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  1. Seeking Mutual Understanding. A Discourse Theoretical Analysis of the WTO Dispute Settlement System.Emanuela Ceva & Andrea Fracasso - 2010 - World Trade Review 9 (3):457-485.
    The WTO Dispute Settlement System (DSS) has been the object of many studies in politics, law, and economics focusing on institutional design problems. This paper contributes to such studies by accounting for the argumentative nature and sophisticated features of the DSS through a philosophical analysis of the procedures through which it is articulated. Jürgen Habermas's discourse theory is used as a hermeneutic device to disentangle the types of ‘orientations’ (compromise, consensus, and mutual understanding) pertaining to DSS procedures. We show that (...)
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  2. On what is offered, by M*l*n K*nder*.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I distinguish two senses of the word “offer.” I do so within a brief pastiche, which I put down to the influence of the European Union.
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  3. Puzzles from Joseph Raz’s obituary of H.L.A. Hart.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Joseph Raz’s obituary of H.L.A. Hart for Utilitas raises certain puzzles, especially for readers coming from the research area analytic political philosophy. I present three puzzles.
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  4. Euthanasia and well-being: did Joseph Raz change his mind?Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I identify what appears to be a "glaring" inconsistency between what Joseph Raz says on euthanasia in a 2012 lecture and what he says on well-being within his most celebrated book, The Morality of Freedom. There also appears to be a subtler inconsistency between what he says and his endorsement of H.L.A. Hart’s opposition to a definitional project.
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  5. H.L.A. Hart on defining a law as a subtype of an unclear type.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    H.L.A. Hart’s objection to defining a law as a subtype of an unclear type, or one of his objections, suffers from two oversights, which I identify.
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  6. Black White Paper: Tractatus logico-academicus.Gavin Keeney - manuscript
    A draft White Paper associated with Fulbright Specialist Program lectures at the University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in March-April 2015, concerning neo-liberal capitalist exploitation of academic research and publications.
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  7. Aspects juridiques des mégadonnées - RGPD (GDPR).Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'utilisation des mégadonnée présente des problèmes juridiques importants, notamment en termes de protection des données. Le cadre juridique existant de l'Union européenne, basé notamment sur la Directive 46/95/CE et le Règlement général sur la protection des données (RGPD - en anglais : General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR) assurent une protection adéquate. Mais pour les mégadonnées, une stratégie globale et complète est nécessaire. L'évolution au fil du temps est passée du droit d'exclure les autres au droit de contrôler leurs propres données (...)
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  8. Review Essay: Legal Theory, Law, and Normativity. [REVIEW]Leonard Kahn - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    Joseph Raz's new book, Between Authority and Interpretation, collects his most important papers in the philosophy of law and the theory of practical rationality from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. In these papers, Raz not only advances earlier theses but also breaks new ground in a number of areas. I focus on three of Raz's topics here: theories of law, separability and necessity, and the normativity of law. While I am generally sympathetic to Raz's thinking on these topics, I raise (...)
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  9. Problems on the Legalization of LGBT Marriage in the Communist Block - A Preliminary Legal Review.Yang Immanuel Pachankis - forthcoming - Scientific Research Publishing.
    The article analyzes the legislative issues on equal marriage in P. R. China. It adopts a path dependency analysis on the liberal institutional order’s effects to the regime’s structural discrimination on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. The research adopted a duo-lingual paradigm on Christianity with intercultural and transnational interpretations, and the research found the mis-adaption of language in the Chinese text of the United Nations charter is the key source to the suppression of the LGBT population in (...)
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  10. Legal Positivism and the Moral Origins of Legal Systems.Emad H. Atiq - 2023 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 36 (1):37-64.
    Legal positivists maintain that the legality of a rule is fundamentally determined by social facts. Yet for much of legal history, ordinary officials used legal terminology in ways that seem inconsistent with positivism. Judges regularly cited, analyzed, and predicated their decisions on the ‘laws of justice’ which they claimed had universal legal import. This practice, though well-documented by historians, has received surprisingly little philosophical attention; I argue that it invites explanation from positivists. After taxonomizing the positivist’s explanatory options, I suggest (...)
