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  1. Legal Text as a Description of a Possible World.Marcin Matczak - manuscript
    In this paper I outline a comprehensive theory of legal interpretation based on an assumption that legal text, understood as the aggregate of texts of all legal acts in force at a particular time and place, describes one rational and coherent possible world. The picture of this possible world is decoded from the text by interpreters and serves as a holistic model to which the real world is adjusted when the law is applied. From the above premise I will limit (...)
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  2. Law as Language (in Contemporary Analytic Philosophy).Jose Juan Moreso & Samuele Chilovi - manuscript
  3. Issues with the Judicial System: A Philosophical and Psychological Approach.Manish Nagireddy - manuscript
    What factors affect judicial decision-making? The legal system is of utmost importance because of its impact on our lives. Judges appear to have the most power among any social workers seeing as the precedents set in their decisions are tantamount to written law. Nevertheless, judges may be subject to certain biases, moral and cognitive alike, which influence their rulings. Looking into how morality and cognitive biases affect judges may also reveal how we as individuals handle combining morals with ethics- as (...)
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  4. The Opacity of Law. On the Impact of Experts' Opinion on Legal Decision-Making.Damiano Canale - forthcoming - Law and Philosophy:1-35.
    It is well known that experts’ opinion and testimony take on a decisive weight in judicial fact-finding, raising issues and perplexities that have long been under scholarly scrutiny. In this paper I argue that expert’s opinions have a much wider impact on legal decision-making. In particular, they may generate a problem that I will call ‘the opacity of law’. A legal text, such as a statute or regulation, becomes opaque if a legal authority is not able to grasp its full (...)
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  5. La filosofía de la ciencia y el derecho.Andrés Páez - 2022 - In Guillermo Lariguet & Daniel González Lagier (eds.), Filosofía. Introducción para juristas. Madrid: Trotta. pp. 173-199.
    Esta breve introducción a la filosofía de la ciencia parte del hecho de que tanto la investigación científica como el razonamiento probatorio judicial tienen un carácter inductivo. En esa medida, comparten características esenciales que permiten que el derecho se nutra de muchas de las reflexiones de la filosofía de la ciencia. El capítulo se concentra en cuatro temas principales: los criterios de demarcación entre el conocimiento científico y la pseudociencia; el carácter derrotable de las conclusiones de la ciencia y el (...)
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  6. Los sesgos cognitivos y la legitimidad racional de las decisiones judiciales.Andrés Páez - 2021 - In Filosofía y Psicología. Universidad Externado de Colombia.
    Los sesgos cognitivos afectan negativamente la toma de decisiones en todas las esferas de la vida, incluyendo las decisiones de los jueces. La imposibilidad de eliminarlos por completo de la práctica del derecho, o incluso de controlar sus efectos, contrasta con el anhelo de que las decisiones judiciales sean el resultado exclusivo de un razonamiento lógico-jurídico correcto. Frente el efecto sistemático, recalcitrante y porfiado de los sesgos cognitivos, una posible estrategia para disminuir su efecto es enfocarse, no en modificar el (...)
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  7. Civil Liability and the 50%+ Standard of Proof.Martin Smith - 2021 - International Journal of Evidence and Proof 25 (3):183-199.
    The standard of proof applied in civil trials is the preponderance of evidence, often said to be met when a proposition is shown to be more than 50% likely to be true. A number of theorists have argued that this 50%+ standard is too weak – there are circumstances in which a court should find that the defendant is not liable, even though the evidence presented makes it more than 50% likely that the plaintiff’s claim is true. In this paper, (...)
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  8. Legal Probabilism.Rafal Urbaniak & Marcello Di Bello - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9. Varieties of Risk.Philip A. Ebert, Martin Smith & Ian Durbach - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (2):432-455.
    The notion of risk plays a central role in economics, finance, health, psychology, law and elsewhere, and is prevalent in managing challenges and resources in day-to-day life. In recent work, Duncan Pritchard (2015, 2016) has argued against the orthodox probabilistic conception of risk on which the risk of a hypothetical scenario is determined by how probable it is, and in favour of a modal conception on which the risk of a hypothetical scenario is determined by how modally close it is. (...)
