Results for 'polarization'

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  1. A photographic miss test method.Optoelectronic Relays As Decoders, Minibar Switch, A. New, Smaller Crossbar Switch, Shunting Type Magnetic Circuit, Relay Industry Savings Resulting From Polarized & Bistable Crystal Can Relay Header Standardization - 1968 - In Peter Koestenbaum (ed.), Proceedings. [San Jose? Calif.,: [San Jose? Calif..
     
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  2. Rational Polarization.Kevin Dorst - 2023 - Philosophical Review 132 (3):355-458.
    Predictable polarization is everywhere: we can often predict how people’s opinions, including our own, will shift over time. Extant theories either neglect the fact that we can predict our own polarization, or explain it through irrational mechanisms. They needn’t. Empirical studies suggest that polarization is predictable when evidence is ambiguous, that is, when the rational response is not obvious. I show how Bayesians should model such ambiguity and then prove that—assuming rational updates are those which obey the (...)
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  3. Understanding Polarization: Meaning, Measures, and Model Evaluation.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, William J. Berger, Graham Sack, Steven Fisher, Carissa Flocken & Bennett Holman - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (1):115-159.
    Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish nine phenomena that may be considered polarization, with suggestions of appropriate measures for each. In the second part of the article, we apply this (...)
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  4.  11
    Polarized message-passing in graph neural networks.Tiantian He, Yang Liu, Yew-Soon Ong, Xiaohu Wu & Xin Luo - 2024 - Artificial Intelligence 331 (C):104129.
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  5.  21
    A Polarization-Containing Ethics of Campaign Advertising.Attila Mráz - 2023 - Analyse & Kritik 45 (1):111-135.
    (OPEN ACCESS) This paper establishes moral duties for intermediaries of political advertising in election campaigns. First, I argue for a collective duty to maintain the democratic quality of elections which entails a duty to contain some forms of political polarization. Second, I show that the focus of campaign ethics on candidates, parties and voters—ignoring the mediators of campaigns—yields mistaken conclusions about how the burdens of the latter collective duty should be distributed. Third, I show why it is fair to (...)
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  6. False polarization: debiasing as applied social epistemology.Tim Kenyon - 2014 - Synthese 191 (11):2529-2547.
    False polarization (FP) is an interpersonal bias on judgement, the effect of which is to lead people in contexts of disagreement to overestimate the differences between their respective views. I propose to treat FP as a problem of applied social epistemology—a barrier to reliable belief-formation in certain social domains—and to ask how best one may debias for FP. This inquiry leads more generally into questions about effective debiasing strategies; on this front, considerable empirical evidence suggests that intuitively attractive strategies (...)
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  7. Understanding Polarization: Meanings, Measures, and Model Evaluation.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, William J. Berger, Graham Sack, Steven Fisher, Carissa Flocken & Bennett Holman - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (1):115-159.
    Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish nine phenomena that may be considered polarization, with suggestions of appropriate measures for each. In the second part of the article, we apply this (...)
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  8.  22
    The polarity effect of evaluative language.Lucien Baumgartner, Pascale Https://Orcidorg Willemsen & Kevin Https://Orcidorg Reuter - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology.
    Recent research on thick terms like “rude” and “friendly” has revealed a polarity effect, according to which the evaluative content of positive thick terms like “friendly” and “courageous” can be more easily canceled than the evaluative content of negative terms like “rude” and “selfish”. In this paper, we study the polarity effect in greater detail. We first demonstrate that the polarity effect is insensitive to manipulations of embeddings (Study 1). Second, we show that the effect occurs not only for thick (...)
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  9. Scientific polarization.Cailin O’Connor & James Owen Weatherall - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):855-875.
    Contemporary societies are often “polarized”, in the sense that sub-groups within these societies hold stably opposing beliefs, even when there is a fact of the matter. Extant models of polarization do not capture the idea that some beliefs are true and others false. Here we present a model, based on the network epistemology framework of Bala and Goyal, 784–811 1998), in which polarization emerges even though agents gather evidence about their beliefs, and true belief yields a pay-off advantage. (...)
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  10.  65
    Polarity and Analogy: Two Types of Argumentation in Early Greek Thought.Geoffrey Ernest Richard Lloyd - 1992 - Hackett Publishing.
    "The book's major parts, one on polarity and the other on analogy, introduce the reader to the patterns of thinking that are fundamental not only to Greek philosophy but also to classical civilization as a whole. As a leading classicist in his own right, Lloyd is an impeccable guide. His sophistication in adducing anthropological parallels to Greek models of polarity and analogy broadens his perspective, making him a forerunner in the study of what we are now used to calling semiotics. (...)