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  11. The Conceptual Legal Structure of The Patient’s Right to Informed Consent.Noelia Martínez Doallo - 2023 - European Journal of Health Law 30 (1):26–49.
    Informed consent has been inconsistently conceptualised as a right, an immunity or even a power in the hands of the patient, which leaves its legal definition as partially indefinite. From the norms of the CHRB, a legal theory stance and the proposals of celebrated authors—namely, W.N. Hohfeld, H. Kelsen and R. Alexy, I will provide a steady conceptual structure for the subjective legal positions of the parties involved in the healthcare relationship regarding informed consent.
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  12. Review of Julie Dickson: Elucidating Law[REVIEW]Robert Mullins - 2023 - Ethics 134 (1):127-131.
    Review of Julie Dickson's 'Elucidating Law' (Oxford University Press, 2022).
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  13. Cancel Culture: an Essentially Contested Concept?Claudio Novelli - 2023 - Athena - Critical Inquiries in Law, Philosophy and Globalization 1 (2):I-X.
    Cancel culture is a form of societal self-defense that becomes prominent particularly during periods of substantial moral upheaval. It can lead to the polarization of incompatible viewpoints if it is indiscriminately demonized. In this brief editorial letter, I consider framing cancel culture as an essentially contested concept (ECC), according to the theory of Walter B. Gallie, with the aim of establishing a groundwork for a more productive discourse on it. In particular, I propose that intermediate agreements and principles of reasonableness (...)
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  14. Methodology and Innovation in Jurisprudence. [REVIEW]Kevin Tobia - 2023 - Columbia Law Review 123:2483-2516.
    Jurisprudence aims to identify and explain important features of law. To accomplish this task, what procedure or method should one employ? Elucidating Law, a tour de force in “the philosophy of legal philosophy,” develops an instructive account of how philosophers “elucidate law,” which elucidates jurisprudence’s own aims and methods. This Review introduces the book, with emphasis on its discussion of methodology. -/- Next, the Review proposes complementing methodological clarification with methodological innovation. Jurisprudence should ask timeless questions, but its methods need (...)
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  15. A Hohfeldian analysis of the Bill of Rights.Quentin du Plessis - 2022 - South African Law Journal 139 (3):577-622.
    In the scholarship on rights, one name is pre-eminent: Hohfeld. Despite this, there are two ways in which the Hohfeldian analysis of rights remains underappreciated. The first is that it is commonly assumed that the Hohfeldian analytic system applies only to private-law rights. The second is that South African lawyers remain mostly unfamiliar with the Hohfeldian analytic system. By providing a Hohfeldian analysis of the South African Bill of Rights, this article aims to set the record straight in both respects.
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  16. La inalienabilidad de los derechos como incompetencia del titular.Noelia Martínez Doallo - 2021 - Anuario de Filosofía Del Derecho 37 (1):229-256.
    Concebir los derechos como una protección no-paternalista de los intereses de sus titulares supone aceptar que su aspecto más relevante consiste en la provisión de una competencia para renunciar o consentir su inobservancia por terceros, lo cual no tiene por qué coincidir con la mejor estimación de sus intereses, aun cuando estos últimos juegan un papel importante en la justificación de las posiciones jurídicas implicadas. A partir de la tesis de la correlatividad, los conceptos jurídicos fundamentales de W.N. Hohfeld y (...)
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  17. The pragmatist school in analytic jurisprudence.Raff Donelson - 2021 - Philosophical Issues 31 (1):66-84.
    Almost twenty years ago, a genuinely new school of thought emerged in the field of jurisprudential methodology. It is a pragmatist school. Roughly, the pragmatists contend that, when inquiring about the nature of law, we should evaluate potential answers based on practical criteria. For many legal philosophers, this contention seems both unclear and unhinged. That appearance is lamentable. The pragmatist approach to jurisprudential methodology has received insufficient attention for at least two reasons. First, the pragmatists do not conceive of themselves (...)
