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Summary Chinese philosophy is built on the metaphysical assumption that qi (traditionally translated as “material force” or “vital energy”) pervades the Universe and all things are composed of qi. This ontology leads to a conception of the world as an organic whole, in which everything is interconnected – from nature to the human world, from inorganic objects to sensible things. Chinese philosophers had a purely this-worldly concern; their goal was to improve on the world given. Originated in the primitive form of nature worship, ancient Chinese developed a sense of admiration and affection towards the natural world around them. This religious spirit prompted a philosophical pursuit of the order of the universe and the ontological foundation for all existence. Ancient Chinese thinkers had an intense desire to find the best way to make the right political decisions, to alleviate social problems, and to properly conduct themselves. Sociopolitical philosophy and ethics are thus the two core areas in Chinese philosophy. At the same time, since social structure, political polity and human conduct should all cohere with the cosmic order, Chinese philosophy is fundamentally rooted in its cosmology. This cosmology is manifested mostly in the philosophy of the Yijing. Chinese cosmology is built on the belief that there is a cosmic order or cosmic pattern, which serves not only as the source for all existence, but also as the governing rule for all cosmic developments. This pattern was commonly referred to as ‘Dao’ by ancient philosophers. The pursuit ofDao would become an ultimate goal shared by all Chinese philosophers. Under the holistic cosmic picture, the cosmic order also governs human affairs. Consequently, Dao takes on a normative connotation: it signifies the right way for human affairs and the normative principle for human conduct. In this sense, Daostands for the highest moral precept for human beings. There are three main branches in Chinese philosophy – Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Each school has its distinct answer to the quest of ultimate reality and the roles humans should play in this world. To educate others what constitutes virtue and to inspire others to act in accordance with Dao, was thus the self-assigned mission for most Chinese philosophers.
Key works The first systematic introduction to Chinese philosophy is the two-volume set Fung Yu-lan 1997, first published in the 1930s. This book is arguably the most influential introduction to the history of Chinese philosophy, even though some of Fung’s analyses are often contested by contemporary Chinese scholars. The two-volume set has been translated into English by Derk Bodde (Feng & Bodde 1952). A condensed and more accessible version of Fung’s History is also translated by Derk Bodde (Feng 1948). Among Chinese scholars, Lao 2005’s thee-volume (in four books) set is widely respected and frequently consulted. A more recent and analytic introduction to Chinese philosophy is Liu 2006. This book does not cover the history of Chinese philosophy beyond Chinese Buddhism, however. Mou 2009 has a more comprehensive coverage of all eras in the history of Chinese philosophy, but at the cost of sacrificing philosophical details. For readers who cannot read primary Chinese texts, Chan 1963 is a good source of representative selections of Chinese philosophical works.
Introductions

Chan 1963 provides a comprehensive coverage and fairly representative selections of all major philosophers or philosophical schools in Chinese history. The editor provides succinct introductions for each selection. It is a must-have sourcebook for scholars who can read only English, even though the old-fashioned Wade-Giles spelling of Chinese names in this book could create confusion for beginners.  

Feng & Bodde 1952 provides a comprehensive coverage of various schools in the history of Chinese philosophy. At times, the introduction is packed with quotes, with little analysis. It is nonetheless an authoritative introduction to this date.

Feng 1948 is not just an abridgment of Feng & Bodde 1952. Fung wrote this short history with the aim to give a complete picture of Chinese philosophical history in a nutshell. This book is far more accessible and interesting than Feng & Bodde 1952. Originally published in New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Lao Ssu-Kwang勞思光, Xinbian Zhongguo Zhexue Shi新編中國哲學史. 3 volumes. Guangxi, China: Guanxi shifandaxue chubanshe, 2005.

There is no English translation of this three-volume set. This is a revised version of Lao’s famed History of Chinese Philosophy (Zhongguo zhexue shi 中國哲學史), originally published in Hong Kong: Youlian chubanshe, 1968. Lao’s History provides detailed logical analysis of the philosophical problems and theories of all the schools covered in this book. It is widely referred to by Chinese scholars.

