About this topic
Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot et al 1998.
Related categories

2827 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 2827
Material to categorize
  1. In the Glance of the Logos.Robert M. Berchman - 2021 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 15 (2):184-216.
    Stoic concepts of ekpyrosis and diacosmesis are examined in light of later Platonic, Aristotelian and Epicurean critiques of Stoic determinism. Questions emerge out of this debate centered on the problem of evil. A series of theodicies are proposed ending in a later Stoic interpretation of the cosmic cycle that equates each phase of the cosmic cycle with an ethical one allegorized as periods of Satiety and Dearth.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. The role of “exercise” in the writings of the Stoics.M. Petrov - forthcoming - Liberal Arts in Russia.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. The Rise and Fall of Seneca Tragicus, c. 1365–1593.Jan Machielsen - 2014 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 77 (1):61-85.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Review: Diogenes Laertius: Lives of Eminent Philosophers: An Edited Translation by Stephen White. [REVIEW]Anthony Hejduk - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (4):837-838.
    Diogenes Laertius’ Lives of Eminent Philosophers occupies a unique place in the history of Western philosophy. In addition to its valuable summaries of the doctrines of philosophers and their schools, it is often the best, or, indeed, the only source available for biographical details of many figures. Yet, as a work, it is often criticized for a lack of originality and critical judgement, notable only because it happened to survive while all other philosophical histories of the era did not, or (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Review of the book The Stoic theory of beauty. [REVIEW]Isabelle Chouinard - 2022 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 199 (1):135-138.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7. ‘Review of A. Bronowski (2019) The Stoics on Lekta: All There is To Say (Oxford University Press)’. [REVIEW]Sean McConnell - 2022 - Classical Journal.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Autarkie, Selbsterhaltung und Selbstbewusstsein: Kritisches zu Begriffsgeschichte der existentiellen Teleologie.Kenneth Mills - 2013 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Was ist wahre Freiheit?: Diatribe IV 1. Epictetus - 2013 - Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Il problema del lekton nello stoicismo antico: origine e statuto di una nozione controversa.Michele Alessandrelli - 2013 - Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore.
    Le concezione stoica dei predicati come effetti incorporei di cause -- La nozione stoica di lekton -- Lo sviluppo della nozione di lekton -- La nozione stoica di ptōsis.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. La doctrina estoica de la oikeiosis: reconstrucción sistemática de la fundamentación de la moral en el estoicismo.Daniel Doyle Sánchez - 2014 - Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Los filósofos estoicos: ontología, lógica, física y ética: traducción, comentario filosófico y edición anotada de los principales textos griegos y latinos.Marcelo D. Boeri & Ricardo Salles (eds.) - 2014 - Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Les stoïciens.Christelle Veillard - 2012 - Paris: Les Belles lettres.
    volume 2. Le stoïcisme intermédiaire (Diogène de Babylonie, Panétius de Rhodes, Posidonius d'Apamée).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Kommentar zu Epiktets Encheiridion.Ulrike Brandt - 2015 - Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Droiture et mélancolie: sur les écrits de Marc Aurèle.Pierre Vesperini - 2016 - Lagrasse: Verdier.
    L'usage éthique des logoi philosophoi -- Les écrits de Marc Aurèle sont des logoi -- Marc Aurèle et les logoi stoïciens -- La grande alternative -- Qu'est-ce que la vérité ? -- Qu'est-ce que le soi ? -- Le soi est social -- Les philosophes n'ont pas le monopole de l'enseignement éthique -- Le roman de la conversion de Marc Aurèle -- Qu'était-ce qu'être philosophos pour l'aristocratie impériale ? -- Qu'est-ce que l'âme ? -- La recherche de Paequanimitas -- L'éthique (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. The daily stoic: 366 meditations on wisdom, perseverance, and the art of living.Ryan Holiday - 2016 - New York, New York: Portfolio/Penguin.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Traictez philosophiques.Guillaume Du Vair - 2016 - Paris: Honoré Champion éditeur.
    La philosophie morale des stoïques -- Le manuel d'Épictète -- Les responses d'Épictète aux demandes de l'empereur Adrian -- L'exhortation à la vie civile -- De la constance et consolation ès calamitez publiques.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Apprendre à penser avec Marc Aurèle.Robert Tirvaudey - 2017 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. How to be a stoic: using ancient philosophy to live a modern life.Massimo Pigliucci - 2017 - New York: Basic Books.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. La leçon de philosophie de Socrate à Épictète: lecture des Entretiens.Jean Lombard - 2017 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Meditations on self-discipline and failure: stoic exercise for mental fitness.William Ferraiolo - 2017 - Washington, USA: O Books.
