Results for 'embryos'

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  1.  30
    Vulnerable Embryos.Stephen Napier - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (4):781-810.
    Contemporary philosophical discussion on human embryonic stem cell research has focused primarily on the metaphysical and meta-ethical issues suchresearch raises. Though these discussions are interesting, largely ignored are arguments rooted in the secular research ethics tradition already informing humansubject research. This tradition countenances the notion of vulnerability and that vulnerable human subjects (of which human embryos are likely members)ought to be protected from research-related harms. This is the basic idea behind the argument from vulnerability, and it enjoys prima facie (...)
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  2.  47
    Embryos and pseudoembryos: parthenotes, reprogrammed oocytes and headless clones.H. Watt - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):554-556.
    What makes something an embryo—as opposed to what is actually, and not just in biotech parlance, a collection of cells? This question has come to the fore in recent years with proposals for producing embryonic stem cells for research. While some of those opposed to use of standard embryonic stem cells emphasise that adult cells have a clinical track record, others argue that there may be further benefits obtainable from cells very like those of embryos, provided such cells can (...)
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  3. Frozen Embryos and The Obligation to Adopt.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Nicholas Colgrove - 2020 - Bioethics (8):1-5.
    Rob Lovering has developed an interesting new critique of views that regard embryos as equally valuable as other human beings: the moral argument for frozen human embryo adoption. The argument is aimed at those who believe that the death of a frozen embryo is a very bad thing, and Lovering concludes that some who hold this view ought to prevent one of these deaths by adopting and gestating a frozen embryo. Contra Lovering, we show that there are far more (...)
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  4.  40
    Embryo experimentation: is there a case for moving beyond the ‘14-day rule’.Grant Castelyn - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):181-196.
    Recent scientific advances have indicated that it may be technically feasible to sustain human embryos in vitro beyond 14 days. Research beyond this stage is currently restricted by a guideline known as the 14-day rule. Since the advances in embryo culturing there have been calls to extend the current limit. Much of the current debate concerning an extension has regarded the 14-day rule as a political compromise and has, therefore, focused on policy concerns rather than assessing the philosophical foundations (...)
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  5. Killing embryos for stem cell research.Jeff Mcmahan - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):170–189.
    The main objection to human embryonic stem cell research is that it involves killing human embryos, which are essentially beings of the same sort that you and I are. This objection presupposes that we once existed as early embryos and that we had the same moral status then that we have now. This essay challenges both those presuppositions, but focuses primarily on the first. I argue first that these presuppositions are incompatible with widely accepted beliefs about both assisted (...)
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  6. Embryo loss and double effect.Ezio Di Nucci - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):537-540.
    I defend the argument that if embryo loss in stem cell research is morally problematic, then embryo loss in in vivo conception is similarly morally problematic. According to a recent challenge to this argument, we can distinguish between in vivo embryo loss and the in vitro embryo loss of stem cell research by appealing to the doctrine of double effect. I argue that this challenge fails to show that in vivo embryo loss is a mere unintended side effect while in (...)
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  7.  83
    Donating Embryos to Stem Cell Research: The “Problem” of Gratitude.Jackie Leach Scully, Erica Haimes, Anika Mitzkat, Rouven Porz & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):19-28.
    This paper is based on linked qualitative studies of the donation of human embryos to stem cell research carried out in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and China. All three studies used semi-structured interview protocols to allow an in-depth examination of donors’ and non-donors’ rationales for their donation decisions, with the aim of gaining information on contextual and other factors that play a role in donor decisions and identifying how these relate to factors that are more usually included in evaluations (...)
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  8. The embryo rescue case.S. Matthew Liao - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (2):141-147.
    In the debate regarding the moral status of human embryos, the Embryo Rescue Case has been used to suggest that embryos are not rightholders. This case is premised on the idea that in a situation where one has a choice between saving some number of embryos or a child, it seems wrong to save the embryos and not the child. If so, it seems that embryos cannot be rightholders. In this paper, I argue that the (...)
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  9.  55
    Embryo Donation in Iran: An Ethical Review.Leila Afshar & Alireza Bagheri - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (3):119-124.
    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10–15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, (...)