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  18. The subject of rights and responsibility in Ricoeur's legal philosophy.Guido Gorgoni - 2021 - In Marc de Leeuw, George H. Taylor & Eileen Brennan (eds.), Reading Ricoeur Through Law. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
    While the legal concept of a subject of rights is eminently an abstraction, Ricoeur’s philosophical challenge seeks to rethink its identity within the philosophy of action, in correlation with the ideas of capacity, attestation, and recognition. The terminology Ricoeur employs presents some significant marks of this theoretical stance, as he speaks of a “veritable” or a “real” subject of rights as distinguished from the purely formal one. I argue that Ricoeur’s approach to the legal subject attains its highest meaning in (...)
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  19. The Conceptions of Self-Evidence in the Finnis Reconstruction of Natural Law.Kevin Lee - 2020 - St. Mary's Law Journal 51 (2):414-470.
    Finnis claims that his theory proceeds from seven basic principles of practical reason that are self-evidently true. While much has been written about the claim of self-evidence, this article considers it in relation to the rigorous claims of logic and mathematics. It argues that when considered in this light, Finnis equivocates in his use of the concept of self-evidence between the realist Thomistic conception and a purely formal, modern symbolic conception. Given his respect for the modern positivist separation of fact (...)
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  20. Search Engines, Free Speech Coverage, and the Limits of Analogical Reasoning.Heather Whitney & Robert Mark Simpson - 2019 - In Susan Brison & Katharine Gelber (eds.), Free Speech in the Digital Age. pp. 33-41.
    This paper investigates whether search engines and other new modes of online communication should be covered by free speech principles. It criticizes the analogical reason-ing that contemporary American courts and scholars have used to liken search engines to newspapers, and to extend free speech coverage to them based on that likeness. There are dissimilarities between search engines and newspapers that undermine the key analogy, and also rival analogies that can be drawn which don’t recommend free speech protection for search engines. (...)
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  21. A Neuroscience Study on the Implicit Subconscious Perceptions of Fairness and Islamic Law in Muslims Using the EEG N400 Event Related Potential.Ahmed Izzidien & Srivas Chennu - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 2 (5):21-50.
    We sought to compare the implicit and explicit views of a group of Muslim graduates on the fairness of Islamic law. In this preliminary investigation, we used the Electroencephalographic N400 Event Related Potential to detect the participant’s implicit beliefs. It was found that the majority of participants, eight out of ten, implicitly held that Islamic Law was unfair despite explicitly stating the opposite. In seeking to understand what separated these eight participants from the remaining two – the two who both (...)
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  22. The Methods of Normativity.Hass Binesh - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 30 (1):159.
    This essay is an examination of the relationship between phenomenology and analytic method in the philosophy of law. It proceeds by way of a case study, the requirement of compliance in Raz’s theory of mandatory norms. Proceeding in this way provides a degree of specificity that is otherwise neglected in the relevant literature on method. Drawing on insights from the philosophy of art and cognitive neuroscience, it is argued that the requirement of compliance is beset by a range of epistemological (...)
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  23. Down the Methodological Rabbit Hole.David Frydrych - 2017 - Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 49 (147):41-73.
    This article surveys methodological matters that shape, drive, and plague analytic legal philosophy. Section 2 briefly explicates conceptual analysis, analytic definitions, and family resemblance concepts. It also argues that central cases are used in more than one way. Section 3 presents criticisms of those concepts and methods, and suggests that some of these difficulties are due to the lack of a shared paradigm regarding a counterexample’s impact. Section 4 explains “meta- theoretical” desiderata. It contends that, to date, legal philosophical appeals (...)
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  24. Structural Realism and Jurisprudence.Kevin Lee - 2017 - Legal Issues Journal 5 (2).
    Some Anglophone legal theorists look to analytic philosophy for core presuppositions. For example, the epistemological theories of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Willard Quine shape the theories of Dennis Patterson and Brian Leiter, respectively. These epistemologies are anti-foundational since they reject the kind of certain grounding that is exemplified in Cartesian philosophy. And, they are coherentist in that they seek to legitimate truth-claims by reference to entire linguistic systems. While these theories are insightful, the current context of information and communication technologies (ICT) (...)
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  25. El derecho al consentimiento informado a partir de la teoría del estatus de Georg Jellinek.Noelia Martinez-Doallo - 2017 - Ius Et Scientia 1 (3):206-216.