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  10. Communicating Dissent in Judicial Opinions: A Comparative, Genre-Based Analysis.Stanisław Goźdź-Roszkowski - 2020 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 33 (2):381-401.
    To date, there has been surprisingly little research on separate opinions in legal linguistics literature. Scarce attention has been paid to the linguistic and communicative aspects of how judges frame their disagreements. This paper serves as one of the early attempts to examine the institution of votum separatum, or separate opinion, from a comparative, cross-language perspective using a linguistic methodology. The evidence indicates a clear similarity in terms of how separate opinions are integrated within the respective macrostructures of the US (...)
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  11. Preface to a Debate.Massimo La Torre - 2020 - Ratio Juris 33 (1):3-5.
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  12. "Postema's Account of Integrity".Barbara Baum Levenboo - 2020 - In Philosophy of Law as an Integral Part of Philosophy: Essays on the Jurisprudence of Gerald J. Postema. Hart. pp. 47-79.
    In his “Integrity: Justice in Work Clothes,” Postema assumes the task of showing that integrity is a genuine moral value of political communities, distinct from other values such as justice and fairness. Postema’s conception of integrity borrows much from Dworkin’s, but also differs from it in an important respect. As anyone familiar with Dworkin’s theory would expect, Postema’s idea of integrity is a kind of fidelity in laws (“practical directives”) and policies to principles arising from what Dworkin famously called “past (...)
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  13. Neuroenhancement, the Criminal Justice System, and the Problem of Alienation.Jukka Varelius - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):325-335.
    It has been suggested that neuroenhancements could be used to improve the abilities of criminal justice authorities. Judges could be made more able to make adequately informed and unbiased decisions, for example. Yet, while such a prospect appears appealing, the views of neuroenhanced criminal justice authorities could also be alien to the unenhanced public. This could compromise the legitimacy and functioning of the criminal justice system. In this article, I assess possible solutions to this problem. I maintain that none of (...)
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  14. The Reasonable and the Relevant: Legal Standards of Proof.Georgi Gardiner - 2019 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 47 (3):288-318.
    According to a common conception of legal proof, satisfying a legal burden requires establishing a claim to a numerical threshold. Beyond reasonable doubt, for example, is often glossed as 90% or 95% likelihood given the evidence. Preponderance of evidence is interpreted as meaning at least 50% likelihood given the evidence. In light of problems with the common conception, I propose a new ‘relevant alternatives’ framework for legal standards of proof. Relevant alternative accounts of knowledge state that a person knows a (...)
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  15. Judging the Mental States of Others: ‘Mindreading’ in Legal Decision-Making.Daniel Gregory - 2019 - Jurisprudence 11 (1):48-62.
    Legal processes very often require judges and jurors to make determinations as to what mental states other individuals were in at a particular point in time, i.e., what they intended, believed, con...
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  16. How to Solve Controversies in Scenarios of Legal Pluralism?Danny Marrero - 2019 - In Adriano Fabris & Giovanni Scarafile (eds.), Controversies in the Contemporary World. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publisher. pp. 261-276.
    In this paper I propose a method to solve controversies in scenarios of legal pluralism. Shortly, in scenarios of legal pluralism some of the controversies involve members of culturally differentiated groups who justify their allegations with arguments that only make sense in the culture to which they belong. If the adjudicator does not share the same cultural worldview as the parts under litigation, how can he/she come to make a decision determining the parties’ rights and obligations? My answer for this (...)
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  17. Flaming Misogyny or Blindly Zealous Enforcement? The Bizarre Case of R V George.Lucinda Vandervort - 2019 - Manitoba Law Journal 42 (3):1-38.
    This article examines the distinction between judicial reasoning flawed by errors on questions of law, properly addressed on appeal, and errors that constitute judicial misconduct and are grounds for removal from the bench. Examples analysed are from the transcripts and reasons for decision in R v George SKQB (2015), appealed to the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal (2016) and the Supreme Court of Canada (2017), and from the sentencing decision rendered by the same judge more than a decade earlier in R (...)
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  18. 'Reasonable Steps': Amending Section 273.2 to Reflect the Jurisprudence.Lucinda Ann Vandervort - 2019 - Criminal Law Quarterly 66 (4):376-387.