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  10.  23
    Embryo politics: ethics and policy in Atlantic democracies.Thomas F. Banchoff - 2011 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    The emergence of ethical controversy -- First embryo research regimes -- The ethics of embryonic stem cell research -- Stem cell and cloning politics.
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  11. Human embryo genetic editing: hope or pipe dream?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Zev Rosenwaks - 2021 - Fertility and Sterility 116 (1):25-26.
    Ethically sound analyses of embryo genetic editing require more than simple assessments of safety considerations. After all, we as humans care deeply not only about our health, but also care profoundly about the kinds of societies we construct, the injustices that our actions produce, the responsibilities that we have toward others and ourselves, our self-understanding, the characters that we develop, our family relationships, and the world that we leave to our children and grandchildren.
     
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  12.  30
    Embryo Experimentation in Buddhist Ethics.Piyali Mitra - 2018 - Journal of Dharma Studies 1 (1):163-178.
    The objective of this paper is to explore the Buddhist position particularly within the Mahāyāna sect about the use of human embryos which may be either surplus embryos thawedinthe laboratoryorembryosculturedfor researchpurposes.Buddhismdoesnot give prominence to any supreme creation whose plan might be distorted by human intervention with nature. Buddhism postulates the cyclic course of human existence as eternal. There is no starting point to the series of lives lived and obviously there is no end. In the Buddhist thought, there (...)
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  13.  68
    Embryos and Eagles: Symbolic Value in Research and Reproduction.Lisa Bortolotti & John Harris - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (1):22-34.
    On both sides of the debate on the use of embryos in stem cell research, and in reproductive technologies more generally, rhetoric and symbolic images have been evoked to influence public opinion. Human embryos themselves are described as either “very small human beings” or “small clusters of cells.” The intentions behind the use of these phrases are clear. One description suggests that embryos are already members of our community and share with us a right to life or (...)
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  14.  57
    Human embryo research and the language of moral uncertainty.William P. Cheshire - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):1 – 5.
    In bioethics as in the sciences, enormous discussions often concern the very small. Central to public debate over emerging reproductive and regenerative biotechnologies is the question of the moral status of the human embryo. Because news media have played a prominent role in framing the vocabulary of the debate, this study surveyed the use of language reporting on human embryo research in news articles spanning a two-year period. Terminology that devalued moral status - for example, the descriptors things, property, tissue, (...)
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  15.  83
    Synthetic embryos: a new venue in ethical research.Villalba Adrián, Jon Rueda & Íñigo De Miguel - 2023 - Reproduction 164 (4):V1-V3.
    The recent publications reported in 2022 reveal the possibility of obtaining mouse embryos without the need for egg or sperm. These ‘artificial embryos’ can recapitulate some stages of development ex utero – from neurulation to organogenesis – without implantation. Synthetic mouse embryos might serve as a valuable model to gain further insights into early developmental stages. Indeed, it is expected for these models to be replicated by employing human cells. This promising research raises ethical issues and expands (...)
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  16.  97
    Re-defining the human embryo: A legal perspective on the creation of embryos in research.Íñigo De Miguel Beriain, Jon Rueda & Adrian Villalba - 2024 - EMBO Reports.
    The notion of the human embryo is not immutable. Various scientific and technological breakthroughs in reproductive biology have compelled us to revisit the definition of the human embryo during the past 2 decades. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, oocyte haploidisation and, more recently, human stem cell-derived embryo models have challenged this scientific term, which has both ethical and legal repercussions. Here, we offer a legal perspective to identify a universally accepted definition of ‘embryo’ which could help to ease and unify the (...)
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  17. The Embryo in Ancient Rabbinic Literature: Between Religious Law and Didactic Narratives: An Interpretive Essay.Etienne Lepicard - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (1):21-41.
    At a time when bioethical issues are at the top of public and political agendas, there is a renewed interest in representations of the embryo in various religious traditions. One of the major traditions that have contributed to Western representations of the embryo is the Jewish tradition. This tradition poses some difficulties that may deter scholars, but also presents some invaluable advantages. These derive from two components, the search for limits and narrativity, both of which are directly connected with the (...)
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  18. Reproductive Embryo Editing: Attending to Justice.Inmaculada De Melo-Martín - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (4):26-33.