    Jellinek define “estatus” como la “relación con el Estado que califica al individuo”. Su teoría distingue cuatro tipos: pasivo o subiectionis, negativo o libertatis, positivo o civitatis y activo o de la ciudadanía activa. Al margen de las polémicas sobre su vigencia, se pretende relacionar la aportación de Jellinek con la concepción del consentimiento informado del Tribunal Constitucional español, quien lo ha definido como deber de abstención de los profesionales sanitarios (STC 37/2011, de 28 de marzo, entre otras), es decir, (...)
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  26. Political reconciliation, the rule of law, and truces.Colleen Murphy - 2017 - Journal of Global Ethics 13 (1):28-39.
    Nir Eisikovits argues in A Theory of Truces that most contemporary conflicts wind down in a much more piecemeal fashion than our theorizing about the morality of ending wars suggests. Pauses in violence are achieved by securing agreement on narrow questions. Moreover, rather than hoping to do away with violence, theorizing would do best, he writes, to take as its starting point the fact of warfare as part of the human condition. Eisikovits aims to articulate the features of truce thinking, (...)
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  27. Metaphilosophy of Law.Paweł Banaś, Adam Dyrda & Tomasz Gizbert-Studnicki (eds.) - 2016 - Portland, Oregon: Hart.
    Methodological and metaphilosophical disputes in the contemporary philosophy of law are very vivid. Basic issues remain controversial. The purpose of the book is to confront approaches of Anglo-Saxon and continental philosophy of law to the following topics: the purpose of legal philosophy, the role of disagreement in legal philosophy, methodology of legal philosophy (conceptual analysis) and normativity of law. We see those areas of legal metaphilosophy as drawing recently more and more attention in the literature. The authors of particular chapters (...)
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  28. Review of Giorgio Agamben's Pilate and Jesus. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (4):431-33.
  29. Derrida's Kafka and the Imagined Boundary of Legal Knowledge.William Conklin - 2016 - Law, Culture and the Humanities 12 (1):1-27.
    This article raises the critical issue as to why there has been assumed to be a boundary to legal knowledge. In response to such an issue I focus upon the works of Jacques Derrida who, amongst other things, was concerned with the boundary of the disciplines of Literature, Philosophy and Law. The article argues that the boundary delimits the law as if the inside of a boundary to territorial-like legal space in legal consciousness. Such a space is not possible without (...)
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  30. Law as Plan and Artefact.Kenneth M. Ehrenberg - 2016 - Jurisprudence 7 (2):325-340.
    Scott Shapiro’s theory that law is a social plan is helpful in seeing law essentially as a tool of human creation and as such is sympathetic to understanding law in terms of the social functions it performs, a method I argue for elsewhere. I focus here on two problems with the theory as presented. The planning theory does not adequately explain the persistence of law beyond the utility of those who implement it. Generally, plans can cease to exist as soon (...)
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  31. The Functions of Law.Kenneth M. Ehrenberg - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    What is the nature of law and what is the best way to discover it? This book argues that law is best understood in terms of the social functions it performs wherever it is found in human society. In order to support this claim, law is explained as a kind of institution and as a kind of artefact. To say that it is an institution is to say that it is designed for creating and conferring special statuses to people so (...)
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  32. Power and Principle in Constitutional Law.Pavlos Eleftheriadis - 2016 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 45 (2):37-56.
    Legal and sociological theories of sovereignty disagree about the role of legal and social matters in grounding state power. This paper defends a constructivist view, according to which the constitution is a judgment of practical reason. The paper argues that a constitution sets out a comprehensive institutional architecture of social life in terms of principles and official roles that are necessary for any legitimate scheme of social cooperation to exist. It follows that legal and sociological theories of sovereignty capture only (...)
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  33. Good Legal Thought: What Wordsworth Can Teach Langdell About Forms, Frames, Choices, and Aims.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2016 - Vermont Law Review 41 (1):1-22.
    Langdellian “science” and its “formalism” ignore ways form permits and even creates freedom of choice. For example, as Wordsworth notes, though the weaver is restricted by what his form of loom can weave, the weaver may nonetheless choose what and how he weaves. Furthermore, the loom creates weaving possibilities that do not exist without it. Such freedom alongside form is often lost on lawyers, judges, and teachers trained primarily in Langdellian redacted appellate cases where “facts” and other framed matters often (...)