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  11. Polar opposition and the ontology of 'degrees'.Christopher Kennedy - 2001 - Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (1):33-70.
    This paper uses the distribution and interpretation of antonymous adjectives in comparative constructions as an empirical basis to argue that abstract representations of measurement, or ‘degrees’, must be modeled as intervals on a scale, rather than as points, as commonly assumed. I begin by demonstrating that the facts in this domain must be accounted for in terms of the interaction of the semantics of adjectival polarity and the semantics of the comparative, rather than principles governing the (overt) expression of particular (...)
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  12. Evidentialism and belief polarization.Emily C. McWilliams - 2021 - Synthese 198 (8):7165-7196.
    Belief polarization occurs when subjects who disagree about some matter of fact are exposed to a mixed body of evidence that bears on that dispute. While we might expect mutual exposure to common evidence to mitigate disagreement, since the evidence available to subjects comes to consist increasingly of items they have in common, this is not what happens. The subjects’ initial disagreement becomes more pronounced because each person increases confidence in her antecedent belief. Kelly aims to identify the mechanisms (...)
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  13. Interthematic Polarization.Finnur Dellsén - 2024 - American Philosophical Quarterly 61 (1):45-58.
    In recent epistemology, belief polarization is generally defined as a process by which a disagreement on a single proposition becomes more extreme over time. Outside of the philosophical literature, however, ‘polarization’ is often used for a different epistemic phenomenon, namely the process by which people’s beliefs on unrelated topics become increasingly correlated over time. This paper argues that the latter type of polarization, here labeled interthematic polarization, is often rational from each individual’s point of view. This (...)
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  14. Positive polarity - negative polarity.Anna Szabolcsi - 2004 - Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 22 (2):409-452..
    Positive polarity items (PPIs) are generally thought to have the boring property that they cannot scope below negation. The starting point of the paper is the observation that their distribution is significantly more complex; specifically, someone/something-type PPIs share properties with negative polarity items (NPIs). First, these PPIs are disallowed in the same environments that license yet type NPIs; second, adding any NPI-licenser rescues the illegitimate constellation. This leads to the conclusion that these PPIs have the combined properties of yet-type and (...)
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  15. Polarity Judgments: An empirical view.Paul Dedecker, Erik Larsson & Andrea Martin - manuscript
    An electronic poster from "Polarity from Different Perspectives," New York University, 2005. The authors present an experiment that investigated to what extent six negative polarity items (slept a wink, in ages, ever, much, at all, and yet) are licensed by 9 potential licensers.
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  16. Polarization and Belief Dynamics in the Black and White Communities: An Agent-Based Network Model from the Data.Patrick Grim, Stephen B. Thomas, Stephen Fisher, Christopher Reade, Daniel J. Singer, Mary A. Garza, Craig S. Fryer & Jamie Chatman - 2012 - In Christoph Adami, David M. Bryson, Charles Offria & Robert T. Pennock (eds.), Artificial Life 13. MIT Press.
    Public health care interventions—regarding vaccination, obesity, and HIV, for example—standardly take the form of information dissemination across a community. But information networks can vary importantly between different ethnic communities, as can levels of trust in information from different sources. We use data from the Greater Pittsburgh Random Household Health Survey to construct models of information networks for White and Black communities--models which reflect the degree of information contact between individuals, with degrees of trust in information from various sources correlated with (...)
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  17.  54
    Polarization in groups of Bayesian agents.Josefine Pallavicini, Bjørn Hallsson & Klemens Kappel - 2018 - Synthese 198 (1):1-55.
    In this paper we present the results of a simulation study of credence developments in groups of communicating Bayesian agents, as they update their beliefs about a given proposition p. Based on the empirical literature, one would assume that these groups of rational agents would converge on a view over time, or at least that they would not polarize. This paper presents and discusses surprising evidence that this is not true. Our simulation study shows that these groups of Bayesian agents (...)
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  18. Diversity, Polarization, and Dynamic Structures: A Structural Turn in Social Contract Theory.Sahar Heydari Fard - 2024 - In Michael Moehler & John Thrasher (eds.), New Approaches to Social Contract Theory: Liberty, Equality, Diversity, and the Open Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 101-122.
    In this paper, I argue in favor of a structural turn in social contract theory. More precisely, I argue that dealing with the complex and dynamic nature of the social world requires an emphasis on social structures greater than what contractarians often consider. I take structures to be the dynamic and non-random networks of interdependence among all active components that shape society. I also constrain my focus to a growing body of literature on diversity that explores plausible contractarian alternatives given (...)
