Chinese Philosophy

Edited by JeeLoo Liu (California State University, Fullerton)
About this topic
Summary Chinese philosophy is built on the metaphysical assumption that qi (traditionally translated as “material force” or “vital energy”) pervades the Universe and all things are composed of qi. This ontology leads to a conception of the world as an organic whole, in which everything is interconnected – from nature to the human world, from inorganic objects to sensible things. Chinese philosophers had a purely this-worldly concern; their goal was to improve on the world given. Originated in the primitive form of nature worship, ancient Chinese developed a sense of admiration and affection towards the natural world around them. This religious spirit prompted a philosophical pursuit of the order of the universe and the ontological foundation for all existence. Ancient Chinese thinkers had an intense desire to find the best way to make the right political decisions, to alleviate social problems, and to properly conduct themselves. Sociopolitical philosophy and ethics are thus the two core areas in Chinese philosophy. At the same time, since social structure, political polity and human conduct should all cohere with the cosmic order, Chinese philosophy is fundamentally rooted in its cosmology. This cosmology is manifested mostly in the philosophy of the Yijing. Chinese cosmology is built on the belief that there is a cosmic order or cosmic pattern, which serves not only as the source for all existence, but also as the governing rule for all cosmic developments. This pattern was commonly referred to as ‘Dao’ by ancient philosophers. The pursuit ofDao would become an ultimate goal shared by all Chinese philosophers. Under the holistic cosmic picture, the cosmic order also governs human affairs. Consequently, Dao takes on a normative connotation: it signifies the right way for human affairs and the normative principle for human conduct. In this sense, Daostands for the highest moral precept for human beings. There are three main branches in Chinese philosophy – Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Each school has its distinct answer to the quest of ultimate reality and the roles humans should play in this world. To educate others what constitutes virtue and to inspire others to act in accordance with Dao, was thus the self-assigned mission for most Chinese philosophers.
Key works The first systematic introduction to Chinese philosophy is the two-volume set Fung Yu-lan 1997, first published in the 1930s. This book is arguably the most influential introduction to the history of Chinese philosophy, even though some of Fung’s analyses are often contested by contemporary Chinese scholars. The two-volume set has been translated into English by Derk Bodde (Feng & Bodde 1983). A condensed and more accessible version of Fung’s History is also translated by Derk Bodde (Feng 1948). Among Chinese scholars, Lao 2005’s thee-volume (in four books) set is widely respected and frequently consulted. A more recent and analytic introduction to Chinese philosophy is Liu 2006. This book does not cover the history of Chinese philosophy beyond Chinese Buddhism, however. Mou 2008 has a more comprehensive coverage of all eras in the history of Chinese philosophy, but at the cost of sacrificing philosophical details. For readers who cannot read primary Chinese texts, Chan 1963 is a good source of representative selections of Chinese philosophical works.
Introductions

Chan 1963 provides a comprehensive coverage and fairly representative selections of all major philosophers or philosophical schools in Chinese history. The editor provides succinct introductions for each selection. It is a must-have sourcebook for scholars who can read only English, even though the old-fashioned Wade-Giles spelling of Chinese names in this book could create confusion for beginners.  

Feng & Bodde 1983 provides a comprehensive coverage of various schools in the history of Chinese philosophy. At times, the introduction is packed with quotes, with little analysis. It is nonetheless an authoritative introduction to this date.

Feng 1948 is not just an abridgment of Feng & Bodde 1983. Fung wrote this short history with the aim to give a complete picture of Chinese philosophical history in a nutshell. This book is far more accessible and interesting than Feng & Bodde 1983. Originally published in New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Lao Ssu-Kwang勞思光, Xinbian Zhongguo Zhexue Shi新編中國哲學史. 3 volumes. Guangxi, China: Guanxi shifandaxue chubanshe, 2005.

There is no English translation of this three-volume set. This is a revised version of Lao’s famed History of Chinese Philosophy (Zhongguo zhexue shi 中國哲學史), originally published in Hong Kong: Youlian chubanshe, 1968. Lao’s History provides detailed logical analysis of the philosophical problems and theories of all the schools covered in this book. It is widely referred to by Chinese scholars.

Liu 2006 provides an up-to-date introduction to Chinese philosophy in the analytic style. In its analysis of primary texts, it also reflects topics and discourses on Chinese philosophy in contemporary scholarship in English. The scope of this book covers classical philosophical schools and four major schools in Chinese Buddhism.