Liu 2006 provides an up-to-date introduction to Chinese philosophy in the analytic style. In its analysis of primary texts, it also reflects topics and discourses on Chinese philosophy in contemporary scholarship in English. The scope of this book covers classical philosophical schools and four major schools in Chinese Buddhism.

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  1. Valmisa, Mercedes, Adapting: A Chinese Philosophy of Action.Fan He - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):337-342.
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  2. Women in vietnamese confucianism from a femnist perspective.Lê Thị Ngọc Điệp, Trần Cao Bội Ngọc & Trần Phú Huệ Quang - 2024 - Aufklärung 11 (1):205-218.
    O confucionismo existe, na vida espiritual do povo vietnamita, desde muito tempo. A parte positiva do Confucionismo pode-se dizer que é o fato de ele contribuir para o fortalecimento das relações familiares, entre os parentes, bem como nas relações sociais de um modo geral; outra parte positiva consiste em motivar as pessoas a desenvolverem o gosto pela leitura e aprendizagem. Estima-se que a ética confucionista precisa ser provocada, a fim de contribuir para a construção da sociedade nos dias atuais. Na (...)
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  3. Confucius’s doctrine of the rectification of names.Cao Xuan Long & Nguyen Quoc Viet - 2024 - Aufklärung 11 (1):219-226.
    Confúcio (551 aC - 479 aC) - foi um filósofo, professor e estadista bem conhecido, bastante influente durante os períodos de Primavera-Outono dos Estados Combatentes na China. Somados a esses atributos, destaca-se o fato de ele ter sido um pensador que transmitiu à humanidade numerosos conceitos perspicazes, dentre os quais a doutrina da "retificação de nomes" (正名 - zhèng míng). Esta doutrina, que tem caráter profundo, abrangente e metódico, procura resgatar a sociedade de um estado de caos para um estado (...)
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  4. Peng, Guoxiang 彭國翔, Methodology of Chinese Philosophy: How to Do Chinese Philosophy 中國哲學方法論: 如何治 “中國哲學”.Ruoyan Wang - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):331-335.
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  5. Zhang, Jun 張俊, Two Systems of Chinese Aesthetics of Life 中國生命美學的兩個體系.Zheng Chen - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):347-351.
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  6. The State of the Field Report XII: Contemporary Chinese Studies of the Philosophy of Language in the Gongsun Longzi.Qiao Huang - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):283-307.
    The philosophy of language in the Gongsun Longzi 公孫龍子 has been a hot topic since the 20th century, but there is still controversy about what point Gongsun Long 公孫龍 is making. This article reviews representative studies of the philosophy of language in the Gongsun Longzi in Sinophone academia since 2000. Some studies (especially in journal articles) conceive that one or two of the discourses are on the philosophy of language, while the other discourses concern ontology, epistemology, semiotics, or logic. In (...)
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  7. Chai, David, ed., Daoist Resonances in Heidegger: Exploring a Forgotten Debt.Jana S. Rošker - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):309-314.
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  8. Mengzian Sensitivity to Social Roles.Gina Lebkuecher - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):191-222.
    Classical Confucian philosopher Mengzi 孟子 offers resources that can help shed light on the metaphysical status of moral qualities and answer the question of how we come to perceive them. I argue that Mengzi puts forward an account of virtue as sensitivity similar to that offered by John McDowell. Both thinkers endorse a particular kind of motivationally internalist naturalistic moral realism, and both explain virtue as analogous to perception of secondary qualities. I offer an original contribution to existing literature by (...)
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  9. Unmaking Roles in the Zhuangzi: Performances of Compliance, Defiance, and the In-Between.Sonya N. Özbey - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):265-282.
    Many different and contradictory claims have been made about the political dimensions (or lack thereof) of the ancient Chinese text known as the Zhuangzi 莊子. The two main positions on this topic set the parameters of the debate. One interprets the Zhuangzi to be apathetic toward political participation, focusing on individual survival instead. The other emphasizes the text’s defiant streak and locates a deliberately subversive force within it. A third position redirects the focus of the debate to an important aspect (...)