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  34. Weighing Words: On the Governmentality of Free Speech.Muhammad Ali Nasir - 2016 - Social and Legal Studies 25 (1).
    The article explores the regulatory aspect of the right to freedom of expression. It focuses on human rights case law to see how the guarantee of this right considers subjects, who are required to be free in specific ways in order to exercise their freedoms aptly.
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  35. Justice Scalia and Queen Anne.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2015 - Huffington Post.
    This article explores problems with several definitions of Originalism proposed by Justice Scalia in "Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts." It begins by looking at Justice Scalia's citation of a possible statement by Queen Anne that Justice Scalia claims in itself justifies Originalism. Queen Anne may have told Sir Christopher Wren that St. Paul's Cathedral was "awful, artificial, and amusing" at a time when those words meant "awe-inspiring, highly artistic, and thought-provoking." Conceding that one must understand how Queen Anne (...)
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  36. Evaluating the Force of Law's Force. [REVIEW]Lucas Miotto - 2015 - Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 40:229-236.
  37. What Makes Law: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Law.Liam B. Murphy - 2014 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers an advanced introduction to central questions in legal philosophy. What factors determine the content of the law in force? What makes a normative system a legal system? How does law beyond the state differ from domestic law? What kind of moral force does law have? The most important existing views are introduced, but the aim is not to survey the existing literature. Rather, this book introduces the subject by stepping back from the fray to sketch the big (...)
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  38. Interests, Theories of.Dustin Garlitz - 2013 - In Gregory Claey (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Modern Political Thought. CQ Press.
  39. The Principle of Precaution and the Governance of Insecurity.Guido Gorgoni - 2013 - Governare la Paura 6 (1).
    After a brief reconstruction of the principle of precaution’s juridical rising, I will discuss in short the question of the juridical nature of the same principle and then examine some of its extra-juridical implications, showing how the intrinsic logic of the principle of precaution implies a strict connection with the needs and proper forms of a conception of democracy as participative.
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  40. When Is a Regime Not a Legal System? Alexy on Moral Correctness and Social Efficacy.David H. McIlroy - 2013 - Ratio Juris 26 (1):65-84.
    Robert Alexy defines law as including a claim to moral correctness and demonstrating social efficacy. This paper argues that law's social efficacy is not merely an observable fact but is undergirded by moral commitments by rulers that it is possible for their subjects to follow the rules, that the rulers and others will also follow the rules, that subjects will be protected from violence if they act in accordance with the rules, and that subjects will be entitled to legal redress (...)
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  41. Prawne a pozaprawne pojęcia dobra wspólnego [Legal and Extralegal Notions of Common Good].Marek Piechowiak - 2013 - In Wojciech Arndt, Franciszek Longchamps de Bérier & Krzysztof Szczucki (eds.), Dobro wspólne. Teoria i praktyka. Wydawnictwo Sejmowe. pp. 23-45.
    Opracowanie dotyczy relacji konstytucyjnego pojęcia „dobro wspólne” z art. 1 Konstytucji RP, do pozaprawnych pojęć dobra wspólnego. Bezpośredni asumpt do jego przygotowania dało zdanie odrębne sędziego Trybunału Konstytucyjnego Zbigniewa Cieślaka do wyroku TK z dnia 20 kwietnia 2011 r. w sprawie Kp 7/09, dotyczącej zmian w prawie budowlanym. Jest to w ogóle najobszerniejsza wypowiedź w całym dotychczasowym orzecznictwie TK poświęcona wprost problematyce dobra wspólnego. Sędzia Z. Cieślak wyraźnie odróżnił prawne pojęcie dobra wspólnego – jego zdaniem właściwe dla interpretacji klauzuli dobra (...)
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  42. Sexual Consent as Voluntary Agreement: Tales of “Seduction” or Questions of Law?Lucinda Vandervort - 2013 - New Criminal Law Review 16 (1):143-201.