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  1. Soteriological Mereology in the Pāli Discourses, Buddhaghosa, and Huayan Buddhism.Nicholaos Jones - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-27.
    Extant discussions of Buddhist mereology give minimal attention to the soteriological significance of denying the reality of wholes. This is unfortunate, because the connection between mereology and soteriological is both significant and problematic. The connection is significant, because it supports an argument for the unreality of composite wholes that does not depend upon any claim about the nature of wholes. The connection is also problematic, because some Buddhists endorse the soteriological relevance of mereology despite admitting that composite wholes are real. (...)
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  2. Recharacterizing the Confucian Golden Rule: The Advent of the Post-Confucius Formula and a Shift of Focus from Ren to Li.Junghwan Lee - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-20.
    The “social-political-hierarchical” qualifications have long been identified as the essential features of the Confucian golden rule. This essay challenges this prevailing characterization by revealing the relation and differences between Confucius’ original shu 恕 and a series of post-Confucius reformulations in ancient Confucianism. Specifically, the premise of equality, which underlies Confucius’ formulation of shu in correlation with ren 仁, rendered shu incompatible with asymmetrical relationships. Besides the advantage of overcoming this limitation by adapting the golden rule structure of shu to specified (...)
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  3. Incipient Cultural Evolution in the Xunzi as Solution to the Liyi Origin Problem.Jordan B. Martin - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-25.
    Xunzi 荀子 provided naturalistic answers to questions regarding human sociality and our characteristic “groupishness” (qun 羣). Central to his theories were so-called “social divisions and righteousness” (fenyi 分義), which can be interpreted as a uniquely human package of “cultural technology” produced via cultural evolution to suppress intragroup conflict stemming from what Xunzi calls “the mind of covetous comparison” (liangyi zhi xin 兩疑之心). For Xunzi, fenyi is the uniquely human attribute which kickstarts a salutary causal chain which facilitates prosociality and the (...)
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  4. The Problem of Looted Artifacts in Chinese Studies: A Rejoinder to Critics.Paul R. Goldin - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-7.
    Ten years after the publication of “Heng Xian and the Problem of Studying Looted Artifacts” in Dao, this rejoinder to critics begins by recapitulating my original argument, then considers the leading objections that have appeared in the interim. After dispensing with two trivial and ad hominem responses (that I am a hypocrite and an imperialist), the discussion focuses on the one serious objection, namely, that the benefits of studying looted artifacts outweigh the costs. I conclude with my reasons for disagreeing (...)
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  5. Moral Perfection as the Counterfeit of Virtue.Thorian R. Harris - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-19.
    It is sometimes assumed that the best people—those whom it would be appropriate to admire and emulate—ought to be free of all moral defects. Numerous contemporary scholars have attributed this assumption to the early Confucian philosophers with moral perfection said to be a necessary condition for sagehood. Drawing upon the early Confucian literature I will argue in support of two claims. The first is that the early Confucians did not insist on the moral perfection of the sage; on the contrary, (...)
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  6. “Having Respect for” and “Being Respectful”: A Comparison between the Kantian Conception and the Confucian Conception of Respect.Qiannan Li - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-21.
    The notion of respect is central to many moral requirements in daily life. In the Western philosophical tradition, there is a tendency to explore the nature of respect based on the nature of the object of respect. The Kantian account of respect for the moral law is one representative of this approach. In contrast, the classical Confucian notion of jing 敬 not only has a meaning similar to the Western notion of respect but also emphasizes the value of having a (...)
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  7. The Laozi and Anarchism.Matthieu B. Agustoni - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-28.
    In recent decades, many researchers set out to draw links between Western anarchism and ancient Chinese Daoism. The present work aims at adding to this ongoing debate by answering the question of whether the Guodian _Laozi_’s 郭店老子 sayings can be labelled as “anarchism.” It defends the claim that the text endorses a unique kind of anarchist theory based on a distinctive theory of political authority grounded in Daoist moral commitments. To do so, this essay first offers an overview of the (...)
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  8. Chai, David, ed., Dao Companion to Xuanxue (Neo-Daoism).Steven Burik - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  9. Meynard, Thierry 梅謙立, trans. and ed., Confucius, Philosopher of China: Chinese Translation of Confucius Sinarum Philosophus 中國哲學家孔夫子.Shuhong Zheng - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  10. Philosophical Influences of Mao Zedong, written by Robert E. Allinson.David Chai - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):424-426.
