' writings are lost, but book ten of Diogenes Laertius' Lives of Eminent Philosophers, in its summary of Epicurus' life and teachings, contains three letters by Epicurus that summarize his physics, views on celestial and meteorological phenomena, and ethics. It also includes the "Principal Doctrines," short sayings mainly on ethics. Many of Epicurus' philosophical views must be gleaned from the works of later philosophers,such as Lucretius and Cicero. Long & Sedley 1987 and Gerson 1994 are compendiums of many of the crucial texts, with Long & Sedley 1987 including extensive commentary.
Introductions Konstan 2008 is a good encyclopedia entry on Epicurus. O'Keefe 2009 is an accessible book-length overview of the Epicurean philosophical system, while Warren 2009 contains chapters that deal more extensively with the current scholarly literature.
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  1. Deleuze and Ancient Atomism.Yannis Chatzantonis - manuscript
    A brief survey of Deleuze’s writings on ancient atomism and on the concept of the atom in general. Deleuze’s treatment of atomism is significant because it makes clear Deleuze’s aim in shifting the mereological vocabulary from points to lines; it shows what, in Deleuze’s sense, it means to unground. In other words, it sets down the conditions for a successful Deleuzian critique of essentialist metaphysics of structure.
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  2. Death Does Not Harm the One Who Dies Because There is No One to Harm.David E. Rowe - manuscript
    If death is a harm then it is a harm that cannot be experienced. The proponent of death's harm must therefore provide an answer to Epicurus, when he says that ‘death, is nothing to us, since when we are, death is not present, and when death is present, then we are not’. In this paper I respond to the two main ways philosophers have attempted to answer Epicurus, regarding the subject of death's harm: either directly or via analogy. The direct (...)
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  3. The Problem of Evil - A Socratic Dialogue.Brent Silby - manuscript
    Epicurus asked: “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?” This Socratic dialogue explores a popular version of the Argument From Evil. Suitable as an introduction to the topic.
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  4. Epicuro nella Critica della ragion pratica.Roberto Torzini - unknown - Annali Del Dipartimento di Filosofia 9:61-91.
    Within the Critique of practical reason, Epicurus plays an important, even if very often neglected, role. First at all in the Analytic, where the Epicurean ethics appears as the more serious opponent to the Kantian foundation of the morality. The discussion becomes more cogent on the topic of the motivation, question which is again debated in the Dialectic.
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  5. Epicureanism.Thomas A. Blackson - forthcoming - In Tom Angier (ed.), The History of Evil in Antiquity: 2000 Bce to 450 Ce. Routledge.
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  6. The Soul‐Soother of Later Antiquity: Nietzsche on Epicurus and Schopenhauer.Tom Fawcett - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  7. The Soul‐Soother of Later Antiquity: Nietzsche on Epicurus and Schopenhauer.Tom Fawcett - forthcoming - Wiley: European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  8. The Return of the Epicurean Gods.Peter Groff - forthcoming - In Russell Re Manning, Carlotta Santini & Isabelle Wienand (eds.), Nietzsche's Gods: Critical and Constructive Perspectives. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    This paper examines the significance of Epicureanism for Nietzsche’s critique of Christian monotheism and his subsequent attempt to reanimate a kind of this-worldly, affirmative religiosity of immanence. After a brief overview of the pivotal role that Epicurus’ thought plays in the death of God, I focus on Epicurus’ own residual conception of the gods and the ways in which Nietzsche strategically retrieves it and puts it use in his writing. Nietzsche juxtaposes the distant, serene, indifferent Epicurean gods with the omniscient, (...)
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  9. Achieving Tranquility: Epicurus on Living Without Fear.Tim O'Keefe - forthcoming - In Nathan Powers & Jacob Klein (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy.
    Explores the role of eliminating fear in Epicurean ethics and physics, focusing on techniques to eliminate the fear of death and the fear of the gods.