    A Stoic demonstrates exercises in self-governance and peace of mind through mental discipline"--Cover.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. The philosophy of Epictetus: golden sayings and fragments. Epictetus - 2017 - Mineola, New York: Dover Publications.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. La logica stoica.Ettore Casari - 2017 - Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
    Logic was understood by the Stoics in a broad sense, as the doctrine that included analysis of the forms of argumentation, rhetoric, theory of concepts and propositions, epistemology, and philosophy of language. The distinguishing characteristic of Stoic logic is the fact that it is fundamentally a logic of propositions, unlike the logic of terms belonging to the Aristotelian tradition. This study offers a new treatment of Stoic logic, in which the various topics are retraced and critically assessed.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Restons stoïques face à ce monde inquiétant: Épictète et Spinoza peuvent nous y aider.Pierre Ansay - 2018 - Mons: Couleur Livres.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Ancient Relativity: Plato, Aristotle, Stoics, and Sceptics by Matthew Duncombe. [REVIEW]Ian J. Campbell - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):688-690.
    In this book, Matthew Duncombe argues that Plato, Aristotle, certain Stoics, and Sextus Empiricus each held a broadly "constitutive" view of relativity. According to constitutive accounts, a "relative" is constituted by the relation that it bears to its "correlative". Such treatments of relativity sharply contrast with more familiar nonconstitutive accounts, according to which standing in some relation suffices for being a relative. On such a view, versions of which many scholars have assumed to be at work in antiquity, Alcibiades counts (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. Jack Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology[REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):690-692.
    This provocative study presents philological, philosophical, and historical arguments that with the Greek term καθῆκον and its Latin equivalent officium the ancient Stoics invented a new concept that anticipated the modern notion of moral duty, for example, Pflicht in Kant. Scholars began to shift from translating kathēkon as "duty" to translating it as "appropriate or fitting action" in the late 1800s, according to Visnjic. The usage of the verb kathēkein in Greek literature prior to the Stoics suggests to him that (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Interpretazione pedagogica del pensiero di Seneca.Benedetto Lo Piccolo - 2018 - Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Die Philosophie der Stoa: Logik, Physik und Ethik.Maximilian Forschner - 2018 - Darmstadt: Theiss, ein Imprint der WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. The practicing stoic: a philosophical user's manual.Ward Farnsworth - 2018 - Jaffrey: David R. Godine, Publisher.
    Judgment -- Externals -- Perspective -- Death -- Desire -- Wealth and pleasure -- What others think -- Valuation -- Emotion -- Adversity -- Virtue -- Learning -- Stoicism and its critics.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Quando la vita ti viene a trovare: Lucrezio, Seneca e noi.Ivano Dionigi - 2018 - Bari: Editori GLF Laterza.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. The stoics on luck.René Brouwer - 2019 - In Ian M. Church & Robert J. Hartman (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck. Routledge.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. The stoics.Vanessa de Harven - 2018 - In John E. Sisko (ed.), Philosophy of mind in antiquity. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. Seneca: un filosofo al potere.Dimitri Landeschi - 2019 - Zermeghedo, Vi: Edizioni Saecula.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Does happiness write blank pages?: on stoicism and artistic creativity.Piotr Stankiewicz - 2019 - Wilmington, Delaware: Vernon Press.
    Stoicism is coming back in a big way. Seen as a remedy for the craziness of the times we live in, it is experiencing a great surge in academic and cultural interest. Yet, can one live stoically and be a creative artist at the same time? Delving into its underlying tenets, obscure restrictions and limits of applicability, Stankiewicz critically explores Stoicism and its complex association with artistic creativity. Stoicism and artistic creativity are two great displays of the human spirit. Yet, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Lessons in stoicism.John Sellars - 2019 - UK: Allen Lane.
    A deeply comforting and enlightening book on how Stoicism can inspire us to lead more enjoyable lives What aspects of your life do you really control? What do you do when you cannot guarantee that things will turn out in your favour? And what can Stoicism teach us about how to live together? In the past few years, Stoicism has been making a comeback. But what exactly did the Stoics believe? In Lessons in Stoicism, philosopher John Sellars weaves together the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. How to think like a Roman emperor: the stoic philosophy of Marcus Aurelius.Donald Robertson - 2019 - New York: St. Martin's Press.
    The life-changing principles of Stoicism taught through the story of its most famous proponent Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was the final famous Stoic philosopher of the ancient world. The Meditations, his personal journal, survives to this day as one of the most loved self-help and spiritual classics of all time. In How to Think Like a Roman Emperor, cognitive psychotherapist Donald Robertson weaves the life and philosophy of Marcus Aurelius together seamlessly to provide a compelling modern-day guide to the Stoic (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. A handbook for new Stoics: how to thrive in a world out of your control: 52 week-by-week lessons.Massimo Pigliucci - 2019 - New York, NY: The Experiment.
    17 lessons in the discipline of desire -- 18 lessons in the discipline of action -- 17 lessons in the discipline of assent.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Meditations of Marcus Aurelius worldview guide.Brian Phillips - 2017 - Moscow, Idaho: Canon Press.