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  11. Origins of Moral-Political Philosophy in Early China: Contestation of Humaneness, Justice, and Personal Freedom, written by Tao Jiang.Zemian Zheng - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):421-423.
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  12. Daoism and Environmental Philosophy: Nourishing Life, written by Eric S. Nelson.Timo Ennen - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):417-420.
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  13. Unexceptional Moral Knowledge.Timothy Williamson - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):405-415.
    The article defends moral realism against epistemological objections by arguing that if there are moral truths, some of them are known. The claim that moral properties are unknowable because causally inert is shown to be ineffective: none of the main current theories of knowledge requires a causal connection, and anyway moral properties have not been shown to be causally inert. It is explained why a posteriori moral knowledge need not derive from combining a priori moral knowledge with a posteriori non-moral (...)
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  14. Worthy of Recognition: The Confucian Ethics of Recognition.Shuchen Xiang - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):388-404.
    This paper provides a Confucian account of recognition. In contrast to contemporary recognition discourse (inspired by the Hegelian account of recognition) which emphasizes equal and reciprocal recognition, Confucianism regards the virtuous agent as one who affords recognition to others without seeking recognition for themselves. There is reason to take seriously the Confucian alternative to contemporary recognition discourse. Critical scholars of colonialism have pointed out how the politics of recognition between colonizer and colonized perpetuates the structure of unequal recognition. The comparative (...)
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  15. Between and beyond Consequentialism and Deontology: Reflections on Mencius’ Moral Philosophy.Tongdong Bai - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):373-387.
    Mencius’s account of the yi-li (righteousness-benefit) distinction is important in his moral philosophy, and is often compared with consequentialism or deontology in Western moral philosophy. After showing the problems with a naïve deontological reading and a sophisticated consequentialist reading of Mencius, I will argue that both a really sophisticated consequentialist reading and a non-Kantian deontological reading are more defensible. But they couldn’t address the inequality hidden in Mencius’s moral philosophy, making a Nietzschean reading possible. However, Mencius embraced compassion as a (...)
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  16. The Snail and Its Horns: Practical Philosophy Inspired by the Zhuangzi.Carine Defoort - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):358-372.
    In the last century, Western jargon and methodologies have overwhelmed the study of early Chinese texts. In an attempt to somewhat redress the balance, this paper retrieves a core notion from the Zhuangzi, “disputation” (bian 辯) or “distinctions” (bian 辨), to reflect upon a contemporary Western debate, namely about the exclusion of non-Western sources at philosophy departments. The detailed analysis of one anecdote about two states fighting each other on the horns of a snail leads to a view on disputation (...)
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  17. Zhuangzi and Particularism.Chris Fraser - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):342-357.
    The Zhuangzi rejects the use of invariant general norms to guide action, instead stressing the importance of contextual factors in determining the apt course to take in particular situations. This stance might seem to present a variety of moral particularism, the view that general norms play no fundamental role in moral thought and judgment. I argue against interpreting the Zhuangzi as committed to particularism and thus denying that dao rests on, is shaped by, or comprises general patterns or norms. Instead, (...)
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  18. Practical Philosophy West and East.Michael N. Forster - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):327-341.
    This article offers a broad-ranging comparison of practical philosophy in the West and in China with a view to enabling not only better mutual understanding between the two sides but also better self-understanding on each side. Contrary to widespread Western conceptions that Chinese practical philosophy may have contributed some important principles in first-order morality but has contributed little in the area of meta-ethics as compared to the West, it is argued here that Chinese practical philosophy did indeed make important contributions (...)
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  19. Practical Philosophy – East and West.Michael N. Forster, Guido Kreis & Tze-wan Kwan - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):323-326.
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  20. Practical Philosophy versus Realpoliks.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (4):319-322.
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  21. Education as Greek Paideia, Chinese Xué (學), and Deweyan Growth.Christopher Kirby - 2008 - In K. Boudouris (ed.), Paideia: Education in the Global Era, Vol I. Athens, Greece:
    CONFERENCE PAPER: In the early 20th century, John Dewey helped revolutionize the way education was thought of in the United States. Nearly fifty years after his death, however, much of his vision is still yet to be realized. Perhaps one explanation for this would be that educators have not yet embraced the most important feature of Dewey’s thinking on education, viz. that education as a cumulative process is a interwoven with the continuous developments in social and ethical life, indeed culture (...)
