Revered by some as the most important twentieth century theorist of free society, Friedrich A. Hayek has been reviled by others as a mere reactionary. Impartial throughout, the author offers a clear exposition and balanced assessment that judges Hayek's theory by its own lights. The author argues that the key to understanding Hayek lies in an appreciation of the proper link between descriptive social science and normative political theory. He probes the idea of a spontaneous order and other notions central (...) to Hayek's thought, and concludes that they are unable to provide the "scientific" foundation Hayek seeks for his liberalism. By drawing out the distinctive character of Hayek's thought, the author presents a new and more accurate picture of this important social and political theorist. (shrink)
Abstract In Hayek's Social and Political Thought, RolandKley argues that Hayek's defense of capitalism is instrumentalist: that is, that Hayek sees market societies as efficient mechanisms that have no independent ethical justification. But in fact, Hayek does have such a standard, one that is expressed in the notion of a discipline of freedom. This standard derives from the moral anthropology of the liberal?conservative tradition.
This book represents the attempt to provide the student in the one semester introductory course in logic with 1. a handbook of the fundamentals of the science, brief and succinct enough to be practical and yet substantial enough to provide him with the solid foundation of the traditional from which to approach the “mysteries” of modern developments in the field. 2. A working knowledge of the science, out of which there may be built the personal equipment with which the student (...) may be able to solve for himself the problems posed by the impact of the new on the old in the field of logic. 3. Sufficient problem material to enable the student to learn the use of logic, so that in reconciling in his own mind the new and the old, the modern and the traditional, he may do this logically. (shrink)
Philosophers of religion divide neatly into two camps on the problem of evil: those who think it fatal to the concept of a loving God and those who do not. The latter have established a wide array of defensive positions down through the centuries, but none that has proved impregnable to sceptical attack. In his new book Mr Hick wisely abandons these older fortifications and falls back on highly mobile reserves. Not for him the ‘Fall of Man’ thesis, with its (...) unexplained choice to give up finite perfection; nor the Plotinian principle of plenitude, evil being an inevitable petering out of God's goodness; nor the ‘aesthetic’ gambit where the horrors of life constitute mere ‘shadows’ designed to highlight the beauty of creation; nor the ‘cosmic Toryism’, as someone called it, of Leibniz's ‘best of all possible worlds’; nor even, one might say gratefully, the gaseous obscurantism of Karl Barth's ‘das Nichtige’. All of these defences, and others besides, Mr Hick lumps together under what he calls ‘the majority report’ in Christian theodicy: the Augustinian tradition or type. In place of these venerable ramparts Hick elects the more fluid defence afforded, he thinks, by Irenaeus, Eastern Christianity and, in modern times, by Schleiermacher and a few contemporary thinkers. (shrink)
With his clear and accessible prose, impeccable scholarship, and balanced Judgment, Roland Teske, SJ, has been an influential and important voice in Medieval philosophy for more than thirty years. This volume, in his honour, brings together more than a dozen essays on central metaphysical and theological themes in Augustine and other medieval thinkers. The authors, listed below, are noted scholars who draw upon Teskes work, reflect on it, go beyond it, and at times even disagree with it, but always (...) in a spirit of respectful co-operation, and always with the aim of getting at the truth. Essays on Augustine contributed by Gerald Bonner, Charles Brittain, Joseph Koterski, SJ, Joseph T. Lienhard, SJ, David Vincent Meconi, SJ, Ann A. Pang-White, Frederick Van Fleteren, Dorothea Weber, and James Wetzel. Essays on Bernard of Clairvaux, William of Auvergne, and other medieval themes contributed by John P. Doyle, William Harmless, SJ, John A. Laumakis, Edward P. Mahoney, and Philipp W. Rosemann. (shrink)
This book brings together the great majority of Barthes's interviews that originally appeared in French in _Le Figaro Littéraire, Cahiers du Cinéma, France-Observateur, L'Express_, and elsewhere. Barthes replied to questions—on the cinema, on his own works, on fashion, writing, and criticism—in his unique voice; here we have Barthes in conversation, speaking directly, with all his individuality. These interviews provide an insight into the rich, probing intelligence of one of the great and influential minds of our time.
[We understand by ‘ person ’] a thinking intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself, as itself, the same thinking thing, in different times and places… . There has been a tendency among philosophers ever since Locke to conflate the problem of the self with the problem of personal identity, and since memory is clearly essential to a sense of one's identity through time, it is easy to suppose that having a concept of self requires memory (...) too. (shrink)
Rather than a “logical assertion,” Whitehead described a proposition as a “lure for feeling” for a collectivity to come. The unique contributions in Propositions in the Making articulate the newest reaches of Whiteheadian propositions for a postmodern world.