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  10. John Sellars, The Pocket Epicurean[REVIEW]Tim O'Keefe - forthcoming - The Classical Review.
    Positive review of Sellars' short introduction to Epicureanism considered as a way of life.
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  11. Epicurean Philosophy and Republican Rome - (S.) Yona, (G.) Davis (Edd.) Epicurus in Rome. Philosophical Perspectives in the Ciceronian Age. Pp. X + 207, Ills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022. Cased, £75, Us$99.99. Isbn: 978-1-108-84505-2. [REVIEW]Giulia Scalas - forthcoming - The Classical Review:1-3.
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  12. Death and Existential Value: In Defence of Epicurus.Marcus Willaschek - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  13. Death and Existential Value: In Defence of Epicurus.Marcus Willaschek - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  14. Theory and Practice in Epicurean Political Philosophy: Security, Justice and Tranquility.Javier Aoiz - 2023 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    The opponents of Epicureanism in antiquity, including Cicero, Plutarch and Lactantius, succeeded in establishing a famous cliché: the theoretical and practical disinterest of Epicurus and the Epicureans in political communities. However, this anti-Epicurean literature did not provide considerations of Epicurean political theory or the testimonies about Epicurean lifestyle. Therefore, the purpose of this book is to shed light on the contribution of Epicurean thought to political life in the ancient world. Incorporating the most up-to-date archaeological material, including papyri which have (...)
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  15. ¿Cuán Apolíticos Fueron Epicuro y Los Epicúreos? La Polis Griega y Sus Ilustres Ciudadanos Epicúreos.Francisco Javier Aoiz & Marcelo D. Boeri - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (2):169-190.
    Resumen: En este artículo argumentamos que, el hecho de que hubo ciudadanos prominentes de diferentes ciudades griegas que adhirieron al epicureísmo, se sintieron epicúreos y fueron reconocidos como tales, muestra que slogans como “vive oculto” y “no participes en política”, que sugieren un completo apoliticismo por parte de Epicuro y los epicúreos, tergiversan el verdadero sentido del mantenerse alejado de la política contingente. Nuestro texto muestra la interacción entre Epicuro y los epicúreos y las ciudades griegas, a través del análisis (...)
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  16. Living for Pleasure - An Epicurean Guide to Life.Emily A. Austin - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    In Living for Pleasure, philosopher Emily Austin offers a lively, jargon-free tour of Epicurean strategies for diminishing anxiety, achieving satisfaction, and relishing joys.
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  17. An introduction to Epicurus’s ethical thought.Thomas A. Blackson - 2022 - Metascience 31 (3):427-429.
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  18. Value After Death.Christopher Frugé - 2022 - Ratio 35 (3):194-203.
    Does our life have value for us after we die? Despite the importance of such a question, many would find it absurd, even incoherent. Once we are dead, the thought goes, we are no longer around to have any wellbeing at all. However, in this paper I argue that this common thought is mistaken. In order to make sense of some of our most central normative thoughts and practices, we must hold that a person can have wellbeing after they die. (...)
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  19. (How) Are Friends and Friendship Worthwhile to the Advanced Epicurean?Alex Gillham - 2022 - Rhizomata 10 (1):118-145.
    Commentators usually understand the Epicureans to take friends and friendship to be worthwhile because they help us to eliminate and/or manage our bodily and/or mental pains and thus come closer to achieving tranquility. However, this understanding leaves unexplained why friends and friendship might be worthwhile to an advanced Epicurean with few or no pains to manage or eliminate. In this paper, I remedy this deficiency by offering three explanations for why friends and friendship could and maybe would remain worthwhile even (...)
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  20. A New Reading of Epicurean`s Facing Death in the Modern World.Seyed Amirreza Mazari - 2022 - Philosophical Meditations 11 (27):387-409.
    Facing death has always been regarded as a main philosophical issue in human`s life. Major philosophical traditions have given it abundant attention and tried to analyze it as the most serious concern of humans. One of the main ancient philosophical traditions, Epicurean relying on human wisdom tries to address this issue. Death, since the Stone Age, has brought alterations to the context of societies so that fear of death is currently seriously investigated by philosophers and psychologists, specially the change in (...)