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  22. Confucius on the Five Constant Virtues.Robert Joseph Wahing - manuscript
    Abstract Human by nature are social beings. They tend to connect and relate with one another in spite of the individual differences they possess. As to the famous quote of an English poet John Donne, “No man is an island.” Man should necessarily relate with one another in order to thrive. But bearing in mind the individual differences of human beings, we cannot exclude the possibility of chaos, disorder, and discordance. That is why in a diverse society, man needs a (...)
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  23. Harmony and Solitude: A Comparative Study of Confucianism and Metz’s Relational Ethics.Qingjuan Sun - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    By introducing Confucian relational ethics, this essay engages critically with Metz’s deontological relational moral theory from a comparative perspective. It first points out the similarities that Confucianism and Metz’s African ethics share in emphasizing relationality and harmony. Then, this essay reveals the theoretical deficiency in Metz’s relational moral theory compared to Confucianism; that is, the former lacks the concern for solitary cultivation which is essential for one’s cultivation and development. This essay is also less optimistic about a universal ethical system (...)
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  24. Subject: Peng Yin, “Virtue and Hierarchy in Early Confucian Ethics” Journal of Religious Ethics 49.4 (December 2021).Aaron Stalnaker - 2022 - Journal of Religious Ethics 50 (3):568-569.
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  25. Why Be Moral: Learning from the Neo-Confucian Cheng Brothers.Sarah Mattice - 2016 - Journal of Chinese Religions 44 (2):181-183.
    This is a book review of "Why be Moral?" Learning from the Neo-Confucian Cheng Brothers.
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  26. Methodological Inspiration for Teaching Chinese Philosophy.Sarah Mattice - 2016 - In Sor-Hoon Tan (ed.), The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies. Bloomsbury Press. pp. 143 - 154.
    Many of the chapters in this volume present focused examinations of methodology for and in Chinese philosophical traditions. They explore questions of how classical Chinese philosophers understood their practices, how different philosophical methodologies impact current study of and engagement with Chinese philosophical traditions, and what methodological innovations might be on the horizon. Many of the authors in this volume point out the ways in which ambient assumptions color our research, and the ways in which engagement across traditions can highlight previously (...)
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  27. Fan, Ruiping, and Mark J. Cherry, eds., Sex Robots: Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations.Tongdong Bai - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-6.
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  28. Confucian Academies in East Asia, edited by Vladimir Glomb, Eun-Jeung Lee, and Martin Gehlman.Leonard J. Waks & Eli Orner Kramer - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):441-444.
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  29. Chung-ying Cheng’s Dialogue with Confucianism and Kant: A Gadamerian Critique.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):402-409.
    Gadamer’s hermeneutics offers several strategies for critiquing Chung-ying Cheng’s synthesis of Confucianism and Kant. Interpreting Kant’s Groundwork, Cheng argues that the distinction between perfect and imperfect duties is too rigid: if the “life principle” is the ultimate root of Kant’s four types of duty, then human inclinations are good; Kant’s perfect duties turn out to be imperfect in some situations, while his imperfect duties such as benevolence turn out sometimes to be perfect. Although Cheng’s synthesis does not satisfy the Groundwork’s (...)
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  30. Action Theory in the Respective Hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Chung-ying Cheng.Nicholas S. Brasovan - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):392-401.
    This article advances a dialogue between the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer and the ontological hermeneutics of Chung-ying Cheng. This discussion draws into relief a question of whether or not these respective theories provide us with decision-making procedures for determining appropriate or right action in any given situation. In other words, we are inquiring into whether or not these respective hermeneutical theories incorporate forms of ethics. Following this line of questioning, we turn to Cheng’s philosophy of the Yijing and Gadamer’s (...)
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  31. Gadamerian and Chinese Philosophical Reflections on the Developments of Chung-ying Cheng’s Post-Dialogue Onto-hermeneutic Philosophy.Lauren F. Pfister - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):341-356.
    In light of developments in Chung-ying Cheng’s onto-hermeneutic philosophy during the years after his dialogue with Hans-Georg Gadamer took place in Heidelberg in May 2000, I explore several new issues related to Cheng’s understanding of Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy. First of all, I argue that Cheng has not addressed the vital concept of the “inner word” in Gadamer’s Truth and Method, and point toward some of its fecund hermeneutic significance, especially with regard to its characterization of Sprache/Language and its dynamics within (...)