    The use of genome embryo editing tools in reproduction is often touted as a way to ensure the birth of healthy and genetically related children. Many would agree that this is a worthy goal. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, if we are concerned with justice, accepting such goal as morally appropriate commits one to rejecting the development of embryo editing for reproductive purposes. This is so because safer and more effective means exist that can allow many (...)
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  19. Why the embryo rescue case is a bad argument against embryonic personhood.Perry Hendricks - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):669-673.
    The “Embryo Rescue Case” (ERC) refers to a thought experiment that is used to argue against the view that embryos have a right to life (i.e. are persons). I will argue that cognitive science undermines the intuition elicited by the ERC; I will show that whether or not embryos have a right to life, our mental tools will make it very difficult to believe that embryos have said right. This suggests that the intuition elicited by the ERC (...)
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  20. Abortion, embryo destruction and the future of value argument.J. Savulescu - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (3):133-135.
    Abortion and embryo destruction prevent a future of value, but that does not make them wrong.Abortion involves the killing of a fetus. One bad thing about killing a fetus is that the fetus is deprived of a future of value. Think of all the things which make your life good and worth living: understanding the world, seeing your children grow into independent, intelligent, and happy people, watching a sunset over the hills, enjoying good times with friends. By killing the fetus, (...)
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  21.  83
    Embryos, The Principle of Proportionality, and the Shaky Ground of Moral Respect.Jonathan Pugh - 2013 - Bioethics 28 (8):420-426.
    The debate concerning the moral permissibility of using human embryos in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has long centred on the question of the embryo's supposed right to life. However, in focussing only on this question, many opponents to hESC research have escaped rigorous scrutiny by making vague and unfounded appeals to the concept of moral respect in order to justify their opposition to certain hESC practices. In this paper, I offer a critical analysis of the concept of (...)
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  22. Do Embryos Have Interests?: Why Embryos Are Identical to Future Persons but Not Harmed by Death.Aaron Simmons - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):57-66.
    Are embryos deserving of moral consideration in our actions? A standard view suggests that embryos are considerable only if they have interests. One argument for embryonic interests contends that embryos are harmed by death because they are deprived of valuable future lives as adult persons. Some have challenged this argument on the grounds that embryos aren’t identical to adults: either due to the potential for embryos to twin or because we do not exist until the (...)
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  23.  34
    Embryo Loss and Moral Status.James Delaney - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (3):252-264.
    There is a significant debate over the moral status of human embryos. This debate has important implications for practices like abortion and IVF. Some argue that embryos have the same moral status as infants, children, and adults. However, critics claim that the frequency of pregnancy loss/miscarriage/spontaneous abortion shows a moral inconsistency in this view. One line of criticism is that those who know the facts about pregnancy loss and nevertheless attempt to conceive children are willing to sacrifice (...) lost for the healthy children they ultimately have. I respond to this criticism and argue that on the most plausible accounts of well-being, these embryos are not made worse off and thus not “sacrifices.” I then make some more general remarks about what people’s typical views about pregnancy loss show about their views toward the moral status of embryos. (shrink)
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  24.  54
    Genes, embryos, and future people.Walter Glannon - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (3):187–211.
    Testing embryonic cells for genetic abnormalities gives us the capacity to predict whether and to what extent people will exist with disease and disability. Moreover, the freezing of embryos for long periods of time enables us to alter the length of a normal human lifespan. After highlighting the shortcomings of somatic‐cell gene therapy and germ‐line genetic alteration, I argue that the testing and selective termination of genetically defective embryos is the only medically and morally defensible way to prevent (...)
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  25.  32
    Creating Embryos for Use in Stem Cell Research.Dan W. Brock - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):229-237.
    The intense and extensive debate over human embryonic stem cell research has focused primarily on the moral status of the human embryo. Some commentators assign full moral status of normal adult human beings to the embryo from the moment of its conception. At the other extreme are those who believe that a human embryo has no significant moral status at the time it is used and destroyed in stem cell research. And in between are many intermediate positions that assign an (...)
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  26. Embryo Experimentation.Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson & Pascal Kasimba (eds.) - 1992 - Cambridge University Press.
    New developments in reproductive technology have made headlines since the birth of the world's first in vitro fertilization baby in 1978. But is embryo experimentation ethically acceptable? What is the moral status of the early human embryo? And how should a democratic society deal with so controversial an issue, where conflicting views are based on differing religious and philosophical positions? These controversial questions are the subject of this book, which, as a current compendium of ideas and arguments on the subject, (...)
