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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot et al 1998.
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  1. The Roots of Occasionalism? Causation, Metaphysical Dependence, and Soul-Body Relations in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - 2021 - Vivarium 59.
    It has long been thought that Augustine holds that corporeal objects cannot act upon incorporeal souls. However, precisely how and why Augustine imposes limitations upon the causal powers of corporeal objects remains obscure. In this paper, the author clarifies Augustine’s views about the causal and dependence relations between body and soul. He argues that, contrary to what is often thought, Augustine allows that corporeal objects do act upon souls and merely rules out that corporeal objects exercise a particular kind of (...)
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  2. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Wiley-Online-Library: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  3. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and gro...
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  4. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  5. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    This paper examines an ancient debate over the rationality of perception. What leads the Stoics to affirm, and the Epicureans to deny, that to form a sense- impression is an activity of reason? The answer, we argue, lies in a disagreement over what is required for epistemic success. For the Stoics, epistemic success consists in believing the right propositions, and only rational states, in virtue of their predicational structure, put us in touch with propositions. Since they identify some sense-impressions as (...)
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  6. Beyond Hellenistic Epistemology: Arcesilaus and the Destruction of Stoic Metaphysics.Charles E. Snyder - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Charles E. Snyder considers the New Academy's attacks on Stoic epistemology through a critical re-assessment of the 3rd century philosopher, Arcesilaus of Pitane. Arguing that the standard epistemological framework used to study the ancient Academy ignores the metaphysical dimensions at stake in Arcesilaus's critique, Snyder explores new territory for the historiography of Stoic-Academic debates in the early Hellenistic period. Focusing on the dispute between the Old and New Academy, reveals the metaphysical dimensions of Arcesilaus' arguments as essential to grasping what (...)
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  7. Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition.Daniel Vázquez & Alberto Ross (eds.) - 2022 - Brill.
    This book assembles an international team of scholars to move forward the study of Plato’s conception of time, to find fresh insights for interpreting his cosmology, and to reimagine the Platonic tradition.
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  8. Proving Cleanthes Wrong.Laureano Luna - 2021 - Journal of Applied Logic 8 (3):707-736.
    Hume’s famous character Cleanthes claims that there is no difficulty in explaining the existence of causal chains with no first cause since in them each item is causally explained by its predecessor. Relying on logico-mathematical resources, we argue for two theses: (1) if the existence of Cleanthes’ chain can be explained at all, it must be explained by the fact that the causal law ruling it is in force, and (2) the fact that such a causal law is in force (...)
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  9. Stoa: Gattungen des Seienden und "Personen".Sonderegger Erwin - 2000 - Museum Helveticum 57:10-19.
    Die 'vier Gattungen' sind selbst nichts Dingliches. Ihr Zweck ist nicht, die Dinge in vier Gruppen einzuteilen. Sie sind vielmehr Unterscheidungen oder Hinsichten an ein und demselben Ding. Jedes einzelne Ding gehört zugleich in jede der vier Gattungen. Schliesslich ist das, was durch die vier Gattungen insgesamt bestimmt werden soll, das Sein des Seienden, oder für die Stoiker eben die Dinglichkeit des Dings. Die vier Gattungen geben das stoische Verständnis von „sein“ wieder. -/- Meine These bezüglich der Personen lautet, dass (...)
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  10. The Ethics of the Stoic Epictetus: An English Translation, Revised Edition.William O. Stephens - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Peter Lang.
    This text remains the only English translation of Bonhöffer’s classic, definitive examination of Epictetus’s ethics. Thorough, knowledgeable, perceptive, and accessible, the unity of this book and its thematic presentation make it an invaluable resource for both scholars and general readers eager to apply Stoic thinking in their daily lives. The translation is crisp, clear, consistent, and very readable. Careful attention to the details and nuances of the German as well as the Greek of Epictetus make this an excellent achievement. This (...)
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  11. Seneca's Argumentation and Moral Intuitionism.David Merry - 2021 - In Joseph Bjelde, Christopher Roser & David Merry (eds.), Essays on Argumentation in Antiquity. Springer. pp. 231-243.
    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argues that moral disagreement and widespread moral bias pose a serious problem for moral intuitionism. Seneca’s view that we just recognise the good could be criticised using a similar argument. His approach to argumentation offers a way out, one that may serve as a model for a revisionary intuitionism.
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  12. Every Word is a Name: Autonymy and Quotation in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - 2021 - Mind 130 (518):595-616.