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  32. Naming and Cosmology: The Role of Names in the Onto-Generative Process.Katerina Gajdosova - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):383-391.
    The article takes the excavated cosmological texts as a basis for reinterpreting the relationship between cosmology, epistemology, and action in Warring States period thought, by focusing on the role of names in situatedness and self-actualization of being. It proposes to view the speculative and the practical concerns in terms of a dynamic union of the receptive and the creative within the onto-generative cycle. Building on Chung-ying Cheng’s onto-generative approach and Heidegger’s hermeneutics of Dasein in Sein und Zeit, the article identifies (...)
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  33. Interlocution on the Imperative of Understanding: Gadamer’s Philosophical Hermeneutics and Cheng’s Onto-Hermeneutics.On-cho Ng - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):357-367.
    The essay imagines a dialogic interlocution that features the points of convergence and divergence between Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics and Chung-ying Cheng’s onto-hermeneutics, taking note of the fact the latter is an ongoing response to and revision of the former, to the extent it seeks to construct a theory of reading that takes into account both the phenomenological and ontological dimensions of interpretation and understanding. The essay furthers identifies Cheng’s theory as a Eurotropic construct that sensitively represents the Chinese philosophical (...)
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  34. Ricoeur and Cheng’s Parallel Reconciliations of the Right and the Good.Joshua Mason - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):427-440.
    Drawing on Paul Ricoeur’s “little ethics” and Chung-ying Cheng’s work on Confucian and Kantian ethics, this essay reinforces the broad outlines of a cross- cultural framework for reconciling conflicts between the good and the right, teleology and deontology, and perfectionism and liberalism so that we can recognize dynamic concerns across the grand sweep of moral life. Ricoeur and Cheng describe roughly parallel sets of relations and highlight similar dynamics among three planes of ethical life.
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  35. Cheng and Gadamer: Daoist Phenomenology.Jay Goulding - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):368-382.
    Two immense influences on my work originate from the seminal philosophers Hans-Georg Gadamer and Chung-ying Cheng. My academic career begins with personal interactions with the hermeneutics philosopher Gadamer at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada whose guiding hand shapes my vision around the idea of merging horizons; Cheng enhances this rich and most provocative beginning with a unique East-West phenomenology of onto-generative hermeneutics. Both scholars provide fresh eyes for Martin Heidegger’s engagement with Daoism in what I call Daoist Phenomenology, and the (...)
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  36. Therapeutic Forgetting and Its Ethical Dimension in the Daoist Zhuangzi.Youru Wang - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (4):411-426.
    This article utilizes recent Western approaches to the ethical inquiry into human activities of forgetting, especially the approach represented by Ricoeur’s work on memory and forgetting and their ethical functioning. The three areas of Ricoeur’s investigation includes the therapeutic/pathological area; pragmatic area, which deals with the issue of individual and group’s self-identity in relation to time and otherness; and the more explicitly ethical area. These three divisions are useful to start with, but Ricoeur’s work shows some narrowness in neglect of (...)
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  37. An Extension of Chung-ying Cheng’s Onto-Generative Hermeneutics.Hyun Höchsmann - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):290-301.
    Chung-ying Cheng’s onto-generative hermeneutical studies of the foundational philosophical texts of China and the Western philosophical traditions expand the horizon of comparative interpretative analyses. The origin of onto-generative hermeneutics is multifaceted, ranging from the Yijing 《易經》 and the Neo-Confucian text of Zhang Zai, Ximing《西銘》 to the phenomenology of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, and to the hermeneutics of Gadamer. Building on Cheng’s examination of the relation between phenomenology, hermeneutics, and the classical texts of Chinese philosophy, the present discussion begins with an exploration (...)
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  38. Gadamer’s Linguistic Turn Revisited in Dialogue with Cheng’s Onto-Generative Hermeneutics.Andrew Fuyarchuk - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):250-263.
    Gadamer’s linguistic turn has been criticized for eclipsing ontological grounds for truth by conflating the meaning of existence with history. Chung-ying Cheng’s recognizes the nihilistic implications of a ceaseless quest for meaning that cannot but perpetually slip away and in response, discloses the cosmo-ontological grounds that Gadamer’s interpretive acts presuppose. In so doing, Cheng initiates a theoretical appropriation and integration between Western philosophy and the Yijing tradition. However, Cheng also interprets Gadamer from a Heideggerian perspective without due regard to Plato. (...)
