Results for 'Ryan Doherty'

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  1.  9
    On Scientific Thinking.Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.) - 1981 - Columbia University Press.
  2.  65
    Rationality and the Psychology of Inference.Ryan D. Tweney & Michael E. Doherty - 1983 - Synthese 57 (November):129-138.
    Recent advances in the cognitive psychology of inference have been of great interest to philosophers of science. The present paper reviews one such area, namely studies based upon Wason's 4-card selection task. It is argued that interpretation of the results of the experiments is complex, because a variety of inference strategies may be used by subjects to select evidence needed to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis. Empirical evidence suggests that which strategy is used depends in part on the semantic, syntactic, (...)
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  3.  8
    Psychology and the Foundations of Rational Belief.Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):262-263.
  4.  31
    The Pseudodiagnosticity Trap: Should Participants Consider Alternative Hypotheses?Gernot D. Kleiter, Michael E. Doherty & Ryan D. Tweney - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (4):332-345.
  5.  15
    The Influence of Feedback and Diagnostic Data on Pseudodiagnosticity.Michael E. Doherty, Michael B. Schiavo, Ryan D. Tweney & Clifford R. Mynatt - 1981 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 18 (4):191-194.
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  6. The Value of Happiness.Ryan Doherty - 2009 - Emergent Australasian Philosophers 2 (1):1-8.
    There has been much debate in the philosophical literature about the nature of happiness. The central point of contention is whether happiness is best thought of as a psychological state or as a concept with a distinctively evaluative element. This essay argues that a purely psychological conception of happiness is incapable of accounting for our intuitive idea that happiness has great value and significance. A satisfactory account would acknowledge the importance of the psychological aspect of happiness but would insist that (...)
     
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  7.  11
    Can Philosophy Resolve Empirical Issues?Clifford R. Mynatt, Ryan D. Tweney & Michael E. Doherty - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):506.
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  8.  1
    Reason and Conversion in Kierkegaard and the German Idealists.Ryan S. Kemp & Christopher Iacovetti - 2020 - Routledge.
    In his late work Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Immanuel Kant struggles to answer a straightforward, yet surprisingly difficult, question: how is radical conversion--a complete reorientation of a person's most deeply held values--possible? In this book, Ryan S. Kemp and Christopher Iacovetti examine how this question gets taken up by Kant's philosophical heirs: Schelling, Fichte, Hegel and Kierkegaard. More than simply developing a novel account of each thinker's position, Kemp and Iacovetti trace how each philosopher formulates his (...)
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  9.  16
    A Political‐Economic Theory of Relevance: Explaining Climate Change Inaction.Ryan Gunderson, Diana Stuart & Matthew Houser - 2020 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 50 (1):42-63.
    Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, EarlyView.
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  10. Metametaphysics: New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology.Ryan Wasserman, David Manley & David Chalmers (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  11.  22
    Ockhamism Vs Molinism, Round 2: A Reply to Warfield: T. Ryan Byerly.T. Ryan Byerly - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (4):503-511.
    Ted Warfield has argued that if Ockhamism and Molinism offer different responses to the problems of foreknowledge and prophecy, it is the Molinist who is in trouble. I show here that this is not so – indeed, things may be quite the reverse.
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  12.  2
    Michael Ryan’s Writings on Medical Ethics.Michael Ryan - 2009 - Springer.
    Michael Ryan (d. 1840) remains one of the most mysterious figures in the history of medical ethics, despite the fact that he was the only British physician during the middle years of the 19th century to write about ethics in a systematic way. Michael Ryan’s Writings on Medical Ethics offers both an annotated reprint of his key ethical writings, and an extensive introductory essay that fills in many previously unknown details of Ryan’s life, analyzes the significance of (...)
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  13.  12
    Psychological Morale: Its Conceptualisation and Measurement. The Doherty Inventory of Psychological Morale.Jim Doherty - 1988 - Educational Studies 14 (1):65-75.
  14.  32
    Conversation, Co-Ordination and Convention: An Empirical Investigation of How Groups Establish Linguistic Conventions.Simon Garrod & Gwyneth Doherty - 1994 - Cognition 53 (3):181-215.
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  15.  21
    Navigating Social and Ethical Challenges of Biobanking for Human Microbiome Research.Kieran C. O’Doherty, David S. Guttman, Yvonne C. W. Yau, Valerie J. Waters, D. Elizabeth Tullis, David M. Hwang & Kim H. Chuong - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):1.
    BackgroundBiobanks are considered to be key infrastructures for research development and have generated a lot of debate about their ethical, legal and social implications. While the focus has been on human genomic research, rapid advances in human microbiome research further complicate the debate.DiscussionWe draw on two cystic fibrosis biobanks in Toronto, Canada, to illustrate our points. The biobanks have been established to facilitate sample and data sharing for research into the link between disease progression and microbial dynamics in the lungs (...)