     
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  27.  92
    Creating Embryos for Use in Stem Cell Research.Dan W. Brock - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):229-237.
    In this paper I will address whether the restriction on the creation of human embryos solely for the purpose of research in which they will be used and destroyed in the creation of human stem cell lines is ethically justified. Of course, a cynical but perhaps accurate reading of the new Obama policy is that leaving this restriction in place was done for political, not ethical, reasons, in light of the apparent public opposition to creating embryos for use (...)
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  28.  23
    Animating embryos: the in toto representation of life.Janina Wellmann - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Science 50 (3):521-535.
    With the recent advent of systems biology, developmental biology is taking a new turn. Attempts to create a ‘digital embryo’ are prominent among systems approaches. At the heart of these systems-based endeavours, variously described as ‘in vivoimaging’, ‘live imaging’ or ‘in totorepresentation’, are visualization techniques that allow researchers to image whole, live embryos at cellular resolution over time. Ultimately, the aim of the visualizations is to build a computer model of embryogenesis. This article examines the role of such visualization (...)
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  29. Philosophical Ruminations about Embryo Experimentation with Reference to Reproductive Technologies in Jewish “Halakhah”.Piyali Mitra - 2017 - IAFOR Journal of Ethics, Religion and Philosophy 3 (2):5-19.
    The use of modern medical technologies and interventions involves ethical and legal dilemmas which are yet to be solved. For the religious Jews the answer lies in Halakhah. The objective of this paper is to unscramble the difficult conundrum possessed by the halakhalic standing concerning the use of human embryonic cell for research. It also aims to take contemporary ethical issues arising from the use of technologies and medical advances made in human reproduction and study them from an abstract philosophical (...)
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  30.  32
    Embryo Research: The Ethical Geography of the Debate.G. Khushf - 1997 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (5):495-519.
    Three basic political positions on embryo research will be identified as libertarian, conservative, and social-democratic. The Human Embryo Research Panel will be regarded as an expression of the social-democratic position. A taxonomy of the ethical issues addressed by the Panel will then be developed at the juncture of political and ethical modes of reflection. Among the arguments considered will be those for the separability of the abortion and embryo research debates; arguments against the possibility of the preembryo being a person, (...)
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  31.  24
    If Embryos and Fetuses Have Rights.Michele GoodwIn - 2017 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 11 (2):189-224.
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  32.  29
    Embryo donation or embryo adoption? Conceptual and normative issues.Oliver Hallich - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (6):653-660.
    A central question in the ethical debate on the practice of relinquishing in vitro fertilization surplus embryos for family building is whether we ought to think of it more in terms of donating these embryos or in terms of having them adopted. Deciding between these two alternatives is more than a matter of mere terminology. It has an impact on normative questions, e.g., on the question of what criteria for parent selection ought to be applied to the recipients (...)
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  33.  51
    Embryo Loss in Natural Procreation and Stem Cell Research.James J. Delaney - 2012 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 12 (3):461-476.
    John Harris argues that opponents of human embryonic stem cell research, Catholics specifically, suffer an inconsistency in their moral thinking, opposing it on the basis that the sacrifice of an embryo is impermissible even for the good of curing disease. They have no objection to natural procreation, however, which results in many early miscarriages. Harris contends that Catholics tacitly endorse these miscarriages as a permissible sacrifice for the good of producing other, healthy children. This paper offers a response to the (...)
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  34.  88
    Frozen embryos, genetic information and reproductive rights.Sarah Chan & Muireann Quigley - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (8):439–448.
    Recent ethical and legal challenges have arisen concerning the rights of individuals over their IVF embryos, leading to questions about how, when the wishes of parents regarding their embryos conflict, such situations ought to be resolved. A notion commonly invoked in relation to frozen embryo disputes is that of reproductive rights: a right to have (or not to have) children. This has sometimes been interpreted to mean a right to have, or not to have, one's own genetic children. (...)
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  35.  14
    Staging Embryos: Pregnancy, Temporality and the History of the Carnegie Stages of Embryo Development.Sara DiCaglio - 2017 - Body and Society 23 (2):3-24.