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  10. Liu, Dachun, Wang Bolu, Ding Junqiang, and Liu Yongmu, Reconsideration of Science and Technology I: Reflection on Marx’s View.Carl Mitcham & Alfred Nordmann - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):315-329.
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  11. Yang, Zebo 楊澤波, The Riddle of the Theory on the Goodness of Nature: Cracking Goldbach’s Conjecture in Confucian Studies 性善之謎: 破解儒學研究的哥德巴赫猜想.Junfeng Xu - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):343-346.
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  12. Political Intimacy and Self-Governance in the Dialogues of Confucius: An Exploratory Study on the Philosophical Potential of the Kongzi Jia Yu.Brian Bruya - 2024 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 23 (2):223-249.
    The Dialogues of Confucius (Kongzi Jia Yu 孔子家語) is an unexplored resource for the philosophy of Confucius. In this article, I make a first attempt at mining its riches. Focusing on Chapters 21 and 32, I reconstruct a multilevel theory of governing that is a cyclic process proceeding from the moral psychology of the individual to social organization, to the society as grounded in natural processes, and to the metaphysics of the natural processes themselves, thus adumbrating a metaphysics of morals (...)
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  13. Friendship and filial piety in Ming Neo-Confucianism.Miaw-Fen Lu - 2024 - Diogenes 65 (1):69-86.
    This article discusses friendship and filial piety in Ming Neo-Confucianism, particularly the Yangming learning. I argue that the Yangming jianghui provided important social settings for elevating the value of friendship. True friendship was considered as a means for moral improvement, and to prevent the risk of moral subjectivism in the Yangming philosophy.I also revisit the question of whether Ming Neo-Confucians did challenge the order of the five cardinal relationships by elevating friendship as the most important one. Through the investigation of (...)
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  14. Fostering resident pro-environmental behavior: the roles of destination image and Confucian culture.Jiangchi Zhang, Chaowu Xie, Alastair Morrison & Kun Zhang - unknown
    Residents are important participants and stakeholders in destination development. Identifying factors that assist in predicting resident pro-environmental behavior (PEB) may contribute to enhanced sustainability. Based on a traditional Chinese culture, this research constructed a model of resident PEB by introducing pro-environmental destination image (PEDI) and Confucianism as the independent and moderating variables, respectively. The structural equation modeling for 402 residents indicated the model had a satisfactory level of predictive power for PEB. The results showed that: (1) PEDI positively affected residents’ (...)
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  15. Lun heng: wai shi yi zhong.Chong Wang - 1992 - Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she.
    Lun heng / Wang Chong zhuan -- Feng su tong yi / Ying Shao zhuan -- Feng shi wen jian ji / Feng Yan zhuan -- Shang shu gu shi / Li Chuo zhuan -- Guan qi xia yu / bu zhao zhuan ren -- Chun ming tui chao lu / Song Minqiu zhuan -- Song Jingwen bi ji / Song Qi zhuan -- Dong yuan lu / Gong Dingchen zhuan -- Wang shi tan lu / Wang Qinchen zhuan -- (...)
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  16. Xin wu xiang rong chu tan: wai yi zhong.Tinghui Li - 1992 - Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju. Edited by Tinghui Li.
    Xin wu xiang rong chu tan -- Guo Dingtang zhu zi yan jiu jue yi.
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  17. Er Cheng wen xuan yi.Qi Guo - 1994 - Chengdu: Sichuan sheng xin hua shu dian jing xiao. Edited by Hao Cheng & Yi Cheng.
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  18. Jue xue fu su: jin xian dai di xian Qin ming jia yan jiu.Shan Zhou - 1997 - Shenyang Shi: Jing xiao zhe Liaoning sheng xin hua shu dian.
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  19. Song Ming xin ru xue lue lun.Dawen Feng - 1997 - [Guangzhou]: Guangdong ren min chu ban she.