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  16.  18
    Krytyczna Historia Ucieleśniania Jako Paragydmatu Badawczego Nauk o Poznaniu:(Lawrence Shapiro, Embodied Cognitive)/Kevin Ryan.Lawrence Shapiro & Kevin Ryan - 2012 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1):386 - 389.
  17.  16
    Immigration and the Constraints of Justice: Between Open Borders and Absolute Sovereignty.Ryan Pevnick - 2011 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the constraints which justice imposes on immigration policy. Like liberal nationalists, Ryan Pevnick argues that citizens have special claims to the institutions of their states. However, the source of these special claims is located in the citizenry's ownership of state institutions rather than in a shared national identity. Citizens contribute to the construction and maintenance of institutions, and as a result they have special claims to these institutions and a limited right to exclude outsiders. Pevnick shows (...)
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  18.  16
    Paradoxes of Time Travel.Ryan Wasserman - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Ryan Wasserman explores a range of fascinating puzzles raised by the possibility of time travel, with entertaining examples from physics, science fiction, and popular culture, and he draws out their implications for our understanding of time, tense, freedom, fatalism, causation, counterfactuals, laws of nature, persistence, change, and mereology.
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  19.  63
    Formal Semantics and Applied Mathematics: An Inferential Account.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2020 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 29 (2):221-253.
    In this paper, I utilise the growing literature on scientific modelling to investigate the nature of formal semantics from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Specifically, I incorporate the inferential framework proposed by Bueno and Colyvan : 345–374, 2011) in the philosophy of applied mathematics to offer an account of how formal semantics explains and models its data. This view produces a picture of formal semantic models as involving an embedded process of inference and representation applying indirectly to linguistic (...)
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  20. Moral Beauty, Inside and Out.Ryan P. Doran - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):396-414.
    In this article, robust evidence is provided showing that an individual’s moral character can contribute to the aesthetic quality of their appearance, as well as being beautiful or ugly itself. It is argued that this evidence supports two main conclusions. First, moral beauty and ugliness reside on the inside, and beauty and ugliness are not perception-dependent as a result; and, second, aesthetic perception is affected by moral information, and thus moral beauty and ugliness are on the outside as well.
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  21. Social Contract Theory for a Diverse World: Beyond Tolerance.Ryan Muldoon - 2016 - Routledge.
    Very diverse societies pose real problems for Rawlsian models of public reason. This is for two reasons: first, public reason is unable accommodate diverse perspectives in determining a regulative ideal. Second, regulative ideals are unable to respond to social change. While models based on public reason focus on the justification of principles, this book suggests that we need to orient our normative theories more toward discovery and experimentation. The book develops a unique approach to social contract theory that focuses on (...)
     
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  22. Contributions of the Striatum to Learning, Motivation, and Performance: An Associative Account.Mimi Liljeholm & John P. O’Doherty - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (9):467-475.
  23.  25
    A Fair Trade-Off? Paradoxes in the Governance of Fair-Trade Social Enterprises.Chris Mason & Bob Doherty - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (3):451-469.
    This paper explores how fair trade social enterprises manage paradoxes in stakeholder-oriented governance models. We use narrative accounts from board members, at governance events and board documents to report an exploratory study of paradoxes in three FTSEs which are partly farmer-owned. Having synthesized the key social enterprise governance literature and framed it alongside the broader paradox theory, we used narratives to explore how tensions are articulated, how they can be applied within an adapted paradox framework, and how governance actors seek (...)
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  24. The Evolution of Misbelief.Ryan McKay & Daniel Dennett - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):493.
    From an evolutionary standpoint, a default presumption is that true beliefs are adaptive and misbeliefs maladaptive. But if humans are biologically engineered to appraise the world accurately and to form true beliefs, how are we to explain the routine exceptions to this rule? How can we account for mistaken beliefs, bizarre delusions, and instances of self-deception? We explore this question in some detail. We begin by articulating a distinction between two general types of misbelief: those resulting from a breakdown in (...)
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  25.  5
    The Reasonable Robot: Artificial Intelligence and the Law.Ryan Abbott - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    AI and people do not compete on a level-playing field. Self-driving vehicles may be safer than human drivers, but laws often penalize such technology. People may provide superior customer service, but businesses are automating to reduce their taxes. AI may innovate more effectively, but an antiquated legal framework constrains inventive AI. In The Reasonable Robot, Ryan Abbott argues that the law should not discriminate between AI and human behavior and proposes a new legal principle that will ultimately improve human (...)
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  26. Thick and Perceptual Moral Beauty.Ryan P. Doran - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-18.
    Which traits are beautiful? And is their beauty perceptual? It is argued that moral virtues are partly beautiful to the extent that they tend to give rise to a certain emotion— ecstasy—and that compassion tends to be more beautiful than fair-mindedness because it tends to give rise to this emotion to a greater extent. It is then argued, on the basis that emotions are best thought of as a special, evaluative, kind of perception, that this argument suggests that moral virtues (...)