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  39. An Onto-Hermeneutic Approach to Early Medieval Daoist Philosophy.Friederike Assandri - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):277-289.
    This paper addresses the Buddhist terms and concepts in early medieval Daoist texts in the light of hermeneutic and onto-hermeneutic theory with an example from the Benji Jing. It argues that onto-hermeneutic strategies of interpretation allow us to understand Daoist texts with Buddhist terms and concepts as an expression of complex and creative philosophical thoughts without losing track of the essence of Daoism and thus as Daoist philosophy in its own right.
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  40. Zhongguo Zhexu Shiwujiang 《中國哲學十五講》, written by Yang Lihua 楊立華.Lijuan Zhang - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):330-332.
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  41. Zhuangzi and the Becoming of Nothingness, written by David Chai.Jay Goulding - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):327-329.
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  42. Dangdai Zhongguo Tese Zongjiaoxue Shi’er Lun 《当代中国特色宗教学十二论》, written by Mou Zhongjian 牟钟鉴.Mei Yang & Xiaoqun Da - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):333-335.
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  43. Sources of Learning: Zhu Xi’s Theory of Moral Development.Jaeyoon Song - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):315-325.
    As moral philosopher Zhu Xi sought to nurture the autonomous moral self. In his pedagogical scheme, one ought to cultivate the innate goodness of the heart, investigate principles in things, and embody ethical standards in daily life. In Zhu Xi’s view, the ability to exercise moral autonomy is obtained through a long period of moral and ethical training under the close surveillance of one’s immediate surroundings since early childhood. For this reason, Zhu Xi emphasized the practice of social norms as (...)
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  44. Philosophical Musings Drawn from the Gadamer-Cheng Dialogue of May 2000.Lauren F. Pfister - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):264-276.
    A critical summary and reflective assessment of the Chinese account of the dialogue that occurred between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Chung-ying Cheng in Heidelberg in May 2000 is presented for the first time in English within this article. It ends with an account of the ontological nature of Sprache/language as both philosophers deal with this key term in Gadamerian philosophic hermeneutics.
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  45. Gadamer – Cheng: Conversations in Hermeneutics.Andrew Fuyarchuk - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (3):245-249.
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  46. On Virtue and Reason: Integrative Theory of De 德 and Aretê.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (2):170-183.
    This article is to argue that virtue is experienced and understood in Confucian ethics as power to act and as performance of a moral action, and that virtue as such has to be onto-cosmologically explicated, not just teleologically explained. In other words, it is intended to construct an integrative theory of virtues based on both dao and de. To do so, we will examine the two features of de, as the power that is derived from self-reflection and self-restraining, and as (...)
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  47. De 德 Ethics in the Four Books.Xinzhong Yao - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (2):143-156.
    Through a detailed analysis of de德 as used in the Four Books, this article is intended to examine the unity between two kinds of virtue manifested respectively through cultivating an admirable character in one’s self and enabling aretaic activities in the public sphere. By investigating how early Confucian masters integrate internal goodness and virtuous governance as the moral reasons for the common good and the flourishing of human community, we seek to reconstruct the ethics in the Four Books that is (...)
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  48. Virtue in the “Book of Changes”.Dennis Schilling - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (2):117-129.
    The present paper gives a systematic account of the concept of virtue represented by de 德 in the “Book of Changes.” It starts with a short summary of the impact of this concept on later Song dynasty philosophy. In this traditional view, “virtue” is considered to be a natural entity which contains intrinsic dynamics. This naturalistic view of morality is later contrasted with earlier notions of de or “virtue” in the canonized edition of the “Changes.” The paper first examines its (...)
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  49. Representing the Cosmos and Transforming the Human: The Onto-hermeneutic Visions of Chung-ying Cheng’s The Primary Way: Philosophy of Yijing.On-cho Ng - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (2):185-199.
    The review essay critically evaluates, synoptically presents, and admiringly celebrates Chung-ying Cheng latest work, The Primary Way: Philosophy of Yijing. It sees the book’s publication as an emblem of an intellectual jubilee – a half-centenary of scholarly lucubration and achievement in Chinese and comparative philosophy by Cheng, who was trained at Harvard in American pragmatism and analytic philosophy. The essay reveals why Cheng returns to the Yijing time and again. The principal reason is that this ancient classic, to his way (...)
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  50. The Art of Chinese Philosophy: Eight Classical Texts and How to Read Them, written by Paul R. Goldin.Joel Baranowski - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (2):235-237.
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