    This piece proposes amendments to section 273.2 of the Canadian Criminal Code. Section 273.2, enacted in 1992 and revised in 2018, specifies circumstances in which belief in consent is not a defence to sexual assault. The amendments proposed here are designed to ensure that the wording of this statutory provision properly reflects the significant jurisprudential developments related to mens rea and the communication of voluntary agreement (i.e., affirmative sexual consent) achieved by Canadian judges since the original enactment of section 273.2 (...)
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  19. Against Capital Punishment.Benjamin S. Yost - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    _Against Capital Punishment_ offers an innovative proceduralist argument against the death penalty. Worries about procedural injustice animate many popular and scholarly objections to capital punishment. Philosophers and legal theorists are attracted to procedural abolitionism because it sidesteps controversies over whether murderers deserve death, holding out a promise of gaining rational purchase among death penalty retentionists. Following in this path, the book remains agnostic on the substantive immorality of execution; in fact, it takes pains to reconstruct the best arguments for capital (...)
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  20. Ronald Dworkin and the Curious Case of the Floodgates Argument.Noam Gur - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 31 (2):323-345.
    This article juxtaposes a jurisprudential thesis and a practical problem in an attempt to gain critical insight into both. The jurisprudential thesis is Dworkin’s rights thesis. The practical problem revolves around judicial resort to the floodgates argument in civil adjudication (or, more specifically, a version of this argument focused on adjudicative resources, which is dubbed here the FA). The analysis yields three principal observations: (1) Judicial resort to the FA is discordant with the rights thesis. (2) The rights thesis is (...)
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  21. A Neuroscience Study on the Implicit Subconscious Perceptions of Fairness and Islamic Law in Muslims Using the EEG N400 Event Related Potential.Ahmed Izzidien & Srivas Chennu - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 2 (5):21-50.
    We sought to compare the implicit and explicit views of a group of Muslim graduates on the fairness of Islamic law. In this preliminary investigation, we used the Electroencephalographic N400 Event Related Potential to detect the participant’s implicit beliefs. It was found that the majority of participants, eight out of ten, implicitly held that Islamic Law was unfair despite explicitly stating the opposite. In seeking to understand what separated these eight participants from the remaining two – the two who both (...)
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  22. Lawfulness and the Perception of Legal Salience.Claudio Michelon - 2018 - Jurisprudence 9 (1):47-57.
    The ability to identify all legally salient properties within a complex situation is a subjective trait necessarily possessed by a lawful person. This ability is better explained as a type of perception. The paper puts forward an account of the perception of legally salient properties in which perception affords a preliminary ordering of the total information received while allowing for the formation of a remainder that explains the peripheral legal perception experienced legal practitioners develop over time. After this account of (...)
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  23. Resolving Judicial Dilemmas.Alexander Sarch & Daniel Wodak - 2018 - Virginia Journal of Criminal Law 6:93-181.
  24. Mens Rea by the Numbers.Gideon Yaffe - 2018 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 12 (3):393-409.
    Before the recent presidential election, a bipartisan congressional effort was made to pass a criminal justice reform bill. The bill faltered in part because of a proposed default mens rea provision: statutes silent on mens rea, that were not explicitly identified as strict liability by the legislature, would be taken to require for guilt proof of knowledge with respect to each material element. This paper focusses on a prominent line of disagreement about the default mens rea provision. Proponents argued that (...)
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  25. The Methods of Normativity.Hass Binesh - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 30 (1):159.
    This essay is an examination of the relationship between phenomenology and analytic method in the philosophy of law. It proceeds by way of a case study, the requirement of compliance in Raz’s theory of mandatory norms. Proceeding in this way provides a degree of specificity that is otherwise neglected in the relevant literature on method. Drawing on insights from the philosophy of art and cognitive neuroscience, it is argued that the requirement of compliance is beset by a range of epistemological (...)
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  26. Los criterios de la corrección en la teoría del razonamientos jurídico de Neil MacCormick.Miguel Garcia-Godinez - 2017 - Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico: CEC-SCJN.
  27. Translating Legal Language and Comparative Law.Jaakko Husa - 2017 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 30 (2):261-272.