    Augustine famously claims every word is a name. Some readers take Augustine to thereby maintain a purely referentialist semantic account according to which every word is a referential expression whose meaning is its extension. Other readers think that Augustine is no referentialist and is merely claiming that every word has some meaning. In this paper, I clarify Augustine’s arguments to the effect that every word is a name and argue that ‘every word is a name’ amounts to the claim that (...)
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  13. Self-Causation and Unity in Stoicism.Reier Helle - 2021 - Phronesis 66 (2):178-213.
    According to the Stoics, ordinary unified bodies—animals, plants, and inanimate natural bodies—each have a single cause of unity and being: pneuma. Pneuma itself has no distinct cause of unity; on the contrary, it acts as a cause of unity and being for itself. In this paper, I show how pneuma is supposed to be able to unify itself and other bodies in virtue of its characteristic tensile motion. Thus, we will see how the Stoics could have hoped to account for (...)
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  14. Fate and Free Will in Stoicism: A Discussion of Susanne Bobzien, Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy.Tad Brennan - 2001 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy Volume Xxi: Winter 2001. Clarendon Press.
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  15. In the Glance of the Logos.Robert M. Berchman - forthcoming - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition:1-33.
    Stoic concepts of ekpyrosis and diacosmesis are examined in light of later Platonic, Aristotelian and Epicurean critiques of Stoic determinism. Questions emerge out of this debate centered on the problem of evil. A series of theodicies are proposed ending in a later Stoic interpretation of the cosmic cycle that equates each phase of the cosmic cycle with an ethical one allegorized as periods of Satiety and Dearth.
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  16. Review of Scaltas and Mason, Eds., Philosophy of Epictetus. [REVIEW]Thornton Lockwood - 2008 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 11:20.
    Epictetus, a former slave who lived in Rome during Nero’s reign but was exiled (along with all those who practiced philosophy in Rome) to Greece by Domitian’s decree in 93 CE, espoused an austere ethical philosophy which aimed at happiness (eudaimonia), or tranquility (ataraxia), through the delimitation of valuation to things within one’s control. Although Epictetus never set to writing his beliefs, his disciple Arrian recorded eight books of his sayings (entitled Discourses [ διατριβαί ] of which only four books (...)
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  17. Rethinking Augustine’s Misunderstanding of First Movements: the Moral Psychology of Preliminary Passions.Yuan Gao - 2019 - Sophia 60 (1):139-155.
    Augustine’s theory of first movements has provoked many controversies over the years. When discussing Augustine’s position in preliminary passions, some scholars maintain that he misunderstands the Stoics, whereas some others argue that he grasps their works rather well and his accounts are consistent with Stoic teaching. This article examines how Augustine transforms his predecessors’ conception of first movements into his own theory, with particular focus on whether Augustine misinterprets his predecessor’s doctrine in his approach. The first section introduces the recent (...)
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  18. Diogenes Laertius 7.134.†Michael Frede - forthcoming - Phronesis:1-22.
    In describing the Stoic principles, the manuscript tradition of DL 7.134 preserves readings which variously call them σώµατα, ‘bodies’, or ἀσώµατα, ‘incorporeals’; but the Suida quotes this passage with ἀσωµάτους, ‘incorporeal’. This paper shows that the Suida has the best reading. This is not the only, or the clearest, case where the Suida can correct our text: another example considered here concerns DL 7.74.
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  19. The Metaphysics of Stoic Corporealism.Vanessa de Harven - forthcoming - Apeiron:1-27.
    The Stoics are famously committed to the thesis that only bodies are, and for this reason they are rightly called “corporealists.” They are also famously compared to Plato’s earthborn Giants in the Sophist, and rightly so given their steadfast commitment to body as being. But the Stoics also notoriously turn the tables on Plato and coopt his “dunamis proposal” that being is whatever can act or be acted upon to underwrite their commitment to body rather than shrink from it as (...)
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  20. Epistemic Luck in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - forthcoming - Ancient Philosophy.
    The Stoics thought that knowledge depends on a special kind of appearances which they called ‘apprehensive’, which are by definition true. Interestingly, Sextus Empiricus reports in M 7.247 that they held that there are appearances that are true but that are not apprehensive because they are true merely by chance and thus cannot constitute knowledge. I believe that this suggests that the Stoics were aware of what is in modern literature known as the problem of epistemic luck. Unfortunately, Sextus’ report (...)
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  21. Notions of the Stoic Value Theory in Contemporary Debates: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2009 - Journal of Classical Studies MS 11:213-221.