Drawing selectively from reform movements of the past and relating them to the unique needs of today's parents and children, Jane Martin presents a philosophy of education that is responsive to America's changed and changing realities. As more and more parents enter the workforce, the historic role of the domestic sphere in the education and development of children is drastically reduced. Consequently, Martin advocates removing the barriers between the school and the home.
Wir haben die Covid-19 Pandemie nicht nur als eine medizinische Krise erlebt, sondern auch als eine Krise der Freiheit. Die Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung des Corona-Virus waren Ergebnisse politischer Abwägungen, in denen auch Grundfreiheiten zur Disposition standen. Die Pandemie und die auf sie reagierenden politischen Strategien der Gegenwehr haben auf eine ungewohnte Weise in unser Erleben von Räumen individueller und interpersonaler Freiheit eingewirkt. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, wie die Strategien zur Bewältigung der Pandemie politisch vermittelt wurden, welche Wahrnehmungen sie (...) hervorriefen und was sich an ihnen über die globale Krise des Liberalismus und ein global sich wandelndes Verständnis von Governance ablesen lässt. (shrink)
This book describes what an “art of multiculturalism” could be and how in turn multiculturalism could be conceived as a form of art. It focuses on the early and middle work of Indian-born U.S. writer Bharati Mukherjee, in particular on her understanding of the “fusion” of literature and painting as a tool to inspire the creation of a “new global society” by empowering minorities through fostering and multiplying “differences in unity” and “unities in difference”. The book includes, in condensed ways, (...) an explanation of Mukherjee’s use of ancient Indian painting techniques for postmodern writing; and it provides a short introduction to the relation between multiculturalism, postmodernity and “imaginal politics”. The book is written in an easy to read style accessible to all interested in the topic: high school and university students and teachers; those generally interested in the interface between literature, the arts and politics; and specialists in multicultural studies and global and international studies. The book is particularly suited to use in teaching. (shrink)
The experimental philosophy movement advocates the use of empirical methods in philosophy. The methods most often discussed and in fact employed in experimental philosophy are appropriated from the experimental paradigm in psychology. But there is a variety of other (at least partly) empirical methods from various disciplines that are and others that could be used in philosophy. The paper explores the application of corpus analysis to philosophical issues. Although the method is well established in linguistics, there are only a few (...) tentative attempts of philosophers to utilise it. Examples are introduced and the merit of corpus analysis is compared to that of using general internet search engines and questionnaires for similar purposes. (shrink)
Demokratie? Haben wir gar nicht, sagen die einen. Funktioniert nicht, sagen andere. Wird untergehen, sagen dritte. Muss völlig umgekrempelt werden, sagen vierte. Wer hat recht? Das kann nur sagen, wer weiß, was Demokratie ist. Na klar, Wahlen, Bundestag und so weiter. Aber was ist Demokratie im Kern? Und vor allem: Worin liegt der Wert der Demokratie? Was muss sich ändern? Der Philosoph Roland Kipke gibt Antworten auf diese Fragen. Er räumt mit einer Fülle falscher Erwartungen auf, bringt die Demokratie (...) auf den Punkt und entwickelt Ideen für die Zukunft – schwungvoll und verständlich. Eine glasklare Darstellung und ein leidenschaftliches Plädoyer für die Demokratie. (shrink)
Roland Végső opens up a new debate in favour of abandoning the very idea of the world in both philosophy and politics. Opening with a reconsideration of the Heideggerian critique of worldlessness, he traces the overlooked history of worldlessness in Hannah Arendt, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida and Alain Badiou.
The Garden of Reality addresses urgent questions around the relativity of religious truth, religious pluralism, transreligious discourse, postmodern cosmology, and interspiritual mysticism in order to argue that relativity and multiplicity are inevitable for the multireligious conviviality and peace of the humanity of the future.
