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Summary Epicurus (341-271 BCE) was one of the most influential Hellenistic philosophers. He revived the atomism of Democritus and rejected the teleology of Aristotle and the immaterial soul and forms of Plato. All events are the result of indivisible bodies (atoms) interacting in the void, and the gods have no role in the workings of the world. Epicurus' ethics is a form of ascetic egoistic hedonism. Only one's own pleasure is intrinsically valuable, but the limit of pleasure is freedom from bodily distress and (especially) peace of mind, and the way to acquire peace of mind is by limiting your desires. Epicurus' arguments against the fear of death have been especially influential: death is annihilation, and so your death is bad for you neither when you are alive (as you are not dead) nor when you are dead (as you no longer exist).
Key works Most of Epicurus' writings are lost, but book ten of Diogenes Laertius' Lives of Eminent Philosophers, in its summary of Epicurus' life and teachings, contains three letters by Epicurus that summarize his physics, views on celestial and meteorological phenomena, and ethics. It also includes the "Principal Doctrines," short sayings mainly on ethics. Many of Epicurus' philosophical views must be gleaned from the works of later philosophers,such as Lucretius and Cicero. Long & Sedley 1987 and Gerson 1994 are compendiums of many of the crucial texts, with Long & Sedley 1987 including extensive commentary.
Introductions Konstan 2008 is a good encyclopedia entry on Epicurus. O'Keefe 2009 is an accessible book-length overview of the Epicurean philosophical system, while Warren 2009 contains chapters that deal more extensively with the current scholarly literature.
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  1. Deleuze and Ancient Atomism.Yannis Chatzantonis - manuscript
    A brief survey of Deleuze’s writings on ancient atomism and on the concept of the atom in general. Deleuze’s treatment of atomism is significant because it makes clear Deleuze’s aim in shifting the mereological vocabulary from points to lines; it shows what, in Deleuze’s sense, it means to unground. In other words, it sets down the conditions for a successful Deleuzian critique of essentialist metaphysics of structure.
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  2. Death Does Not Harm the One Who Dies Because There is No One to Harm.David E. Rowe - manuscript
    If death is a harm then it is a harm that cannot be experienced. The proponent of death's harm must therefore provide an answer to Epicurus, when he says that ‘death, is nothing to us, since when we are, death is not present, and when death is present, then we are not’. In this paper I respond to the two main ways philosophers have attempted to answer Epicurus, regarding the subject of death's harm: either directly or via analogy. The direct (...)
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  3. The Problem of Evil - A Socratic Dialogue.Brent Silby - manuscript
    Epicurus asked: “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?” This Socratic dialogue explores a popular version of the Argument From Evil. Suitable as an introduction to the topic.
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  4. The Pleasures of Tranquillity.Alex Voorhoeve - manuscript
    Epicurus posited that the best life involves the greatest pleasures. He also argued that it involves attaining tranquillity. Many commentators have expressed scepticism that these two claims are compatible. For, they argue, Epicurus’ tranquil life is so austere that it is hard to see how it could be maximally pleasurable. Here, I offer an Epicurean account of the pleasures of tranquillity. I also consider different ways of valuing lives from a hedonistic point of view. Benthamite hedonists value lives by the (...)
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  5. Epicuro nella Critica della ragion pratica.Roberto Torzini - unknown - Annali Del Dipartimento di Filosofia 9:61-91.
    Within the Critique of practical reason, Epicurus plays an important, even if very often neglected, role. First at all in the Analytic, where the Epicurean ethics appears as the more serious opponent to the Kantian foundation of the morality. The discussion becomes more cogent on the topic of the motivation, question which is again debated in the Dialectic.
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  6. Epicureanism.Thomas A. Blackson - forthcoming - In Tom Angier (ed.), The History of Evil in Antiquity: 2000 Bce to 450 Ce. Routledge.
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  7. The Return of the Epicurean Gods.Peter Groff - forthcoming - In Russell Re Manning, Carlotta Santini & Isabelle Wienand (eds.), Nietzsche's Gods: Critical and Constructive Perspectives. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    This paper examines the significance of Epicureanism for Nietzsche’s critique of Christian monotheism and his subsequent attempt to reanimate a kind of this-worldly, affirmative religiosity of immanence. After a brief overview of the pivotal role that Epicurus’ thought plays in the death of God, I focus on Epicurus’ own residual conception of the gods and the ways in which Nietzsche strategically retrieves it and puts it use in his writing. Nietzsche juxtaposes the distant, serene, indifferent Epicurean gods with the omniscient, (...)