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  21. Epicurus on Justice ‘In Itself’ (καθ᾽ ἑαυτό).Jan Maximilian Robitzsch - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (3):443-453.
    This paper is a commentary on Epicurus’ Kuria Doxa 33, according to which “justice is not anything in itself [τι καθ᾽ ἑαυτό].” It explores what it means for something to exist ‘in itself’ in Hellenistic philosophy, speculating on the sources of Epicurean technical vocabulary and suggesting an ontological reading of KD 33.
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  22. Lucretius’ Prolepsis.Chiara Rover - 2022 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 43 (2):279-314.
    This paper aims to investigate the equivalent of Epicurus’ πρόληψις, the second criterion of the Epicurean Canonic, in Lucretius’ De rerum natura. Taking stock of the several occurrences of the Latin terms notitia and notities in the six books of the poem, I show that Lucretius’ view about preconception remains faithful to Epicurus’ πρόληψις, and that the poet does not endorse a less empiricist position than his Master because of some influence of the Stoic ἔννοια. To this end, I will (...)
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  23. Peripatetic Philosophy in Context: Knowledge, Time, and Soul From Theophrastus to Cratippus.Francesco Verde - 2022 - De Gruyter.
    This book deals with some Peripatetic philosophers of the Hellenistic age who were direct and indirect pupils of Aristotle. The main focus of the book is Aristotle's school in the Hellenistic period, a subject not particularly explored by the scholars. Three main issues are addressed in the chapters of the book: the problem of knowledge, the question of time, and the doctrine of the soul. More specifically the topics addressed are: the problem of sense-perception and the method of multiple explanations (...)
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  24. The Pleasures of Tranquillity.Alex Voorhoeve - 2022 - Homo Oeconomicus.
    Epicurus posited that the best life involves the greatest pleasures. He also argued that it involves attaining tranquillity. Many commentators have expressed scepticism that these two claims are compatible. For, they argue, Epicurus’ tranquil life is so austere that it is hard to see how it could be maximally pleasurable. Here, I offer an Epicurean account of the pleasures of tranquillity. I also consider different ways of valuing lives from a hedonistic point of view. Benthamite hedonists value lives by the (...)
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  25. Notas sobre o conceito de prazer em Epicuro.Marcos Adriano Zmijewski - 2022 - Griot : Revista de Filosofia 22 (2):98-107.
    This article aims to examine the notion of pleasure as a telos of the happy life in Epicurus. Understood as the first good and inherent to the human being, pleasure is presented as the beginning and the ultimate end of a happy life. Indeed, it should be noted that it is not the pleasures of the common people that Epicurus considers as the telos of a happy life, but the pleasure that is the absence of suffering in body and soul, (...)
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  26. Health and Hedonism in Plato and Epicurus. [REVIEW]Michael J. Augustin - 2021 - Ancient Philosophy 41:578-583.
  27. Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility: Essays in Ancient Philosophy.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility brings together nine substantial essays on determinism, freedom, and moral responsibility in antiquity by Susanne Bobzien. The essays present the main ancient theories on these subjects, ranging historically from Aristotle followed by the Epicureans, the early Stoics, several later Stoics, and up to Alexander of Aphrodisias in the third century CE. -/- The author discusses questions about rational and autonomous human agency and their compatibility with a large range of important philosophical issues, including their compatibility (...)
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  28. A “liberdade” em Epicuro e Nietzsche como condição para a afirmação da vida.Bruno Camilo de Oliveira - 2021 - Ensaios Filosóficos 23:33-51.