    Legal texts are in the focus of both lawyers and translators. This paper discusses the binary opposition of these two views especially in the light of contract law. There is one crucial epistemic difference between the point of view of the translator and the lawyer when it comes to the interpretation of legal texts. In the translator’s view legal text is traditionally conceived as static as to its nature; something that already exists in the form of text. Traditionally, the translator (...)
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  28. Interpreting Straw Man Argumentation.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2017 - Amsterdam: Springer.
    This book shows how research in linguistic pragmatics, philosophy of language, and rhetoric can be connected through argumentation to analyze a recognizably common strategy used in political and everyday conversation, namely the distortion of another’s words in an argumentative exchange. Straw man argumentation refers to the modification of a position by misquoting, misreporting or wrenching the original speaker’s statements from their context in order to attack them more easily or more effectively. Through 63 examples taken from different contexts (including political (...)
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  29. A Theory of Judicial Constitutional Design.Roberto Mancilla - 2017 - International Journal of Political Theory 2 (1):64-88.
    The purpose of this paper is to describe how judges engage in constitutional design, irrespective of legal tradition. I examine in great detail the role of the judge: as a conflict solver, as a member of an institution, as part of the political system and as a human being, for those are factors that intervene in the activities he makes. I later analyze the dynamics that a Constitution can have: the change in their structure conceptualized as interpretation, mutation and resistance (...)
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  30. Soriano-Barabino, Guadalupe : Comparative Law for Legal Translators: Series New Trends in Translation Studies: Peter Lang, Oxford, 2016, Vol. 17, 210 Pp.Javier Moreno-Rivero - 2017 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 30 (4):711-718.
  31. The Speaker Dilemma in Legal Implicatures: Comparisons and Further Issues.Samuele Chilovi - 2016 - In André Ferreira Leite de Paula, Andrés Santacoloma Santacoloma & Gonzalo Villa Rosas (eds.), Truth and Objectivity in Law and Morals II–ARSP-Supplement. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag..
  32. Common Knowledge, Pragmatic Enrichment and Thin Originalism.John Danaher - 2016 - Jurisprudence 7 (2):267-296.
    The meaning of an utterance is often enriched by the pragmatic context in which it is uttered. This is because in ordinary conversations we routinely and uncontroversially compress what we say, safe in the knowledge that those interpreting us will ‘add in’ the content we intend to communicate. Does the same thing hold true in the case of legal utterances like ‘This constitution protects the personal rights of the citizen’ or ‘the parliament shall have the power to lay and collect (...)
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  33. Methodenfrage der Rechtswissenschaft in China: Rückblick und Ausblick.Wei Feng - 2016 - In Yuanshi Bu (ed.), Juristische Methodenlehre in China und Ostasien. pp. 45-75.
    Die Disziplin, die als „Juristische Methodenlehre“ bezeichnet wird, ist gegenwärtig chinesischen Juristen nicht fremd, sie stammt aber ursprünglich aus dem deutschen Sprachraum. In der Literatur finden sich auch verwandte Ausdrücke wie „Juristische Methodologie“, „Juristische Methodik“ bzw.„Methodenlehre der Rechtswissenschaft“. Seit Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts wurde ihre Rezeption in China durch zwei Übersetzungen gekennzeichnet, nämlich die „rechtswissenschaftliche Methodenlehre“ (faxue fangfalun) und die „rechtliche Methodenlehre“ (falü fangfalun). Neben der herkömmlichen Methodenlehre entwickelte sich auch eine jüngere Theorie der juristischen Argumentation, die die weltweite Aufmerksamkeit (...)
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  34. The Rule of Law in the Real World.Paul Gowder - 2016 - New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In The Rule of Law in the Real World, Paul Gowder defends a new conception of the rule of law as the coordinated control of power and demonstrates that the rule of law, thus understood, creates and preserves social equality in a state. In a highly engaging, interdisciplinary text that moves seamlessly from theory to reality, using examples ranging from Ancient Greece through the present, Gowder sheds light on how societies have achieved the rule of law, how they have sustained (...)
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  35. Autonomous Weapons and the Nature of Law and Morality: How Rule-of-Law-Values Require Automation of the Rule of Law.Duncan MacIntosh - 2016 - Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 30 (1):99-117.