    Arguments concerning central issues of contemporary Medical Ethics often not only bear similarities, but also derive their sheer essence from notions which belong to the celebrated history of Ethics. Thus, argumentation pro euthanasia and assisted suicide which focus on the detainment of dignity and the ensuring of posthumous reputation on behalf of the moral agent is shown to echo stoic views on arête and the subordination of life to the primary human goal, namely the achievement of virtue. The progress made (...)
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  22. Why Children, Parrots, and Actors Cannot Speak: The Stoics on Genuine and Superficial Speech.Sosseh Assaturian - forthcoming - Apeiron.
    At Varro LL VI.56 and SE M 8.275-276, we find reports of the Stoic view that children and articulate non-rational animals such as parrots cannot genuinely speak. Absent from these testimonia is the peculiar case of the superficiality of the actor’s speech, which appears in one edition of the unstable text of PHerc 307.9 containing fragments of Chrysippus’ Logical Investigations. Commentators who include this edition of the text in their discussions of the Stoic theory of speech do not offer a (...)
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  23. Del Alma y el individuo particularmente cualificado en el pensamiento estoico.Nicolás Antonio Rojas Cortés - 2019 - Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 14.
    Dado el particular modo de explicar la realidad que tienen los estoicos, existe una categorı́a especı́fica para referir a la descripción de una realidad que podrı́amos considerar individualy diferentea otras; me refiero a lo que ellos mentaban con las palabras ἰδίως ποιός, que traducimos como individuo particularmente cualificado. Esta categorı́a cualifica a una entidad en cuanto especı́fica y particular. Sin embargo, en un contexto donde lo corpóreo refiere a todo lo que es, es fácil identificar apresuradamente lo corpóreo con lo (...)
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  24. Stoic Logic and the Text of Sextus Empiricus.Benson Mates - 1949 - American Journal of Philology 70 (3):290.
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  25. The Stoic Concept of Quality.Margaret E. Reesor - 1954 - American Journal of Philology 75 (1):40.
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  26. The Stoic Categories.Margaret E. Reesor - 1957 - American Journal of Philology 78 (1):63.
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  27. Stoicisme Et Pedagogie: De Zenon a Marc-Aurele; De Seneque a Montaigne Et a J.-J. Rousseau.Phillip de Lacy & G. Pire - 1959 - American Journal of Philology 80 (3):333.
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  28. Askhsis. Notes on Epictetus' Educational System.Phillip de Lacy & B. L. Hijmans - 1961 - American Journal of Philology 82 (2):208.
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  29. Stoic Philosophy.Herbert S. Long & J. M. Rist - 1971 - American Journal of Philology 92 (4):748.
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  30. Problems in Stoicism.Heinrich von Staden & A. A. Long - 1975 - American Journal of Philology 96 (2):232.
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  31. The Origins of Stoic Cosmology.Margaret E. Reesor & David E. Hahm - 1978 - American Journal of Philology 99 (4):534.
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  32. The Stoic Idion and Prodicus' Near-Synonyms.Margaret E. Reesor - 1983 - American Journal of Philology 104 (2):124.
  33. ON CICERO's FABIUS ARGUMENT.Vladimir Marko - 2020 - Filozofia 75 (8):677 – 692.
    This article aims to show that it is impossible to put Cicero’s testimonies regarding The Fabius Argument in a consistent inferential order. Either we must suppose that additional premises are tacitly assumed in the text or we must com-pare it with other sources, which leads to inconsistencies in the proof’s reconstruction. Cicero’s reconstruction of the progression of the argument has formal shortcomings, and the paper draws attention to some of these deficiencies. He interpreted sources in a revised and intentionally simplified (...)
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  34. Lekta in Stoic Thought - (A.) Bronowski the Stoics on Lekta. All There is to Say. Pp. XIV + 478. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. Cased, £100, Us$130. Isbn: 978-0-19-884288-0. [REVIEW]Marion Durand - 2020 - The Classical Review 70 (2):347-349.
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  35. Two Stoic Accounts of Conflict Between Reason and Passion.David Machek - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):389-409.
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  36. Systém kategorií u stoiků.Miroslav Vacura - 2014 - E-Logos 21 (1):1-28.
    Stoická koncepce kategorií představuje ve výzkumu stoické filosofie relativně méně probádanou oblast. Řada textů, které se stoicismu věnují, se zabývá stoickými kategoriemi jen okrajově nebo vůbec. U raných stoiků, kteří se metafyzikou, jak z pozdějších zpráv víme, intenzivně zabývali, máme dochovány pouze zlomky jejich děl, a i v těch je odkazů na problematiku kategorií velmi málo. Přesně vyjmenovaný seznam stoických kategorií, jak nám jej předala pozdější tradice, u nich nenajdeme, a i míst, kde jsou explicitně diskutovány jednotlivé kategorie, je poměrně (...)