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  20. Suter, Rafael (2020). Logic in China and Chinese Logic: The Arrival and (Re-)Discovery of Logic in China. In: Fung, Yiu-ming. Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic. Dordrecht: Springer, 465-507.Rafael Suter & Yiu-Ming Fung (eds.) - 2020
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  21. 台灣社會的多元發展與融合.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri & Yang an ren (eds.) - 2022
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  22. A Confucian Constitutional Order: How China’s Ancient Past can Shape its Political Future.Chenyang Li (ed.) - 2013
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  23. Confucianism and Deweyan Pragmatism.Barry Allen (ed.) - 2021
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  24. Searle’s Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy.Chris Fraser (ed.) - 2008
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  25. Neo-Confucianism and the Development of German Idealism.Germaine A. Hoston - 2024 - Journal of the History of Ideas 85 (2):257-287.
    This article analyzes the influence of Chinese Neo-Confucianism on the development of German idealism. Information obtained by Leibniz from Jesuit missionaries included key concepts in Neo-Confucian philosophy that not only confirmed Leibniz’s belief in the universality of his organic image of the cosmos but also influenced Leibniz’s later writings. Such influence is also exhibited in Kant’s work, especially in his crucial noumenon-phenomenon distinction, as well as in Hegel’s phenomenology and philosophy of history. Recognition of these influences, unacknowledged by either Kant (...)
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  26. Knowledge and Virtues: Confucian Education as Life Education and Its Modern Relevance.Chung-yi Cheng - 2020 - In Roland Reichenbach & Duck-Joo Kwak (eds.), Confucian Perspectives on Learning and Self-Transformation. Switzerland: Springer. pp. 27-43.
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  27. Confucian Perspectives on Learning and Self-Transformation.Roland Reichenbach & Duck-Joo Kwak (eds.) - 2020 - Switzerland: Springer.
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  28. Which is More Important? Moral Virtue or Life itself?: An Exploration of a Confucian Theme.Sihao Chew - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12973.
    This paper examines a dilemma within the Confucian tradition wherein one is forced to choose between upholding moral virtue and preserving one's own life. The mainstream view valorises and exalts the act of sacrificing one's life in order to uphold moral virtue. There are many supporters of this view, spanning across different periods, including but not limited to Confucius, Mencius, the Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi, and so on. There is, however, an opposing voice within the Confucian tradition. Wang Gen, a (...)
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  29. Beyond New Confucianism.John H. Berthrong - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 225-241.
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  30. The Chinese Media’s Campaign for Confucianism.Junhao Hong, Miao Liu & Wen Huang - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 209-224.
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  31. Confucianism and Civil Society.An‑wu Lin & Tze-ki Hon - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 107-115.
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  32. Self-Restriction and Progressive Confucianism.Stephen C. Angle - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 91-105.
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  33. Confucianism to Save the World.Tongdong Bai - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 65-78.
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  34. Confucianism, Community, Capitalism.Els van Dongen - 2017 - In Tze-Ki Hon (ed.), Confucianism for the contemporary world: global order, political plurality, and social action. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 19-43.
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  35. Yangming xue yan jiu.Guang Wu (ed.) - 2000 - Shanghai: Xin hua shu dian Shanghai fa xing suo fa xing.
    本书内容包括:论王阳明的最后定见;罗近溪与晚明王学的发展;江右王门何黄二先学行述略;王阳明思想中的“言语”与“心”的关系等。.
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  36. Ru jia yu Jidu zong jiao dui tan.Zhiming Zheng (ed.) - 2000 - Jiayi: Nan hua da xue zong jiao wen hua yan jiu zhong xin.
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  37. San jiao gui yi: Sui Tang zhe xue.Zhengchun Mou - 2001 - [Shenyang Shi]: Liao hai chu ban she.
    本书包括周敦颐的“太极图”,张载“气”的哲学,王安石的“新学”思想,二程的理学思想,朱熹的理本体论哲学,陆九渊的“心学”,陈亮“道在物中”的思想等内容。.
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  38. Zhu Xi de si wei shi jie.Hoyt Cleveland Tillman - 1996 - Xi'an Shi: Shanxi shi fan da xue chu ban she.
    本书探讨朱熹的思维世界,它不但是思想史的研究,并注意的社会背景,因此也可以说是思想史与社会史交互为用的研究。.