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  27. Ugliness Is in the Gut of the Beholder.Ryan P. Doran - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    I offer the first sustained defence of the claim that ugliness is constituted by the disposition to disgust. I advance three main lines of argument in support of this thesis. First, ugliness and disgustingness tend to lie in the same kinds of things and properties (the argument from ostensions). Second, the thesis is better placed than all existing accounts to accommodate the following facts: ugliness is narrowly and systematically distributed in a heterogenous set of things, ugliness is sometimes enjoyed, and (...)
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  28.  67
    Aesthetic Animism.Ryan P. Doran - 2022 - Philosophical Studies:1-36.
    I argue that the main existing accounts of the relationship between the beauty of environmental entities and their moral standing are mistaken in important ways. Beauty does not, as has been suggested by optimists, confer intrinsic moral standing. Nor is it the case, as has been suggested by pessimists, that beauty at best provides an anthropocentric source of moral standing that is commensurate with other sources of pleasure. I present arguments and evidence that show that the appreciation of beauty tends (...)
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  29. Eugene E. Ryan.Eugene Ryan - 2006 - Il Pensiero 26 (1):195-197.
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  30.  16
    Moving From Understanding of Consent Conditions to Heuristics of Trust.Michael M. Burgess & Kieran C. O’Doherty - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):24-26.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 24-26.
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  31.  16
    Balancing a Hybrid Business Model: The Search for Equilibrium at Cafédirect.Iain A. Davies & Bob Doherty - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (4):1043-1066.
    This paper investigates the difficulties of creating economic, social, and environmental values when operating as a hybrid venture. Drawing on hybrid organizing and sustainable business model research, it explores the implications of alternative forms of business model experimented with by farmer owned, fairtrade social enterprise Cafédirect. Responding to changes and challenges in the market and societal environment, Cafédirect has tried multiple business model innovations to deliver on all three forms of value capture, with differing levels of success. This longitudinal case (...)
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  32. Hypothesis Testing: The Role of Confirmation.R. D. Tweney, M. E. Doherty & C. R. Mynatt - 1981 - In Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.), On Scientific Thinking. Columbia University Press. pp. 115--128.
     
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  33. Robustness and Idealization in Models of Cognitive Labor.Ryan Muldoon & Michael Weisberg - 2011 - Synthese 183 (2):161-174.
    Scientific research is almost always conducted by communities of scientists of varying size and complexity. Such communities are effective, in part, because they divide their cognitive labor: not every scientist works on the same project. Philip Kitcher and Michael Strevens have pioneered efforts to understand this division of cognitive labor by proposing models of how scientists make decisions about which project to work on. For such models to be useful, they must be simple enough for us to understand their dynamics, (...)
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  34. Social Trust and the Ethics of Immigration Policy &Ast.Ryan Pevnick - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):146-167.
  35. Diversity and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Ryan Muldoon - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (2):117-125.
    In epistemology and the philosophy of science, there has been an increasing interest in the social aspects of belief acquisition. In particular, there has been a focus on the division of cognitive labor in science. This essay explores several different models of the division of cognitive labor, with particular focus on Kitcher, Strevens, Weisberg and Muldoon, and Zollman. The essay then shows how many of the benefits of the division of cognitive labor flow from leveraging agent diversity. The essay concludes (...)
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  36. Hybrid Expressivism and the Analogy Between Pejoratives and Moral Language.Ryan J. Hay - 2013 - European Journal of Philosophy 21 (3):450-474.
    : In recent literature supporting a hybrid view between metaethical cognitivism and noncognitivist expressivism, much has been made of an analogy between moral terms and pejoratives. The analogy is based on the plausible idea that pejorative slurs are used to express both a descriptive belief and a negative attitude. The analogy looks promising insofar as it encourages the kinds of features we should want from a hybrid expressivist view for moral language. But the analogy between moral terms and pejorative slurs (...)
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  37.  30
    Adam Smith and the Character of Virtue.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    The problem : commerce and corruption -- Smith's defense of commercial society -- What is corruption? : political and psychological perspectives -- Smith on corruption : from the citizen to the human being -- The solution : moral philosophy -- Liberal individualism and virtue ethics -- Social science vs. moral philosophy -- Types of moral philosophy : natural jurisprudence vs. ethics -- Types of ethics : utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics -- Virtue ethics : modern, ancient, and Smithean -- Interlude (...)
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  38.  95
    The Functional Role of Cross-Frequency Coupling.Ryan T. Canolty & Robert T. Knight - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11):506-515.
  39.  11
    Patients’ Beliefs About Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression.Ryan E. Lawrence, Catharine R. Kaufmann, Ravi B. DeSilva & Paul S. Appelbaum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (4):210-218.