     
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  19.  75
    Political polarization: Radicalism and immune beliefs.Manuel Almagro - 2023 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 49 (3):309-331.
    When public opinion gets polarized, the population’s beliefs can experience two different changes: they can become more extreme in their contents or they can be held with greater confidence. These two possibilities point to two different understandings of the rupture that characterizes political polarization: extremism and radicalism. In this article, I show that from the close examination of the best available evidence regarding how we get polarized, it follows that the pernicious type of political polarization has more to (...)
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  20. Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences.Sebastian Löbner - 2000 - Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence is false, we need (...)
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  21. Persistent Disagreement and Polarization in a Bayesian Setting.Michael Nielsen & Rush T. Stewart - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (1):51-78.
    For two ideally rational agents, does learning a finite amount of shared evidence necessitate agreement? No. But does it at least guard against belief polarization, the case in which their opinions get further apart? No. OK, but are rational agents guaranteed to avoid polarization if they have access to an infinite, increasing stream of shared evidence? No.
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  22. Rational social and political polarization.Daniel J. Singer, Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Bennett Holman, Jiin Jung, Karen Kovaka, Anika Ranginani & William J. Berger - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2243-2267.
    Public discussions of political and social issues are often characterized by deep and persistent polarization. In social psychology, it’s standard to treat belief polarization as the product of epistemic irrationality. In contrast, we argue that the persistent disagreement that grounds political and social polarization can be produced by epistemically rational agents, when those agents have limited cognitive resources. Using an agent-based model of group deliberation, we show that groups of deliberating agents using coherence-based strategies for managing their (...)
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  23.  8
    Politics, Polarity, and Peace.Will Barnes (ed.) - 2023 - Netherlands: Brill Rodopi.
    Polarization simplifies and deforms language, ideas, and people and reduces social life into an oppositional binary based on harmful “us versus them” narratives. What can we do to bring about a transformation away from polarity to peace? What are the polarities obscuring the path to peace? Is it a question of belief versus belief? Does it make sense to appeal to reason, discourse, and compromise in a polarized climate? What is the difference between harmful and helpful polarities? In the (...)
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  24.  33
    Negative polarity as scope marking.Chris Barker - 2018 - Linguistics and Philosophy 41 (5):483-510.
    What is the communicative value of negative polarity? That is, why do so many languages maintain a stock of special indefinites that occur only in a proper subset of the contexts in which ordinary indefinites can appear? Previous answers include: marking the validity of downward inferences; marking the invalidity of veridical inferences; or triggering strengthening implications. My starting point for exploring a new answer is the fact that an NPI must always take narrow scope with respect to its licensing context. (...)
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  25.  4
    Tensione polare e lettura del reale: il contributo di Georg Simmel.Alessandro Clemenzia - 2021 - Milano: Mimesis.
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  26. The polarized Ramsey’s theorem.Damir D. Dzhafarov & Jeffry L. Hirst - 2009 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 48 (2):141-157.
    We study the effective and proof-theoretic content of the polarized Ramsey’s theorem, a variant of Ramsey’s theorem obtained by relaxing the definition of homogeneous set. Our investigation yields a new characterization of Ramsey’s theorem in all exponents, and produces several combinatorial principles which, modulo bounding for ${\Sigma^0_2}$ formulas, lie (possibly not strictly) between Ramsey’s theorem for pairs and the stable Ramsey’s theorem for pairs.
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  27.  13
    Cell Polarity and Notch Signaling: Linked by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Neuralized?Gantas Perez-Mockus & Francois Schweisguth - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (11):1700128.
    Notch is a mechanosensitive receptor that requires direct cell–cell contact for its activation. Both the strength and the range of notch signaling depend on the size and geometry of the contact sites between cells. These properties of cell–cell contacts in turn depend on cell shape and polarity. At the molecular level, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized links receptor activation with epithelial cell remodeling. Neur regulates the endocytosis of the Notch ligand Delta, hence Notch activation. It also targets the apical polarity (...)
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    Cell Polarity and Notch Signaling: Linked by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Neuralized?Gantas Perez-Mockus & Francois Schweisguth - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (11):1700128.
    Notch is a mechanosensitive receptor that requires direct cell–cell contact for its activation. Both the strength and the range of notch signaling depend on the size and geometry of the contact sites between cells. These properties of cell–cell contacts in turn depend on cell shape and polarity. At the molecular level, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized links receptor activation with epithelial cell remodeling. Neur regulates the endocytosis of the Notch ligand Delta, hence Notch activation. It also targets the apical polarity (...)