    The founding of the Carnegie Institute’s Department of Embryology in 1913, alongside its systematization of embryo staging, contributed to the mechanization of developmental stages of embryo growth in the early 20th century. For a brief period in the middle of the century, attention to the detailed interrelation between embryo development and time made pre-existing ideas about pregnancy ends less determinative of ideas about that developmental course. However, the turn to the genetic scale led to the disappearance of this attention, replaced (...)
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  36.  43
    Cryopreserved Embryos and Dignitas Personae : Another Option?Patrick A. Tully - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (4):367-389.
    Many of the thousands of human embryos currently in cryogenic storage will sooner or later be discarded, often after being experimented upon. Others will remain in storage indefinitely, left there by parents who have no plans either to bring them to term or to offer them for adoption. These facts, coupled with a commitment to the basic moral equality of all human beings at all stages of development, generate a pressing question: What should be done for these embryos (...)
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  37.  45
    Embryo Adoption Reconsidered.Edward J. Furton - 2010 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 10 (2):329-347.
    The question of embryo adoption remains unresolved. Dignitas personae expresses reservations about the practice, but does not reject it. A proper interpretation of Dignitas personae n. 19 shows that the Vatican does not hold that human embryo adoption is intrinsically immoral, but that the question of its morality depends on the circumstances that surround the practice. Embryo adoption as practiced today is often compromised by illicit cooperation with objectionable reproductive technologies; nonetheless, it is possible to identify a best case scenario (...)
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  38.  38
    Surplus Embryos, Nonreproductive Cloning, and the Intend/Foresee Distinction.William Fitzpatrick - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (3):29-36.
    There is, as some public figures have asserted, a real moral difference between creating embryos expressly for medical research and conducting research on embryos that are left over from infertility treatments. To create an embryo intending all along to destroy it is worse. But in the end, it isn't so much worse that we should ban all nonreproductive cloning.
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  39.  39
    Human embryo research: From moral uncertainty to death.Frederick Grinnell - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):12 – 13.
    Conventional approaches to pluralistic thinking in bioethics usually attempt in one fashion or another to isolate and choose between the different perspectives. I would argue, however, that the essentialist and existentialist perspectives on the embryo each are internally self-consistent and ethically correct within their own framework and at the same time mutually exclusive. Therefore, we will Žnd no ethical high ground on which to base a choice. Rather, human embryo research will continue to be characterized by a multiplicity of views (...)
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  40.  13
    Surplus Embryos and Abortion.Joshua Shaw - 2023 - Social Theory and Practice 49 (2):363-384.
    Several states have recently adopted more restrictive abortion policies yet permit fertility clinics to create surplus IVF embryos. This essay examines this issue: Is it morally inconsistent to prohibit abortion yet permit surplus embryos to be used in fertility medicine? I consider various arguments that try to reconcile this tension. None succeed. Either one holds that embryos have full moral status, and opposes both abortion and surplus embryos, or one denies that embryos have full moral (...)
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  41.  33
    Embryo Disposition Disputes: Controversies and Case Law.I. Glenn Cohen & Eli Y. Adashi - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):13-19.
    When prospective parents use in vitro fertilization, many of them hope to generate more embryos than they intend to implant immediately. The technology often requires multiple attempts to reach a successful pregnancy, and couples can cryopreserve any excess embryos so that they have them on hand for later attempts. As part of obtaining informed consent for IVF or cryopreservation, clinics typically ask patients to specify their preferences for the embryos in the event of divorce or death, offering (...)
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  42.  13
    Embryo Research Ethics.Robert George & Christopher Tollefsen - 2022 - In Tomas Zima & David N. Weisstub (eds.), Medical Research Ethics: Challenges in the 21st Century. Springer Verlag. pp. 3-15.
    Robert George and Christopher Tollefsen argue that human beings have fundamental dignity and basic rights (“human rights”) in virtue of the kind of entity they are—creatures bearing a rational nature. The indicia of a rational nature are the basic natural capacities—which obtain from the point a rational creature comes into existence—for thinking, deliberating, and choosing, whether or not these capacities are immediately exercisable. All human beings, including those who are asleep, or under general anesthesia, or who are in deep comas (...)
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  43.  29
    Embryo Research in Italy: The Bioethical and Biojuridical Debate.Laura Palazzani - 2011 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):28-39.