    The purpose of this work is to present the analogy between the thoughts of Epicurus de Samos and Friedrich Nietzsche regarding the notion of “freedom”. In Epicurus, the idea of “freedom” (eleuthería) is linked to the idea of “self-assertion” (autárkeia), since “freedom” for Epicurus means the “exercise of wisdom” through the autonomy of the “sage” (sophós, prhóneo) when it is free to act according to thought. In a similar way, in Nietzsche the idea of freedom (Freiheit) is linked to the (...)
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  29. Keeping the Friend in Epicurean Friendship.Thomas Carnes - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (3):385-410.
    There seems to be universal agreement among Epicurean scholars that friendship characterized by other-concern is conceptually incompatible with Epicureanism understood as a directly egoistic theory. I reject this view. I argue that once we properly understand the nature of friendship and the Epicurean conception of our final end, we are in a position to demonstrate friendship’s compatibility with, and centrality within, Epicureanism’s direct egoism.
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  30. Ancient Ethics and the Natural World.Ursula Coope & Barbara M. Sattler (eds.) - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores a distinctive feature of ancient philosophy: the close relation between ancient ethics and the study of the natural world. Human beings are in some sense part of the natural world, and they live their lives within a larger cosmos, but their actions are governed by norms whose relation to the natural world is up for debate. The essays in this volume, written by leading specialists in ancient philosophy, discuss how these facts about our relation to the world (...)
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  31. Qui capite ipse sua in statuit uestigia sese. Lucrezio e lo scetticismo nel libro IV del De rerum natura.Michele Corradi - 2021 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 42 (2):291-319.
    In his refutation of skepticism in book IV of De rerum natura, Lucretius uses argumentative methods typical of Epicurus: the περιτροπή is in many ways similar to that used by the philosopher in book XXV of Περὶ φύσεως, the same book where, in a passage dedicated to the criticism against determinists, can be found a reference to the criterion of the πρόληψις, that Lucretius exploits in his refutation. Moreover, Lucretius develops a strong demonstration concerning the irrefutability of αἴσθησις as a (...)
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  32. La ›Kompendienliteratur‹ Nella Scuola di Epicuro: Forme, Funzioni, Contesto.Vincenzo Damiani - 2021 - De Gruyter.
    Across several texts, Epicurus memorably and accessibly summarizes his doctrines. This study systematically analyzes Epicurus’ acts of summary, thereby closing a long-standing scholarly lacuna. To this end, a review of existing research is followed by an analysis of the terminology used in antiquity to designate philosophical and scientific compendia. The Epicurean sources are then surveyed chronologically. In two further chapters, Epicurean compendia are discussed in the broader context of ancient philosophical summaries. Their patterns of genre are illuminated not only on (...)
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  33. Classifying the Epicurean Goods.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):47-70.
    Scholars have paid little attention to the classifications among goods that Epicureans posit. This paper remedies that deficiency. I argue for three claims. First, if we take instrumental goods to be those that are a means or causally lead to the intrinsic good and we take constitutive goods to be those that are part of or amount to the intrinsic good, then the Epicureans probably took reverence for a wise man and wisdom to be instrumental goods but self-sufficiency and phronesis (...)
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  34. Epicurean Tranquility and the Pleasure of Philosophy.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):149-158.
    This paper explores how philosophy might be worthwhile on hedonic grounds for the Epicurean Sage who has achieved tranquility, reached the limit of pleasure, and thus for whom there is no further pleasure to pursue. I argue that philosophy might be worthwhile to the Epicurean Sage because it helps her maintain tranquility by preventing a painful boredom that could result without it.
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  35. Self-Cultivation Philosophies in Ancient India, Greece, and China.Christopher W. Gowans - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
    "The book defends the thesis that the concept of self-cultivation philosophy is an informative interpretive framework for comprehending and reflecting on several philosophical outlooks in India, the Greco-Roman world and China. On the basis of an understanding of human nature and the place of human beings in the world, self-cultivation philosophies maintain that our lives can and should be substantially transformed from what is judged to be a problematic, untutored condition of human beings, our existential starting-point, into what is put (...)