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  39. Zhongguo si xiang shi yu si xiang jia ping zhuan.Yan Xu & Qiang Tong (eds.) - 2002 - Beijing Shi: Zhonghua shu ju.
    本书内容包括:孔子思想的主要特征、老子思想的文化地位、墨子思想的历史影响、孟子思想的历史影响、董仲舒在学术思想史上的地位、张衡在中国思想文化上的地位等内容。.
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  40. Linguistic Problems in the Investigation of Chinese Philosophy.Нanna Hnatovska & Vasyl Havronenko - 2023 - Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Philosophy 2 (9):13-19.
    B a c k g r o u n d. The article is devoted to the analysis of the key directions of the study of the possible influence of the specifics of Chinese language culture on the content and nature of intellectual discourse, which is recognized as philosophical. Logic and ontology are the key areas of analysis of the possible influence of linguistic determinants on the intellectual discourse of China. Three main topics that attract the attention of researchers are the (...)
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  41. Zhuangzi's word, Heidegger's word, and the confucian word.Eske J. Møllgaard - unknown
    Traditional Chinese commentators rightly see that understanding Zhuangzi's way with words is the presupposition for understanding Zhuangzi at all. They are not sure, however, if Zhuangzi's words are super-effective or pure nonsense. I consider Zhuangzi's experience with language, and then turn to Heidegger's word of being to see if it may throw light on Zhuangzi's way of saying. I argue that a conversation between Heidegger and Zhuangzi on language is possible, but only by expanding Heidegger's notion of Gestell (enframing) and (...)
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  42. The Confucian Environmental Ethics of Ogyū Sorai: A Three-Level, Eco-Humanistic Interpretation.Tomosaburō Yamauchi - 2014 - In J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Environmental Philosophy in Asian Traditions of Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 337-357.
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  43. The Relevance of Chinese Neo-Confucianism for the Reverence of Nature.Mary Evelyn Tucker - 2014 - In J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Environmental Philosophy in Asian Traditions of Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 133-148.
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  44. The effects of civility knowledge and Taoist values on tourist behavioral intentions based on an extended theory of planned behavior.Wei Zheng, Hongliang Qiu & Alastair Morrison - unknown
    Tourist civility is attracting growing attention from practitioners and scholars. However, the research on the effects of knowledge of civility and Taoist values on tourist civilized behavioral intentions (TCI) is incomplete. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), an expanded and integrated framework was developed to explore TCI with data from 358 domestic tourists in China. Structural equation modeling was adopted and mediation and moderation models were tested through the bootstrapping approach. The findings suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived (...)
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  45. Performance in Confucian Role Ethics.Kathleen M. Higgins - 2018 - In James Behuniak (ed.), Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 213-228.
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  46. Does Confucianism Need a Metaphysical Theory of Human Nature?Peimin Ni - 2018 - In James Behuniak (ed.), Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 183-201.
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  47. Roger T. Ames and the Meaning of Confucianism.Thomas P. Kasulis - 2018 - In James Behuniak (ed.), Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 13-29.
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  48. Kamjŏng kwa todŏk: Sŏngnihak ŭi todŏk kamjŏngnon = Emotions and morality: the theory of moral emotion in Neo Confucianism.Sŏng-min Hong - 2016 - Sŏul-si: Somyŏng Ch'ulp'an.
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  49. Vietnamese adult learners as Confucian Culture co-present groups in workplaces.Hong Hanh Tran - 2024 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 56 (5):429-438.
    This paper focuses on learning that takes place outside formal classrooms within groups or teams. Based on the conceptual framework of informal learning, adult learning and lifelong learning, it investigates how two contrasting groups of adult learners in Vietnam, Mekong doctors and Hanoi hairdressers, learn, interact, and collaborate through their informal learning experiences in the workplace. These are two ‘co-present groups’ or two ‘complex systems’. For Vietnamese learners, the challenges of Confucian heritage culture, or the lack of awareness of cultural (...)
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  50. Zai "yu wang" zhong huan xing "liang zhi": Luo Hongxian zhe xue si xiang de yan jiu.Gaoqiang Luo - 2018 - Beijing Shi: Jiu zhou chu ban she.
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