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  8. A New Reading of Epicurean`s Facing Death in the Modern World.Seyed Amirreza Mazari - forthcoming - Philosophical Meditations.
    -/- Facing death has always been regarded as a main philosophical issue in human`s life. Major philosophical traditions have given it abundant attention and tried to analyze it as the most serious concern of humans. One of the main ancient philosophical traditions, Epicurean relying on human wisdom tries to address this issue. Death, since the Stone Age, has brought alterations to the context of societies so that fear of death is currently seriously investigated by philosophers and psychologists, specially the change (...)
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  9. The Oxford Handbook to Epicurus and Epicureanism.Phillip Mitsis (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford England: Oxford University Press.
    This volume offers authoritative discussions of all aspects of Epicurus's philosophy and then traces out some of its most important subsequent influences throughout the Western intellectual tradition. Such a detailed and comprehensive study of Epicureanism is especially timely given the tremendous current revival of interest in Epicurus and his rivals, the Stoics. The thirty-one contributions in this volume offer an unmatched resource for all those wishing to deepen their knowledge of Epicurus' powerful arguments about happiness, death, and the nature of (...)
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  10. Living Without Fear.Tim O'Keefe - forthcoming - In Nathan Powers & Jacob Klein (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy.
    Explores the role of eliminating fear in Epicurean ethics and physics, focusing on techniques to eliminate the fear of death and the fear of the gods.
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  11. Επιβολη Τησ Διανοιασ: Reflections on the Fourth Epicurean Criterion of Truth.Jan Maximilian Robitzsch - forthcoming - Classical Quarterly:1-16.
    This paper discusses ἐπιβολαὶ τῆς διανοίας, which later Epicureans are supposed to have elevated to a fourth criterion of truth to complement perceptions, preconceptions and feelings. By examining Epicurus’ extant writings, the paper distinguishes three different senses of the term: ‘thought in general’, ‘act of attention’ and ‘mental perception’. It is argued that only the sense ‘mental perception’ yields a plausible reading of ἐπιβολαί as a criterion of truth. The paper then turns to the textual evidence on ἐπιβολαί in later (...)
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  12. Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility brings together nine substantial essays on determinism, freedom, and moral responsibility in antiquity by Susanne Bobzien. The essays present the main ancient theories on these subjects, ranging historically from Aristotle followed by the Epicureans, the early Stoics, several later Stoics, and up to Alexander of Aphrodisias in the third century CE. -/- The author discusses questions about rational and autonomous human agency and their compatibility with a large range of important philosophical issues, including their compatibility (...)
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  13. Keeping the Friend in Epicurean Friendship.Thomas Carnes - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (3):385-410.
    There seems to be universal agreement among Epicurean scholars that friendship characterized by other-concern is conceptually incompatible with Epicureanism understood as a directly egoistic theory. I reject this view. I argue that once we properly understand the nature of friendship and the Epicurean conception of our final end, we are in a position to demonstrate friendship’s compatibility with, and centrality within, Epicureanism’s direct egoism.
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  14. Ancient Ethics and the Natural World.Ursula Coope & Barbara Sattler (eds.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores a distinctive feature of ancient philosophy: the close relation between ancient ethics and the study of the natural world. Human beings are in some sense part of the natural world, and they live their lives within a larger cosmos, but their actions are governed by norms whose relation to the natural world is up for debate. The essays in this volume, written by leading specialists in ancient philosophy, discuss how these facts about our relation to the world (...)
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  15. Classifying the Epicurean Goods.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):47-70.
    Scholars have paid little attention to the classifications among goods that Epicureans posit. This paper remedies that deficiency. I argue for three claims. First, if we take instrumental goods to be those that are a means or causally lead to the intrinsic good and we take constitutive goods to be those that are part of or amount to the intrinsic good, then the Epicureans probably took reverence for a wise man and wisdom to be instrumental goods but self-sufficiency and phronesis (...)
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  16. Epicurean Tranquility and the Pleasure of Philosophy.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):149-158.
    This paper explores how philosophy might be worthwhile on hedonic grounds for the Epicurean Sage who has achieved tranquility, reached the limit of pleasure, and thus for whom there is no further pleasure to pursue. I argue that philosophy might be worthwhile to the Epicurean Sage because it helps her maintain tranquility by preventing a painful boredom that could result without it.