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  36. Zarathustra's Blessed Isles: Before and After Great Politics.Peter S. Groff - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):135-163.
    This article considers the significance of the Blessed Isles in Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra. They are the isolated locale to which Zarathustra and his fellow creators retreat in the Second Part of the book. I trace Zarathustra’s Blessed Isles back to the ancient Greek paradisiacal afterlife of the makarōn nēsoi and frame them against Nietzsche’s Platonic conception of philosophers as “commanders and legislators,” but I argue that they represent something more like a modern Epicurean Garden. Ultimately, I suggest that Zarathustra’s (...)
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  37. The Ethics of Epicurus and its Relation to Contemporary Doctrines.Jean-Marie Guyau - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    This is the first English translation of a compelling and highly original reading of Epicurus by Jean-Marie Guyau. This book has long been recognized as one of the best and most concerted attempts to explore one of the most important, yet controversial ancient philosophers whose thought, Guyau claims, remains vital to modern and contemporary culture. Throughout the text we are introduced to the origins of the philosophy of pleasure in Ancient Greece, with Guyau clearly demonstrating how this idea persists through (...)
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  38. The Oxford Handbook of Epicurus and Epicureanism - (P.) Mitsis (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Epicurus and Epicureanism. Pp. XVI + 831. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. Cased, £110, Us$150. Isbn: 978-0-19-974421-3. [REVIEW]Solmeng-Jonas Hirschi - 2021 - The Classical Review 71 (2):331-334.
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  39. Epicurus: A Case Study of Nietzsche's Conception of a "Typical Decadent".David Hurrell - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):78-104.
    Nietzsche’s portrayal of Epicurus in his middle period of 1878–1882 is one of an inspiring figure and kindred spirit, which is then generally considered by commentators to change to a more ambivalent one in his later writings, particularly those from 1886 to 1888. In this article, I argue that this change in Nietzsche’s opinion of Epicurus can be explained by his gradual realization that Epicurus advocates a particular form of Greek decadence, that neither Nietzsche nor the secondary literature on him (...)
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  40. The Normativity of Nature in Epicurean Ethics and Politics.Tim O'Keefe - 2021 - In Christof Rapp & Peter Adamson (eds.), State and Nature: Essays in Ancient Political Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 181-199.
    Appeals to nature are ubiquitous in Epicurean ethics and politics. The foundation of Epicurean ethics is its claim that pleasure is the sole intrinsic good and pain the sole intrinsic evil, and this is supposedly shown by the behavior of infants who have not yet been corrupted, "when nature's judgement is pure and whole." Central to their recommendations about how to attain pleasure is their division between types of desires: the natural and necessary ones, the natural but non-necessary ones, and (...)
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  41. Expressing Tranquility.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 26 (1):143-162.
    The Epicureans are hedonists who believe that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. Since pleasure is the only intrinsic good, other things are only worthwhile for the sake of pleasure. Tranquility is the final Epicurean telos, i.e., all of our actions should aim for freedom from bodily and mental pain. According to the Epicureans, tranquility is the limit of the magnitude of pleasures so that there is no pleasure beyond tranquility. Once we free ourselves from all pain, there are no (...)
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  42. Επιβολη Τησ Διανοιασ: Reflections on the Fourth Epicurean Criterion of Truth.Jan Maximilian Robitzsch - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (2):601-616.
    This paper discusses ἐπιβολαὶ τῆς διανοίας, which later Epicureans are supposed to have elevated to a fourth criterion of truth to complement perceptions, preconceptions and feelings. By examining Epicurus’ extant writings, the paper distinguishes three different senses of the term: ‘thought in general’, ‘act of attention’ and ‘mental perception’. It is argued that only the sense ‘mental perception’ yields a plausible reading of ἐπιβολαί as a criterion of truth. The paper then turns to the textual evidence on ἐπιβολαί in later (...)
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  43. Death Does Not Harm the One Who Dies Because There is No One to Harm.David Emmanuel Rowe - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (2):83-106.