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  29.  72
    Bi-polar obligation.Stephen Darwall - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:333.
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  30. Polarization and trust in the evolution of vaccine discourse on Twitter during COVID-19.Ignacio Ojea Quintana, Ritsaart Willem Peter Reimann, Marc Cheong, Mark Robert Alfano & Colin Klein - 2022 - PLoS ONE 12 (17):e0277292.
    Trust in vaccination is eroding, and attitudes about vaccination have become more polarized. This is an observational study of Twitter analyzing the impact that COVID-19 had on vaccine discourse. We identify the actors, the language they use, how their language changed, and what can explain this change. First, we find that authors cluster into several large, interpretable groups, and that the discourse was greatly affected by American partisan politics. Over the course of our study, both Republicans and Democrats entered the (...)
     
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  31.  54
    Polarized Spacetime Foam.V. Dzhunushaliev - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (7):1069-1090.
    An approximate model of a spacetime foam is presented. It is supposed that in the spacetime foam each quantum handle is like to an electric dipole and therefore the spacetime foam is similar to a dielectric. If we neglect of linear sizes of the quantum handle then it can be described with an operator containing a Grassman number and either a scalar or a spinor field. For both fields the Lagrangian is presented. For the scalar field it is the dilaton (...)
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  32.  31
    Polarity Semantics for Negation as a Modal Operator.Yuanlei Lin & Minghui Ma - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (5):877-902.
    The minimal weakening \ of Belnap-Dunn logic under the polarity semantics for negation as a modal operator is formulated as a sequent system which is characterized by the class of all birelational frames. Some extensions of \ with additional sequents as axioms are introduced. In particular, all three modal negation logics characterized by a frame with a single state are formalized as extensions of \. These logics have the finite model property and they are decidable.
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  33.  51
    Belief polarization is not always irrational.Alan Jern, Kai-min K. Chang & Charles Kemp - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (2):206-224.
  34.  4
    Quantum Polar Duality and the Symplectic Camel: A New Geometric Approach to Quantization.Maurice A. De Gosson - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (3):1-39.
    We define and study the notion of quantum polarity, which is a kind of geometric Fourier transform between sets of positions and sets of momenta. Extending previous work of ours, we show that the orthogonal projections of the covariance ellipsoid of a quantum state on the configuration and momentum spaces form what we call a dual quantum pair. We thereafter show that quantum polarity allows solving the Pauli reconstruction problem for Gaussian wavefunctions. The notion of quantum polarity exhibits a strong (...)
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  35.  24
    Trust in a Polarized Age.Kevin Vallier - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    Americans today don't trust each other and their institutions as much as they once did, fueling destructive ideological conflicts and hardened partisanship. In Trust in a Polarized Age, political philosopher Kevin Vallier argues that to build social trust and reduce polarization, we must strengthen liberal democratic institutions--high-quality governance, procedural fairness, markets, social welfare programs, freedom of association, and democracy. These institutions not only create trust, they do so justly, by recognizing and respecting our basic rights.
  36.  93
    The Philosophy of Group Polarization: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Psychology.Fernando Broncano-Berrocal & J. Adam Carter - 2021 - New York: Routledge. Edited by J. Adam Carter.
    Group polarization—roughly, the tendency of groups to incline towards more extreme positions than initially held by their individual members— has been rigorously studied by social psychol- ogists, though in a way that has overlooked important philosophical questions about this phenomenon which remain unexplored. Two such salient questions are metaphysical and epistemological, respectively. From a metaphysical point of view, can group polarization, understood as an epistemic feature of a group, be reduced to epistemic features of its individual members? Relatedly, (...)
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  37.  73
    Negative contexts: collocation, polarity and multiple negation.Ton van der Wouden - 1997 - New York: Routledge.
    Negative polarity is one of the more elusive aspects of linguistics and a subject which has been gaining in importance in recent years. Written from within the well-defined theoretical framework of Generalized Quantifiers, the three main areas considered in this study are collocations, polarity items and multiple negations. In this mature piece of research, van der Wouden takes into account, not only semantic and syntactic considerations, but also to a large extent, pragmatic ones illustrating a wide array of linguistic approaches.
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  38.  23
    Polar Coordinate Analysis of Relationships With Teammates, Areas of the Pitch, and Dynamic Play in Soccer: A Study of Xabi Alonso.Rubén Maneiro Dios & Mario Amatria Jiménez - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  39.  19
    Polarized trafficking provides spatial cues for planar cell polarization within a tissue.Milos Galic & Maja Matis - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (6):678-686.