    This article deals with the discussion on the status of the human embryo in Italy on a philosophical, socio-ethical and juridical level before, during and after the law. Different lines of thought are outlined and critically discussed. The focus is the debate over the so-called embryonic stem cells, pointing out the ethical premises and the juridical implications. The regulations in Italy are analysed in detail, referring to legislation and jurisprudence. In particular the author includes evidence for the debate after the (...)
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  44.  21
    Embryos Created for Research Purposes.Dena S. Davis - 1995 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 5 (4):343-354.
    The creation of embryos for research use has drawn a great deal of criticism. It is difficult to defend an ethical distinction between what one can do to "spare" embryos and what one can do to "research" embryos. The strongest ground on which to argue against the creation of embryos for research is a symbolic one, having to do with respect for human life. Ronald Dworkin's work in Life's Dominion on the symbolic meaning of the abortion (...)
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  45.  13
    Human embryos and eggs: from long-term storage to biobanking.Heather Widdows & Françoise Baylis - 2015 - Monash Bioethics Review 33 (4):340-359.
    Genetic relatedness poses significant challenges to traditional practices of medical ethics as concerns the biobanking of human biological samples. In this paper, we first outline the ethical challenges to informed consent and confidentiality as these apply to human biobanks, irrespective of the type of tissue being stored. We argue that the shared nature of genetic information has clear implications for informed consent, and the identifying nature of biological samples and information has clear implications for promises of confidentiality. Next, with regard (...)
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  46.  4
    Embryo Research as a Paradigm of Ethical Pragmatics.Dieter Birnbacher - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 4:7-12.
    Research on the human embryo is one of the most obstinately controversial issues of international bioethical debate. There has not been enough of a consensus on this issue to allow for more than a formal compromise within Europe. I argue in this paper for a pragmatic approach to the problem which accords priority to "want-regarding" considerations but does not fail, as most utilitarian approaches do, to give due weight to the "morality-dependent harms" caused by the practice of embryo research to (...)
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  47.  30
    Splitting Embryos on the Slippery Slope: Ethics and Public Policy.Ruth Macklin - 1994 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (3):209-225.
    Neither the George Washington University embryo splitting experiment nor the technique of embryo splitting itself has ethical flaws. The experiment harmed or wronged no one, and the investigators followed intramural review procedures for the experiment, although some might fault them for failing to seek extramural consultation or for not waiting until national guidelines for research on preembryos were developed. Ethical objections to such cloning on the basis of possible loss of individuality, possible lessening of individual worth, and concern about potential (...)
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  48. The ambiguity of the embryo: Ethical inconsistency in the human embryonic stem cell debate.Katrien Devolder & John Harris - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):153–169.
    We argue in this essay that (1) the embryo is an irredeemably ambiguous entity and its ambiguity casts serious doubt on the arguments claiming its full protection or, at least, its protection against its use as a means fo research, (2) those who claim the embryo should be protected as "one of us" are committed to a position even they do not uphold in their practices, (3) views that defend the protection of the embryo in virtue of its potentiality to (...)
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  49.  9
    Haeckel's embryos: images, evolution, and fraud.Nick Hopwood - 2015 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Icons of knowledge -- Two small embryos in spirits of wine -- Like flies on the Parlon ceiling -- Drawing and Darwinism -- Illustrating the magic word -- Professors and progress -- Visual strategies -- Schematics, forgery, and the so-called educated -- Imperial grids -- Setting standards -- Forbidden fruit -- Creative copying -- Trials and tributes -- Scandal for the people -- A hundred Haeckels -- The textbook illustration -- Iconoclasm -- The shock of the copy.
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  50. Donating Fresh Versus Frozen Embryos to Stem Cell Research: In Whose Interests?Carolyn Mcleod & Françoise Baylis - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (9):465–477.
    Some stem cell researchers believe that it is easier to derive human embryonic stem cells from fresh rather than frozen embryos and they have had in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians invite their infertility patients to donate their fresh embryos for research use. These embryos include those that are deemed 'suitable for transfer' (i.e. to the woman's uterus) and those deemed unsuitable in this regard. This paper focuses on fresh embryos deemed suitable for transfer - hereafter 'fresh (...)
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