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  37. Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will.David Clark - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1):3-19.
    Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism. This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by necessity—but (...)
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  38. Stoics and the State: Theory – Practice – Context, Written by Jula Wildberger.René Brouwer - 2020 - Polis 37 (1):177-180.
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  39. Adam Smith and the Stoic Principle of Suicide.Getty L. Lustila - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):350-363.
    A substantial portion of Adam Smith's discussion of Stoicism in TMS VII is dedicated to the Stoic “principle of suicide,” according to which suicide is sometimes morally required. While scholars agree that Stoicism exercised considerable influence over Smith, no recent work has explored his views on suicide, despite the central role it plays in his treatment of Stoicism. I argue that Smith opposes the principle of suicide on both epistemic and moral grounds, providing an important critique of Stoicism. I also (...)
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  40. Cicero's Criticism Of Stoic Rhetoric.Diogo Luz - 2020 - Prometheus 13 (33):423-433.
    My goal with this article is to present the elements involved in Cicero's criticism of Stoic rhetoric. First, I will present the rhetoric of the Stoics based on the testimonies we have left on these philosophers. Soon after, I will expose Cicero's criticisms of the Stoics. Next, I will argue that Cicero's criticisms arise because his proposal with rhetoric is different from the Stoics' proposal. Due to this difference, it is necessary to understand that the Stoics, on the other hand, (...)
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  41. The Influence of Classical Stoicism on John Locke’s Theory of Self-Ownership.Lisa Hill & Prasanna Nidumolu - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):3-24.
    The most important parent of the idea of property in the person is undoubtedly John Locke. In this article, we argue that the origins of this idea can be traced back as far as the third century BCE, to classical Stoicism. Stoic cosmopolitanism, with its insistence on impartiality and the moral equality of all persons, lays the foundation for the idea of self-ownership, which is then given support in the doctrine of oikeiosis and the corresponding belief that nature had made (...)
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  42. The Correspondence of Fronto and Marcus Aurelius.Yasuko Taoka - 2013 - Classical Antiquity 32 (2):406-438.
    This paper seeks to bridge two aspects of Fronto's letters, erotics and rhetoric, by demonstrating that Fronto himself merges the two areas in his discourse with Marcus Aurelius about their relationship. Whereas some letters suggest an unequal relationship based on power, others encourage the identification of Fronto with Marcus. Fronto achieves this identification by structuring their relationship itself as a metaphor in which he and Marcus are equated and linked by epistolary bonds. I close by discussing why the epistolary genre (...)
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  43. Shakespeare and the Fall of the Roman Empire: Selfhood, Stoicism and Civil War. By Patrick Gray. Pp. Xii, 308, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2019, £80.00. [REVIEW]Andrea Campana - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):546-546.
  44. On the Status of Natural Divination in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - 2020 - Theoria: Beograd 63 (1):5-16.
    Cicero’s De divinatione portrays the Stoics as unanimous in advocating both natural and technical divination. I argue that, contrary to this, the earlier leaders of the school like Chrysippus had reasons to consider natural divination to be significantly epistemically inferior to its technical counterpart. The much more favorable treatment of natural divination in De divinatione is likely the result of changes introduced later, probably by Posidonius.
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  45. Commentary on The Stoic Conception of Mental Disorder.Ivy-Marie Blackburn - 1997 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 4 (4):293-294.
  46. Ariston of Chios and the Sage as Actor.Brian Marrin - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):179-195.
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  47. Nietzsche and the Stoic Concept of Recentes Opiniones.Frank Chouraqui - 2019 - The European Legacy 24 (6):597-616.
    ABSTRACTIn the context of the well-established importance of Nietzsche’s engagement with Stoic thought for his work as a whole, this article seeks to make two claims. First, that the Mausoleum refe...
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  48. Stoicism and its Influence. By R. M. Wenley. Pp. Xi + 194. London: G. C. Harrap & Co., 1925. 5s.J. R. H. - 1925 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 45 (1):140-140.
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  49. Poseidonios. By Karl Reinhardt. Pp. 474. Muenchen: Beck, 1921.L. S. J. - 1922 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 42 (1):120-120.
  50. Grundbegriffe der stoischen Ethik. By Otto Rieth. Pp. 209. Berlin: Weidmann, 1933. 14m.T. D. - 1935 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 55 (1):101-101.
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