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  17. Zarathustra's Blessed Isles: Before and After Great Politics.Peter S. Groff - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):135-163.
    This article considers the significance of the Blessed Isles in Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra. They are the isolated locale to which Zarathustra and his fellow creators retreat in the Second Part of the book. I trace Zarathustra’s Blessed Isles back to the ancient Greek paradisiacal afterlife of the makarōn nēsoi and frame them against Nietzsche’s Platonic conception of philosophers as “commanders and legislators,” but I argue that they represent something more like a modern Epicurean Garden. Ultimately, I suggest that Zarathustra’s (...)
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  18. Epicurus: A Case Study of Nietzsche's Conception of a "Typical Decadent".David Hurrell - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):78-104.
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  19. The Normativity of Nature in Epicurean Ethics and Politics.Tim O'Keefe - 2021 - In Christof Rapp & Peter Adamson (eds.), State and Nature: Essays in Ancient Political Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 181-199.
    Appeals to nature are ubiquitous in Epicurean ethics and politics. The foundation of Epicurean ethics is its claim that pleasure is the sole intrinsic good and pain the sole intrinsic evil, and this is supposedly shown by the behavior of infants who have not yet been corrupted, "when nature's judgement is pure and whole." Central to their recommendations about how to attain pleasure is their division between types of desires: the natural and necessary ones, the natural but non-necessary ones, and (...)
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  20. Expressing Tranquility.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 26 (1):143-162.
    The Epicureans are hedonists who believe that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. Since pleasure is the only intrinsic good, other things are only worthwhile for the sake of pleasure. Tranquility is the final Epicurean telos, i.e., all of our actions should aim for freedom from bodily and mental pain. According to the Epicureans, tranquility is the limit of the magnitude of pleasures so that there is no pleasure beyond tranquility. Once we free ourselves from all pain, there are no (...)
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  21. Epicurus, Pleasure, and the Twenty-First-Century Diet.Sarah Worth & Ben Davids - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 55 (3):59-70.
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  22. Epicurus in Rome: Philosophical Perspectives in the Ciceronian Age.Sergio Yona & Gregson Davis (eds.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    The role of Greek thought in the final days of the Roman republic is a topic that has garnered much attention in recent years. This volume of essays, commissioned specially from a distinguished international group of scholars, explores the role and influence of Greek philosophy, specifically Epicureanism, in the late republic. It focuses primarily on the works and views of Cicero, premier politician and Roman philosopher of the day, and Lucretius, foremost among the representatives and supporters of Epicureanism at the (...)
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  23. Nietzsche and Epicurus.Vinod Acharya & Ryan J. Johnson (eds.) - 2020 - Bloomsbury.
    This volume explores Nietzsche's decisive encounter with the ancient philosopher, Epicurus. The collected essays examine many previously unexplored and underappreciated convergences, and investigate how essential Epicurus was to Nietzsche's philosophical project through two interrelated overarching themes: nature and ethics. Uncovering the nature of Nietzsche's reception of, relation to, and movement beyond Epicurus, contributors provide insights into the relationship between suffering, health and philosophy in both thinkers; Nietzsche's stylistic analysis of Epicurus; the ethics of self-cultivation in Nietzsche's Epicureanism; practices of eating (...)
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  24. Epicureanism and the Wrongness of Killing.Tim Burkhardt - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 24 (2):177-192.
    This paper argues that Epicureanism about death is consistent with grounding the wrongness of killing in the interests of the victim. Both defenders and critics of Epicureanism should agree that, if we knew Epicureanism to be false, then we would have a moral reason not to kill people. We would have this reason because we would know that killing people harms them. And even Epicureans should agree that, given their evidence, Epicureanism could be false. Given that it could be false, (...)
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  25. Epicureans on Friendship, Politics, and Community.Anna B. Christensen - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. pp. 307-318.
    Though Epicurus recommends that his followers eschew politics and live “unnoticed” apart from society, he also recommends that they live in communion with other Epicureans. I show that both pieces of this seemingly contrasting advice function to help the Epicurean achieve her goal, tranquility. Politics is (usually) to be avoided because it disrupts tranquility; but the Epicurean community of friends supports and strengthens the ability to reach tranquility, secure from the challenges that beset the traditional, non-Epicurean political community.