    While Autonomous Weapons Systems have obvious military advantages, there are prima facie moral objections to using them. By way of general reply to these objections, I point out similarities between the structure of law and morality on the one hand and of automata on the other. I argue that these, plus the fact that automata can be designed to lack the biases and other failings of humans, require us to automate the formulation, administration, and enforcement of law as much as (...)
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  36. Il Diritto Come Linguaggio (nella Filosofia Analitica Contemporanea).Jose Juan Moreso & Samuele Chilovi - 2016 - In Giorgio Bongiovanni, Giorgio Pino & Corrado Roversi (eds.), Che cosa è il diritto. Ontologie e concezioni del giuridico. Torino: Giappichelli. pp. 373-412.
  37. The Semantics and Pragmatics of 'According to the Law'.Jose Juan Moreso & Samuele Chilovi - 2016 - In Alessandro Capone & Francesca Poggi (eds.), Pragmatics and Law: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer. pp. 61-88.
  38. Independence, Impartiality and Neutrality in Legal Adjudication.Diego M. Papayannis - 2016 - Revus 28:33-52.
    This paper presents an analysis of the various dimensions of independence and impartiality. Among other things, I will argue that the two concepts, both of which are profoundly implicated in the rule of law, can be conceived as values and are perfectly distinguishable from each other. I will also propose a conception of neutrality, as a third distinct value that satisfies the requirement for non-redundancy with regard to independence and impartiality. Hence, judges and arbitrators must be independent, impartial and neutral. (...)
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  39. The Confluence of Philosophy and Law in Applied Ethics.Norbert Paulo - 2016 - Palgrave.
    The law serves functions that are not often taken seriously enough by ethicists, namely feasibility and practicability. A consequence of feasibility is that most laws do not meet the demands of ideal ethical theory. A consequence of practicability is that law requires elaborated and explicit methodologies that determine how to do things with norms. These two consequences form the core idea behind this book, which employs methods from legal theory to inform and examine debates on methodology in applied ethics, particularly (...)
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  40. Reasons of Law: Dworkin on the Legal Decision.Anthony R. Reeves - 2016 - Jurisprudence 7 (2):210-230.
    Ronald Dworkin once identified the basic question of jurisprudence as: ‘What, in general, is a good reason for a decision by a court of law?’ I argue that, over the course of his career, Dworkin gave an essentially sound answer to this question. In fact, he gave a correct answer to a broader question: ‘What is a good reason for a legal decision, generally?’ For judges, officials of executive and administrative agencies, lawyers, non-governmental organizations, and ordinary subjects acting in the (...)
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  41. A Critique of Critical Legal Studies' Claim of Legal Indeterminacy.Ian Carlo Dapalla Benitez - 2015 - Lambert Academic Publishing.
    This paper challenges the Critical Legal Studies (CLS) claims of legal indeterminacy. It shall use a legal formalist logic and language as its main assertion, further maintaining that the CLS claims is only grounded in ambiguity and confusion. CLS is a legal theory that challenges and overturns accepted norms and standards in legal theory and practice. They maintained that law in the historical and contemporary society has an alleged impartiality, and it is used as a tool of privilege and power (...)
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  42. The Normativity of Linguistic Originalism: A Speech Act Analysis.John Danaher - 2015 - Law and Philosophy 34 (4):397-431.
    The debate over the merits of originalism has advanced considerably in recent years, both in terms of its intellectual sophistication and its practical significance. In the process, some prominent originalists—Lawrence Solum and Jeffrey Goldsworthy being the two discussed here—have been at pains to separate out the linguistic and normative components of the theory. For these authors, while it is true that judges and other legal decision-makers ought to be originalists, it is also true that the communicated content of the constitution (...)
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  43. Dworkin's Theoretical Disagreement Argument.Barbara Baum Levenbook - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (1):1-9.
    Dworkin's theoretical disagreement argument, developed in Law's Empire, is presented in that work as the motivator for his interpretive account of law. Like Dworkin's earlier arguments critical of legal positivism, the argument from theoretical disagreement has generated a lively exchange with legal positivists. It has motivated three of them to develop innovative positivist positions. In its original guise, the argument from theoretical disagreement is presented as ‘the semantic sting argument’. However, the argument from theoretical disagreement has more than one version. (...)