    If death is a harm then it is a harm that cannot be experienced. The proponent of death’s harm must therefore provide an answer to Epicurus, when he says that ‘death, is nothing to us, since when we are, death is not present, and when death is present, then we are not’. In this paper I respond to the two main ways philosophers have attempted to answer Epicurus, regarding the subject of death’s harm: either directly or via analogy. The direct (...)
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  44. The Pocket Epicurean.John Sellars - 2021 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    A short, smart guide to living the good life through the teachings of Epicurus. As long as there has been human life, we’ve searched for what it means to be happy. More than two thousand years ago, the Greek philosopher Epicurus came to his own conclusion: all we really want in life is pleasure. Though today we tend to associate the word “Epicurean” with indulgence in the form of food and wine, the philosophy of Epicurus was about a life well (...)
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  45. Nietzsche and Epicurus Ed. By Vinod Acharya and Ryan J. Johnson.Mattia Sisti - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (2):307-313.
    This volume, edited by Vinod Acharya and Ryan J. Johnson, consists of fourteen chapters concerning Nietzsche’s lifelong fascination with Epicurus. Epicurus was hailed by Nietzsche as the ideal thinker in the middle period of his philosophical career and subsequently accused of being a decadent figure.The volume is divided into four parts. Part 1 is titled “Encounters: Body, Mood, Geography and Aesthetic” and consists of five chapters: Carlotta Santini on Nietzsche’s critique of Epicurus’s writing style; Ryan Johnson on the topic of (...)
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  46. The Epicurean Notion of Epibolê.Voula Tsouna - 2021 - Rhizomata 9 (2):179-201.
    The surviving writings of Epicurus and his followers contain several references to epibolê – a puzzling notion that does not receive discussion in the extant Epicurean texts. There is no consensus about what epibolê is, what it is of, and what it operates on and, moreover, its epistemological status is controversial. This article aims to address these issues in both Epicurus and later Epicurean authors. Part One focuses mainly on Epicurus’ Letter to Herodotus, highlights a crucial distinction hitherto unnoticed in (...)
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  47. Epicurus, Pleasure, and the Twenty-First-Century Diet.Sarah Worth & Ben Davids - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 55 (3):59-70.
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  48. Epicurus in Rome: Philosophical Perspectives in the Ciceronian Age.Sergio Yona & Gregson Davis (eds.) - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    The role of Greek thought in the final days of the Roman republic is a topic that has garnered much attention in recent years. This volume of essays, commissioned specially from a distinguished international group of scholars, explores the role and influence of Greek philosophy, specifically Epicureanism, in the late republic. It focuses primarily on the works and views of Cicero, premier politician and Roman philosopher of the day, and Lucretius, foremost among the representatives and supporters of Epicureanism at the (...)
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  49. Nietzsche and Epicurus.Vinod Acharya & Ryan J. Johnson (eds.) - 2020 - Bloomsbury.
    This volume explores Nietzsche's decisive encounter with the ancient philosopher, Epicurus. The collected essays examine many previously unexplored and underappreciated convergences, and investigate how essential Epicurus was to Nietzsche's philosophical project through two interrelated overarching themes: nature and ethics. Uncovering the nature of Nietzsche's reception of, relation to, and movement beyond Epicurus, contributors provide insights into the relationship between suffering, health and philosophy in both thinkers; Nietzsche's stylistic analysis of Epicurus; the ethics of self-cultivation in Nietzsche's Epicureanism; practices of eating (...)
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  50. The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy.Kelly Arenson (ed.) - 2020 - Routledge.
    Hellenistic philosophy concerns the thought of the Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics, the most influential philosophical groups in the era between the death of Alexander the Great and the defeat of the last Greek stronghold in the ancient world. The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy provides accessible yet rigorous introductions to the theories of knowledge, ethics, and physics belonging to each of the three schools. It explores the fascinating ways in which interschool rivalries shaped the philosophies of the era, and offers (...)
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