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  26. The Criterion of Truth in Epicureanism and Carvaka Philosophy.Sajjad Dehghanzadeh, Fatemeh Ahmadian & Zeinab Mirhosseini - 2020 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (32):55-71.
    The main challenge of present paper is analytical comparing the “Criterion of Valid Cognition” from viewpoints of Epicureanism and Charvaka philosophy, the largest exponent of Indian materialism,. The new findings of the research show that the whole construction of ontology, ethics, and infidelity of Charvaka is logically based on its epistemology. In this philosophy, any intangible existence is denied, and the only knowledgeable subject-matter is assumed to be the material world. So here firstly, the acquisition of the truth is possible (...)
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  27. Epicureanism and Early Christianity.Ilaria L. E. Ramelli - 2020 - In Phillip Mitsis (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Epicureanism. Oxford 2020: pp. 582-612.
    Many fragments and testimonies in Usener’s collection, Epicurea, come from ancient Christian sources. This essay explores Patristic interest in Epicureanism, which is often critical, and sometimes imprecise or distorted, but tangible. It shows how the fading away of the availability and use of good sources on Epicureanism, along with the disappearance of the Epicurean school itself, brought about a progressive impoverishment and hostility among Christian authors with respect to Epicurus and Epicureanism. A comparison between the representation of Epicureanism in Acts (...)
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  28. Epicureanism and Skepticism About Practical Reason.Christopher Frugé - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):195-208.
    Epicureans believe that death cannot harm the one who dies because they hold the existence condition, which states that a subject is able to be harmed only while they exist. I show that on one reading of this condition death can, in fact, make the deceased worse off because it is satisfied by the deprivation account of death’s badness. I argue that the most plausible Epicurean view holds the antimodal existence condition, according to which no merely possible state of affairs (...)
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  29. Great Politics and the Unnoticed Life: Nietzsche and Epicurus on the Boundaries of Cultivation.Peter S. Groff & Peter Groff - 2020 - In Vinod Acharya & Ryan Johnson (eds.), Nietzsche and Epicurus. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 172-185.
    This paper examines Nietzsche’s conflicted relation to Epicurus, an important naturalistic predecessor in the ‘art of living’ tradition. I focus in particular on the Epicurean credo “live unnoticed” (lathe biōsas), which advocated an inconspicuous life of quiet philosophical reflection, self-cultivation and friendship, avoiding the public radar and eschewing the larger ambitions and perturbations of political life. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the idea looms largest and is most warmly received in Nietzsche’s middle period writings, where one finds a repeated concern with prudence, withdrawal (...)
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  30. Can Epicurus Write a Will?Orestis Karatzoglou - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):197-208.
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  31. Health and Hedonism in Plato and Epicurus by Kelly Arenson.David Konstan - 2020 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 58 (2):401-402.
    Epicurus had a distinctive position on pleasure: the greatest possible pleasure consists in the absence of pain. The pain in question may be physical or psychological. Not to be hungry, cold, or otherwise distressed is the greatest pleasure that the body can know; to be free of fear, particularly the kind of vague, undirected anxiety that Lucretius called cura, is the most pleasant state that the mind can achieve. As Lucretius exclaims, "Do you not see that our nature cries out (...)
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  32. Epicureans, Earlier Atomists, and Cyrenaics.Stefano Maso - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. New York, Stati Uniti: pp. 58-70.
    The theory developed by Leucippus (5th cent. BCE), Democritus (470/460-380 BCE), and later Epicurus (341-271/270 BCE) and his school is commonly defined as atomistic materialism. According to this theory, matter is the fundamental principle of existent and ever-evolving reality, and it is constituted of atoms. But whereas for the first atomists atoms were not so much a substance (ousia) as an ideal form (idea) through which they could explain sensible bodies and their movement, with Epicurus atoms effectively turned into a (...)
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  33. Ancient Theories of Freedom and Determinism.Tim O'Keefe - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:00-00.
    A fairly long (~15,000 word) overview of ancient theories of freedom and determinism. It covers the supposed threat of causal determinism to "free will," i.e., the sort of control we need to have in order to be rightly held responsible for our actions. But it also discusses fatalistic arguments that proceed from the Principle of Bivalence, what responsibility we have for our own characters, and god and fate. Philosophers discussed include Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, Carneades, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Plotinus. (...)