This book investigates what Bataille, in "The Pineal Eye," calls mythological representation: the mythological anthropology with which this unusual thinker wished to outflank and undo scientific anthropology. Gasché probes that anthropology by situating Bataille's thought with respect to the quatrumvirate of Schelling, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Freud. He begins by showing what Bataille's understanding of the mythological owes to Schelling. Drawing on Hegel, Nietzsche, and Freud, he then explores the notion of image that constitutes the sort of representation that Bataille's innovative (...) approach entails. Gasché concludes that Bataille's mythological anthropology takes on Hegel's phenomenology in a systematic fashion. By reading it backwards, he not only dismantles its architecture, he also ties each level to the preceding one, replacing the idealities of philosophy with the phantasmatic representations of what he dubs "low materialism." Phenomenology, Gasché argues, thus paves the way for a new "science" of phantasms. (shrink)
The task this essay set for itself is a reconsideration of the status of the “object” in contemporary forms of philosophical realism that postulate “flat ontologies.” I argue that the theoretical construction of the “object” often comes about in these ontologies through a fetishistic disavowal that effectively makes these objects speak. As a result, the construction of the generalized field of objectivity passes through a double articulation. On the one hand, since contemporary realism defines itself as a rejection of all (...) forms of linguistic idealism, it also tries to shift the focus away from human language as the primary medium of the construction of objectivity. On the other hand, however, this demotion of language proceeds in these works simultaneously with the elevation of the concept of “translation” to an ontological principle: these non-linguistic objects exist through their perpetual translations of each other. The fetishistic disavowal at work in realism introduces the modality of fiction into the very heart of objectivity. This fictional dimension constitutive of objectivity can be described through an engagement of the Kantian notion of “purposiveness.” I argue that these translations that supposedly constitute objectivity rest on the fundamental presupposition that guides the entire Kantian system: we must presuppose purposiveness even where we can detect no evidence of it at all. Hence, today, the theory of the “democracy of objects” must be supplemented by its necessary correlate, a theory of the “conspiracy of objects.”. (shrink)
Introduction to Engineering Ethics provides the background for discussion of the basic issues in engineering ethics. Emphasis is given to the moral problems engineers face in the corporate setting. It places those issues within a philosophical framework, and it seems to exhibit both their social importance and their intellectual challenge. The primary goal is to stimulate critical and responsible reflection on moral issues surrounding engineering practice and to provide the conceptual tools necessary for pursuing those issues. As per new ABET (...) 2000 guidelines, more and more introductory engineering courses cover engineering ethics as part of their instruction. Students preparing to function within the engineering profession need to be introduced to the basic issues in engineering ethics. This book places those issues within a wider philosophical framework than has been customary in the past and aims to stimulate critical and responsible reflection on the moral issues surrounding engineering practice and to provide the conceptual tools necessary for pursuing those issues. (shrink)
The structural geologic interpretation of reflection seismic data is affected by conceptual uncertainty, particularly in challenging onshore settings. This uncertainty can be significantly reduced by the integration of cross-section restoration and balancing techniques into the seismic interpretation workflow. Moreover, these techniques define a solid and comprehensive basis, grounding the interpretation and allowing a closer investigation of the deformation history that led to the interpreted structures. These benefits are demonstrated on the basis of a case study from the eastern Jura Mountains (...) in northern Switzerland. This mountain range was formed by a thin-skinned foreland fold-and-thrust belt with a multiphase prethrusting tectonic history. Despite significant seismic acquisition and processing efforts, seismic imaging of the strongly deformed parts of the belt widely remains ambiguous. We have developed a detailed systematic interpretation workflow that is exemplified here for a single seismic profile across the Jura Main Thrust. Classical cross-section balancing techniques of equal bed lengths and areas were applied to validate and reinterpret the given seismic interpretation. Our results suggest that most of the observed structures resulted from thin-skinned deformation along a basal décollement in Lower Triassic evaporites, which is generally inferred for the Jura Mountains. Nevertheless, secondary detachment levels in above lying strata have to be considered as well. The stepwise restoration of the analyzed cross section points toward different styles of thin-skinned deformation and possibly several episodes of earlier basement-rooted faulting events, which are indicated by subtle stratigraphic thickness changes. In summary, our workflow allowed us to significantly improve the original seismic interpretation, highlight specific deformation styles, and illuminate possible prethrusting deformation events that would otherwise be easily overlooked. (shrink)
Biographisches durchzieht Fontanes vielgestaltige literarische Arbeit wie ein roter Faden. Diesem wird in der Publikation, an der sich international renommierte Fontane-Forscher beteiligten, erstmals nachgegangen. Bis jetzt eher vernachlassigte Werkteile erfahren nun eine grundlichere Untersuchung, und beinahe alle Beitrage erlauben Ruckschlusse auf das erzahlerische Hauptwerk. Unter Einbeziehung der Biographieforschung und anderer Fachdisziplinen eroffnet sich ein neuer, produktiver Zugang zu Fontanes Gesamtwerk.
As philosophers throughout the ages have asked: What is justice? What is truth? What is art? What is law? In _Education Reconfigured_, the internationally acclaimed philosopher of education, Jane Roland Martin, now asks: What is education? In answer, she puts forward a unified theory that casts education in a brand new light. Martin’s "theory of education as encounter" places culture alongside the individual at the heart of the educational process, thus responding to the call John Dewey made over a (...) century ago for an enlarged outlook on education. Look through her theory’s lens and you can see that education takes place not only in school but at home, on the street, in the mall—everywhere and all the time. Look through that lens and you can see that education does not always spell improvement; rather, it can be for the better or the worse. Indeed, you can see that education is inevitably a maker and shaper of both individuals and cultures. Above all, Martin’s new educational paradigm reveals that education is too important to be left solely to the professionals; that it is one of the great forces in human society and, as such, deserves the attention and demands the vigilance of every thoughtful person. (shrink)