    Planar cell polarity, the polarization of cells within the plane of the epithelium, orthogonal to the apical‐basal axis, is essential for a growing list of developmental events, and – over the last 15 years – has evolved from a little‐studied curiosity in Drosophila to the subject of a substantial research enterprise. In that time, it has been recognized that two molecular systems are responsible for polarization of most tissues: Both the “core” Frizzled system and the “global” Fat/Dachsous/Four‐jointed system (...)
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  40. Was it Polarization or Propaganda?C. Thi Nguyen - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Research 46:173-191.
    According to some, the current political fracture is best described as political polarization – where extremism and political separation infest an entire whole population. Political polarization accounts often point to the psychological phenomenon of belief polarization – where being in a like-minded groups tends to boost confidence. The political polarization story is an essentially symmetrical one, where both sides are subject to the same basic dividing forces and cognitive biases, and are approximately as blame-worthy. On a (...)
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  41.  18
    Negative polarity illusions and the format of hierarchical encodings in memory.Dan Parker & Colin Phillips - 2016 - Cognition 157:321-339.
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  42.  33
    Polarity and Analogy.D. W. Hamlyn & G. E. R. Lloyd - 1968 - Philosophical Review 77 (2):242.
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  43.  29
    A polarized partition relation using elementary substructures.Albin L. Jones - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (4):1491-1498.
    Working in ZFC, we show that for any infinite cardinal κ and ordinal $\gamma the polarized partition relation $\[\begin{pmatrix} (2^{ → $\[\begin{pmatrix}(2^{ holds. Our proof of this relation involves the use of elementary substructures of set models of large fragments of ZFC.
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  44. Negative polarity and grammatical representation.Marcia C. Linebarger - 1987 - Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (3):325 - 387.
  45.  12
    Evaluative polarity words in risky choice framing.Annika Wallin, Carita Paradis & Katsikopoulos Konstantinos - 2016 - Journal of Pragmatics 106:20-38.
    This article is concerned with how we make decisions based on how problems are presented to us and the effect that the framing of the problem might have on our choices. Current philosophical and psychological accounts of the framing effect in experiments such as the Asian Disease Problem concern reference points and domains. We question the importance of reference points and domains. Instead, we adopt a linguistic perspective focussing on the role of the evaluative polarity evoked by the words - (...)
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  46.  14
    Processing Polarity: How the Ungrammatical Intrudes on the Grammatical.Shravan Vasishth, Sven Brüssow, Richard L. Lewis & Heiner Drenhaus - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):685-712.
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  47.  22
    Beyond polarization: using Q methodology to explore stakeholders’ views on pesticide use, and related risks for agricultural workers, in Washington State’s tree fruit industry.Nadine Lehrer & Gretchen Sneegas - 2018 - Agriculture and Human Values 35 (1):131-147.
    Controversies in food and agriculture abound, with many portrayed as conflicts between polarized viewpoints. Framing such controversies as dichotomies, however, can at times obscure what might be a plurality of views and potential common ground on the subject. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders’ views about pesticide safety, agricultural worker exposure, and human health concerns in the tree fruit industry of central Washington State. Using a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking agricultural workers, industry representatives, state agencies, educators, and (...)
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  48. The Polarization of the Concepts Si (Private Interest) and Gong (Public Interest) in Early Chinese Thought.Erica Brindley - 2013 - Asia Major 26 (2).
    Many scholars of early China agree that the fourth century bce witnessed a surge in intellectual interest in concepts that have been dubbed the self, “subjectivity,” the private realm, and the body. As such a sphere came into greater focus in intellectual circles, so did a new discourse that evaluated what it meant to benefit or deprive the self and its related parts. The famous statement purportedly by Yang Zhu 楊朱 (or Yangzi 楊子) that claims he was not willing to (...)
     
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  49. Responding to alternative and polar questions.María Biezma & Kyle Rawlins - 2012 - Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (5):361-406.
    This paper gives an account of the differences between polar and alternative questions, as well as an account of the division of labor between compositional semantics and pragmatics in interpreting these types of questions. Alternative questions involve a strong exhaustivity presupposition for the mentioned alternatives. We derive this compositionally from the meaning of the final falling tone and its interaction with the pragmatics of questioning in discourse. Alternative questions are exhaustive in two ways: they exhaust the space of epistemic possibilities, (...)
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  50. Polarity sensitivity as lexical semantics.M. Israel - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (6):619 - 666.
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