    The Worldview Guides... provide an aesthetic and thematic Christian perspective on the most definitive and daunting works of Western Literature."--Provided by publisher.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. The stoic challenge: a philosopher's guide to becoming tougher, calmer, and more resilient.William Braxton Irvine - 2019 - New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
    A practical, refreshingly optimistic guide that uses centuries-old wisdom to help us better cope with the stresses of modern living. Some people bounce back in response to setbacks; others break. We often think that these responses are hardwired, but fortunately this is not the case. Stoicism offers us an alternative approach. Plumbing the wisdom of one of the most popular and successful schools of thought from ancient Rome, philosopher William B. Irvine teaches us to turn any challenge on its head. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. The syncretic Socrates of Epictetus.Brian Earl Johnson - 2019 - In Christopher Moore (ed.), Brill's Companion to the Reception of Socrates. Brill.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. The mouse, the moneybox, and the six-footed scurrying Solecism : satire and riddles in Seneca's letters.Margaret Graver - 2019 - In Pierre Destrée & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Gandhi, Epictetus, and political resistance.Sanjay Lal - 2019 - In Amin Asfari (ed.), Civility, Nonviolent Resistance, and the New Struggle for Social Justice. Brill | Rodopi.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Manual of reformed Stoicism.Piotr Stankiewicz - 2020 - Wilmington, Delaware, United States: Vernon Press.
    This book is a manifesto of reformed Stoicism. It proposes a system of life which is bullet-proof, universal, viable and effective in every cosmic setting. It holds in every possible universe, under any government and within any economic system. We can be reformed Stoics no matter what we believe in. Reformed Stoicism is about enjoying and exercising our agency. In other words, it's about the flow of making autonomous and right decisions, and about celebrating our ability to make them. With (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Meditations: the ancient classic.Marcus Aurelius - 2020 - Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
    A deluxe special edition of the ancient classic written by the Roman Emperor known as “The Philosopher” Meditations is a series of personal journals written by Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome from 169 to 180 AD. The last of the “Five Good Emperors,” he was the most powerful and influential man in the Western world at the time. Marcus was one of the leaders of Stoicism, a philosophy of personal ethics which sought resilience and virtue through personal action and responsibility. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Die Gebetslehre Epiktets: Form, Inhalt und Funktionen der Gebete Epiktets im Kontext der antiken Gebetstradition.Katrin Maria Landefeld - 2020 - Münster: Aschendorff Verlag.
    Die Diatriben und das Encheiridion des Stoikers Epiktet (spätes 1. bis frühes 2.Jh.n.Chr.) erfreuen sich eines bleibenden Interesses in der Forschung. Dies belegen zahlreiche Einzeluntersuchungen sowie neuere Kommentare und Übersetzungen zu ausgewählten Kapiteln seines Werkes. Als Stoiker weist Epiktet insofern eine Besonderheit auf, als er die theologischen Aspekte in seiner Philosophie besonders betont. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einem wichtigen Teil der Theologie Epiktets: seiner Gebetslehre. Epiktet integriert in sein Werk Gebetstexte, die er seinen Schülern als Vorbild- und Übungstexte (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Lives of the stoics: the art of living from Zeno to Marcus Aurelius.Ryan Holiday - 2020 - New York: Portfolio/Penguin.
    From the bestselling authors of The Daily Stoic comes an inspiring guide to the lives of the Stoics, and what the ancients can teach us about happiness, success, resilience and virtue. Nearly 2,300 years after a ruined merchant named Zeno first established a school on the Stoa Poikile of Athens, Stoicism has found a new audience among those who seek greatness, from athletes to politicians and everyone in between. It's no wonder; the philosophy and its embrace of self-mastery, virtue, and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Lives of the stoics: lessons on the art of living from Marcus Aurelius to Zeno.Ryan Holiday - 2020 - New York: Portfolio/Penguin.
    From the bestselling authors of The Daily Stoic comes an inspiring guide to the lives of the Stoics, and what the ancients can teach us about happiness, success, resilience and virtue. Nearly 2,300 years after a ruined merchant named Zeno first established a school on the Stoa Poikile of Athens, Stoicism has found a new audience among those who seek greatness, from athletes to politicians and everyone in between. It's no wonder; the philosophy and its embrace of self-mastery, virtue, and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. Seneca, epistulae morales book 2: a commentary with text, translation, and introduction.Lucius Annaeus Seneca - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This book is the first modern commentary on the second book of Seneca's Epistulae Morales. It contains a substantial introduction and a text and translation of the nine letters that constitute the second book of the Epistulae Morales.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. Stoic philosophy and the control problem of AI technology: caught in the Web.Edward Spence - 2021 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Spence develops and applies a normative model based on rationalist and virtue ethics as well as stoic philosophy to assess the impact of technology on wellbeing. Through developing this model, Spence offers a novel and important examination of the benefit of technology to our society as a whole.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Being better: stoicism for a world worth living in.Kai Whiting - 2021 - Novato, California: New World Library.
    Explains the ethical principles of the ancient Greek philosophy known as Stoicism and shows how it can change our understanding of contemporary issues such as environmental sustainability, social justice, and global capitalism.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 2827