    This article proposes a rigorous method to “map” the law on to the facts in the legal analysis of “sexual consent” using a series of mandatory questions of law designed to eliminate the legal errors often made by decision-makers who routinely rely on personal beliefs about and attitudes towards “normal sexual behavior” in screening and deciding cases. In Canada, sexual consent is affirmative consent, the communication by words or conduct of “voluntary agreement” to a specific sexual activity, with a specific (...)
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  43. Law is not (best considered) an essentially contested concept.Kenneth M. Ehrenberg - 2011 - International Journal of Law in Context 7:209-232.
    I argue that law is not best considered an essentially contested concept. After first explaining the notion of essential contestability and disaggregating the concept of law into several related concepts, I show that the most basic and general concept of law does not fit within the criteria generally offered for essential contestation. I then buttress this claim with the additional explanation that essential contestation is itself a framework for understanding complex concepts and therefore should only be applied when it is (...)
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  44. Defending the possibility of a neutral functional theory of law.Kenneth M. Ehrenberg - 2008 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 29 (1):91.
    I argue that there is methodological space for a functional explanation of the nature of law that does not commit the theorist to a view about the value of that function for society, nor whether law is the best means of accomplishing it. A functional explanation will nonetheless provide a conceptual framework for a better understanding of the nature of law. First I examine the proper role for function in a theory of law and then argue for the possibility of (...)
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  45. Norm and Truth.Marek Piechowiak (ed.) - 2008 - School of Humanities and Journalism.
    Truth seems to be an indispensable element of authority which presents itself as being based on more than just power and efficiency. In the domain of law,there is not only and primarily the problem of establishing the truth about the facts which are to be judged; there is also the problem of norms—does their authority rest solely on the act of establishing them, or is there “something behind”, a truth which contributes to the strength of law, and which provides legitimacy (...)
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  46. An interpretation of probability in the law of evidence based on pro-et-contra argumentation.Lennart Åqvist - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):391-410.
    The purpose of this paper is to improve on the logical and measure-theoretic foundations for the notion of probability in the law of evidence, which were given in my contributions Åqvist [ (1990) Logical analysis of epistemic modality: an explication of the Bolding–Ekelöf degrees of evidential strength. In: Klami HT (ed) Rätt och Sanning (Law and Truth. A symposium on legal proof-theory in Uppsala May 1989). Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, pp 43–54; (1992) Towards a logical theory of legal evidence: semantic analysis (...)
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  47. Internet Stings Directed at Pedophiles: A Study in Philosophy and Law.Joseph S. Fulda - 2007 - Sexuality and Culture 11 (1):52-98.
    The article is intended to, in Sections I and II, flesh out and put within a metaphilosophical framework the theoretical argument first made in 2002 in “Do Internet Stings Directed at Pedophiles Capture Offenders or Create Offenders? And Allied Questions” (Sexuality & Culture 6(4): 73–100), with some modifications (See note 14). Where there are differences, I stand by this version as the final version of the argument. Section III addresses three experimental or empirical studies which might be thought to contradict (...)
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  48. Free Will in Context.Patrick Grim - 2007 - Behavioral Science and the Law 25:183-201.
    Philosophical work on free will, contemporary as well as historical, is inevitably framed by the problem of free will and determinism. One of my goals in what follows is to give a feel for the main lines of that debate in philosophy today. I will also be outlining a particular perspective on free will. Many working philosophers consider themselves Compatibilists; the perspective outlined, building on a number of arguments in the recent literature, is a contemporary form of such a view. (...)
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  49. Moral evaluation and conceptual analysis in jurisprudential methodology.John Oberdiek & Dennis Patterson - 2007 - In Michael D. A. Freeman & Ross Harrison (eds.), Law and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  50. The Defence of Belief in Consent: Guidelines and Jury Instructions for Application of Criminal Code Section 265(4).Lucinda Vandervort - 2005 - Criminal Law Quarterly 50 (4):441-452.
    The availability of the defence of belief in consent under section 265(4) is a question of law, subject to review on appeal. The statutory provision is based on the common law rule that applies to all defences. Consideration of the defence when it is unavailable in law and failure to consider it when it is available are both incorrect. A judge is most likely to avoid error when ruling on availability of the defence if the ruling: (1) is grounded on (...)
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