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  34. Epicurean Advice for the Modern Consumer.Tim O'Keefe - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. pp. 407-416.
    Epicurus thought that the conventional values of Greek society—in particular, its celebration of luxury and wealth—often led people astray. It is by rejecting these values, reducing our desires, and leading a moderately ascetic life that we can attain happiness. But Epicurus’ message is also pertinent for those of us in modern Western culture, with an economy based on constant consumption and an advertising industry that molds us to serve that economy by enlarging our desires. This paper begins with an outline (...)
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  35. Understanding Stoic and Epicurean Ethical ‘Training’ in Light of the DPR Model.Joel Owen - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy Today 2 (2):145-170.
    In recent years, the notion of ‘philosophy as a way of life’ has again received much attention. Fittingly, whilst this revived interest has generated numerous scholarly publications, attention has...
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  36. Is It Possible to Be Better Off Dead? An Epicurean Analysis of Physician-Assisted Suicide.Andrew Pavelich - 2020 - Conatus 5 (2):115.
    Epicurus wrote that death cannot be bad for a person who dies, since when someone dies they no longer exist to be the subject of harm. But his conclusion also applies in the converse: Death cannot be good for someone, since after their death they will not exist to be the subject of benefit. This conclusion is troubling when it is brought to bear on the question of physician assisted suicide. If Epicurus is right, as I think he is, then (...)
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  37. Health and Hedonism in Plato and Epicurus, Written by Kelly Arenson. [REVIEW]Benjamin A. Rider - 2020 - Polis 37 (3):591-595.
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  38. The Presentation of the Epicurean Virtues.Jan Maximilian Robitzsch - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):419-435.
    This paper discusses the presentation of the Epicurean virtues offered in the Letter to Menoeceus and in Cicero’s On Ends. It evaluates the proposals advanced by Phillip Mitsis and Pierre-Marie Morel. Against Morel, it is argued that Torquatus’ presentation of the virtues in On Ends is not part of an elaborate dialectical strategy. Instead, the paper sides with Mitsis’ more modest proposal: while Torquatus, like any good speaker, with high likelihood adapts his presentation to his audience, his ideas also have (...)
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  39. Epicuro y San Agustín. Aproximaciones filosófico-teológicas al sentido de la muerte.Carlos Andrés Gómez Rodas & Joel Isaac Román Negroni - 2020 - Mediaevalia Americana 7 (1):17-43.
    Una de las razones fundamentales por las cuales la muerte causa dolor se debe a una comprensión equívoca acerca del sentido último de la vida humana. Además, la Modernidad se desliga, en ocasiones, de la dimensión emotiva y afectiva del ser humano. Así pues, toda terapéutica del duelo mortuorio exige reflexionar con seriedad acerca del sentido de la muerte, tarea en la cual la tradición filosófica y teológica occidental es un apoyo ineludible. En la primera parte se ha de revisar, (...)
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  40. Epicurean Philosophy and Its Parts.Clerk Shaw - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. pp. 13-24.
    This chapter offers an overview of the Epicurean conception of philosophy, with special attention to the value of physics. The Epicureans value physics not only for its ability to help remove superstitious beliefs about the gods and death, but also for its ability to stabilize our beliefs and to give causal accounts of ethically-relevant kinds such as pleasure and desire.
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  41. Epicureanism, Charvaka and Consumerism: A Search for Philosophy of Happiness.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2020 - Interdisciplinary Studies.
    Epicurus was a Greek philosopher interested in pleasure or pursuit of it more than other ideals. He said, "No pleasure in itself is a bad thing, but the things that produce certain pleasures involve disturbances many times greater than the pleasures themselves." Epicurus tells us that the knowledge of which pleasures are good for us is wisdom. While this sometimes led to a negative view of his philosophy, in many regions of the world today the reality is that his thinking (...)
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  42. Memmius, Cicero and Lucretius: A Note on Cic. Fam. 13.1.Christopher V. Trinacty - 2020 - Classical Quarterly 70 (1):440-443.
    A recent piece in this journal by Morgan and Taylor made the case that C. Memmius is not to be seen as an active prosecutor of Epicureanism but rather as an Epicurean himself, who merely has disagreed with the grimly orthodox Epicurean sect in Athens. As such, Memmius’ building intentions for Epicurus’ home could have been to create an honorary monument or possibly even construct a grander locus for pilgrimage and the practice of Epicureanism. This note adds to their findings (...)