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  44. From Indignation to Norms Against Violence in Occupy Geneva: A Case Study for the Problem of the Emergence of Norms.Frédéric Minner - 2015 - Social Science Information 54 (4):497-524.
    Why and how do norms emerge? Which norms emerge and why these ones in particular? Such questions belong to the ‘problem of the emergence of norms’, which consists of an inquiry into the production of norms in social collectives. I address this question through the ethnographic study of the emergence of ‘norms against violence’ in the political collective Occupy Geneva. I do this, first, empirically, with the analysis of my field observations; and, second, theoretically, by discussing my findings. In consequence (...)
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  45. Practical Reason and Legality: Instrumental Political Authority Without Exclusion.Anthony R. Reeves - 2015 - Law and Philosophy 34 (3):257-298.
    In a morally non-ideal legal system, how can law bind its subjects? How can the fact of a norm’s legality make it the case that practical reason is bound by that norm? Moreover, in such circumstances, what is the extent and character of law’s bindingness? I defend here an answer to these questions. I present a non-ideal theory of legality’s ability to produce binding reasons for action. It is not a descriptive account of law and its claims, it is a (...)
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  46. The Evolutionary Path of the Law. [REVIEW]Enrique Guerra-Pujol - 2014 - Indonesian Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (3):878-890.
    What lessons can legal scholars learn from the life and work of W. D. "Bill" Hamilton, a lifelong student of nature? From my small corner of the legal Academia, three aspects of Bill Hamilton’s work in evolutionary biology stand out in particular: (i) Hamilton’s simple and beautiful model of social behavior in terms of costs and benefits; (ii) his fruitful collaboration with the political theorist Robert Axelrod and their unexpected yet elegant solution of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, an important game or (...)
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  47. Janos Jany: Judging in the Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian Legal Traditions: A Comparison of Theory and Practice: Ashgate, Farnham, 2012, X + 231 Pp., ISBN 978-1-4094-3716-1. [REVIEW]Bernard S. Jackson - 2014 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 27 (3):513-517.
    The author has higher degrees in both Law and Iranian Studies, and here presents a comparison of the role of the judge (sometimes linked to ‘jurists’ or ‘legal scholars’, e.g., p. 2) in Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian traditions, including his relationship to experts in legal doctrine (here termed ‘Jurisprudence’) in the various traditions. His principal theoretical aim is to counter the categorisation of these legal traditions as “religious legal systems”, thus “giving the impression that it is religion which is their (...)
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  48. Psychopathy, Genes, and the Criminal Justice System.Paula Kim - 2014 - The Columbia Science and Technology Law Review 15:375-400.
    This Note examines whether, and at which stages, a criminal defendant should be permitted to offer genetic evidence of a predisposition to psychopathy. Drawing on multidisciplinary sources, including the work of legal scholars, neurobiologists, psychologists, and medical researchers, the Note discusses psychopathy, its symptoms, and how it is measured, along with the proposed genetic and environmental causes of the disorder. The Note then examines current evidence rules and trends in the admissibility of genetic evidence at the guilt/innocence phase of criminal (...)
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  49. Smooth and Bumpy Laws.Adam Kolber - 2014 - California Law Review 102:655-690.
    Modest differences in conduct can lead to wildly different legal outcomes. A person deemed slightly negligent when harming another may owe millions of dollars. Had the person been just a bit more cautious, he would owe nothing. Similarly, when self-defense is deemed slightly negligent, a person may spend several years in prison. Had the person been just a bit more cautious, he would have no criminal liability at all. Though the law must draw difficult lines, the lines need not have (...)
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  50. The Binding Force of Nascent Norms of International Law.Anthony R. Reeves - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 28 (1):145-166.
    Demonstrating that a developing norm is not yet well established in international law is frequently thought to show that states are not bound by the norm as law. More precisely, showing that a purported international legal norm has only limited support from well-established international legal sources is normally seen as sufficient to rebut an obligation on the part of subjects to comply with the norm in virtue of its legal status. I contend that this view is mistaken. Nascent norms of (...)
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