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  43. Spinoza, the Epicurean: Authority and Utility in Materialism.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    Through a radical new reading of the Theological Political Treatise, Dimitris Vardoulakis argues that the major source of Spinoza’s materialism is the Epicurean tradition that re-emerges in modernity when manuscripts by Epicurus and Lucretius are rediscovered. This reconsideration of Spinoza’s political project, set within a historical context, lays the ground for an alternative genealogy of materialism. Central to this new reading of Spinoza are the theory of practical judgment (understood as the calculation of utility) and its implications for a theory (...)
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  44. Why Is Spinoza an Epicurean?Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):389-409.
    The article argues that Spinoza’s political philosophy is best understood by tracing the influence of epicureanism in his thought.
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  45. Freedom as Overcoming the Fear of Death: Epicureanism in the Subtitle of Spinoza’s Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Parrhesia 32:33-60.
    It is often put forward that the entire political project of epicureanism consists in the overcoming of fear, whereby its scope is deemed to be very narrow. I argue that the overcoming of the fear of death should actually be linked to a conception of freedom in epicureanism. This idea is further developed by Spinoza, who defines the free man as one who thinks of death least of all in the Ethics, and who develops this idea more in the Theological (...)
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  46. Hobbes or Spinoza? Two Epicurean Versions of the Social Contract.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - InCircolo - Rivista di Filosofia E Culture 9:186-210.
    I argue that both Hobbes and Spinoza rely on a pivot epicurean idea to form their conceptions of the social contract, namely, the idea that the human acts by calculating their utility. However, Hobbes and Spinoza employ this starting principle in different ways. For Hobbes, this only makes sense if the calculation of utility is regulated by fear as the primary political emotion. For Spinoza, there is no primary emotion and the entire construction of the social contract relies on how (...)
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  47. Die Ordnung der Welt: Darstellungsformen von Dynamik, Statik Und Emergenz in Lukrez' De Rerum Natura by Eva Marie Noller.Francesco Verde - 2020 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 58 (3):610-611.
    According to a testimony of Sextus Empiricus's Against the Physicists, Epicurus began to study philosophy because his grammar teacher, dealing with the birth of Chaos in Hesiod's Theogony, was not able to explain what the cause and origin of Chaos were. If this evidence is reliable, the question of disorder was extremely significant for Epicurean philosophy. Usually, ancient pagan and Christian critics of materialistic philosophies accused Democritus and Epicurus of denying the power of providence. To Dante, Democritus is the philosopher (...)
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  48. Colloquium 4 Epicureans on Pity, Slavery, and Autonomy.Kelly E. Arenson - 2019 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 34 (1):119-136.
    Diogenes Laertius reports that the Epicurean sage will pity slaves rather than punish them. This paper considers why a hedonistic egoist would feel pity for her subordinates, given that pity can cause psychological pain. I argue that Epicureans feel bad for those who lack the natural good of security, and that Epicureans’ concern for others is entirely consistent with their hedonistic egoism: they will endure the pain of pity in order to achieve the greater pleasure of social cohesion and to (...)
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  49. Is Free Will Scepticism Self-Defeating?Simon-Pierre Chevarie-Cossette - 2019 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 15 (2):55-78.
    Free will sceptics deny the existence of free will, that is the command or control necessary for moral responsibility. Epicureans allege that this denial is somehow self-defeating. To interpret the Epicurean allegation charitably, we must first realise that it is propositional attitudes like beliefs and not propositions themselves which can be self-defeating. So, believing in free will scepticism might be self- defeating. The charge becomes more plausible because, as Epicurus insightfully recognised,there is a strong connection between conduct and belief—and so (...)
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  50. Materialistic Ontology: A Comparative Study of the Philosophy of Charvaka and Epicures.Sajjad Dehghanzadeh & Fatemeh Ahmadian - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 13 (26):169-193.
    In the history of religious and philosophical thought of India, Charvaka philosophy is a unique school of thought that by having theoretical tenets of materialism, provides a purely materialistic interpretation of existence. This school, through the negation of realm beyond sensory perception, asserts to the pure originality of the material and supposes that the only the material reality has validity and the sole authentic perception is the sensory perception. Expressing of atomistic cosmology, apparently, Epicurean philosophy in Greece is the most (...)
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