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  40.  7
    Our Great Purpose: Adam Smith on Living a Better Life.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2019 - Princeton University Press.
    Invaluable wisdom on living a good life from the founder of modern economics Adam Smith is best known today as the founder of modern economics, but he was also an uncommonly brilliant philosopher who was especially interested in the perennial question of how to live a good life. Our Great Purpose is a short and illuminating guide to Smith's incomparable wisdom on how to live well, written by one of today's leading Smith scholars. In this inspiring and entertaining book, (...) Patrick Hanley describes Smith's vision of "the excellent and praiseworthy character," and draws on the philosopher's writings to show how each of us can go about developing one. For Smith, an excellent character is distinguished by qualities such as prudence, self-command, justice, and benevolence—virtues that have been extolled since antiquity. Yet Smith wrote not for the ancient polis but for the world of market society—our world—which rewards self-interest more than virtue. Hanley shows how Smith set forth a vision of the worthy life that is uniquely suited to us today. Full of invaluable insights on topics ranging from happiness and moderation to love and friendship, Our Great Purpose enables modern readers to see Smith in an entirely new light—and along the way, learn what it truly means to live a good life. (shrink)
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  41. Disagreement Behind the Veil of Ignorance.Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Mark Colyvan, Carlo Martini, Giacomo Sillari & Jan Sprenger - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):377-394.
    In this paper we argue that there is a kind of moral disagreement that survives the Rawlsian veil of ignorance. While a veil of ignorance eliminates sources of disagreement stemming from self-interest, it does not do anything to eliminate deeper sources of disagreement. These disagreements not only persist, but transform their structure once behind the veil of ignorance. We consider formal frameworks for exploring these differences in structure between interested and disinterested disagreement, and argue that consensus models offer us a (...)
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  42.  76
    Ethical Emergentism and Moral Causation.Ryan Stringer - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18 (4):331-362.
    This paper focuses on a recently articulated, emergentist conception of ethical naturalism and its commitment to causal efficacy, or the idea that moral properties have causal powers, along with its supporting commitment to moral causation. After I reconstruct the theory, I explain how it offers some interesting theoretical benefits to moral realists in virtue of its commitment to causal efficacy. Then, after locating some examples of moral causation in support of this commitment, I present and respond to five objections to (...)
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  43. Back to the Sources Biblical and Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Dermot Ryan.Kevin J. Cathcart, John F. Healey & Dermot Ryan - 1989
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  44. The Sunk Cost "Fallacy" Is Not a Fallacy.Ryan Doody - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6:1153-1190.
    Business and Economic textbooks warn against committing the Sunk Cost Fallacy: you, rationally, shouldn't let unrecoverable costs influence your current decisions. In this paper, I argue that this isn't, in general, correct. Sometimes it's perfectly reasonable to wish to carry on with a project because of the resources you've already sunk into it. The reason? Given that we're social creatures, it's not unreasonable to care about wanting to act in such a way so that a plausible story can be told (...)
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  45.  62
    Delusional Inference.Ryan McKay - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (3):330-355.
    Does the formation of delusions involve abnormal reasoning? According to the prominent ‘two-factor’ theory of delusions (e.g. Coltheart, 2007), the answer is yes. The second factor in this theory is supposed to affect a deluded individual's ability to evaluate candidates for belief. However, most published accounts of the two-factor theory have not said much about the nature of this second factor. In an effort to remedy this shortcoming, Coltheart, Menzies and Sutton (2010) recently put forward a Bayesian account of inference (...)
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  46. A Challenge for Machine Ethics.Ryan Tonkens - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (3):421-438.
    That the successful development of fully autonomous artificial moral agents (AMAs) is imminent is becoming the received view within artificial intelligence research and robotics. The discipline of Machines Ethics, whose mandate is to create such ethical robots, is consequently gaining momentum. Although it is often asked whether a given moral framework can be implemented into machines, it is never asked whether it should be. This paper articulates a pressing challenge for Machine Ethics: To identify an ethical framework that is both (...)
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  47.  64
    Sullying Sights.Ryan P. Doran - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology 35 (2):177-204.
    In this article, an account of the architecture of the cognitive contamination system is offered, according to which the contamination system can generate contamination represen- tations in circumstances that do not satisfy the norms of contamination, including in cases of mere visual contact with disgusting objects. It is argued that this architecture is important for explaining the content, logic, distribution, and persistence of maternal impression beliefs – according to which fetal defects are caused by the pregnant mother’s experiences and actions (...)
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  48.  46
    Clash of Definitions: Controversies About Conscience in Medicine.Ryan E. Lawrence & Farr A. Curlin - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):10 – 14.
    What role should the physician's conscience play in the practice of medicine? Much controversy has surrounded the question, yet little attention has been paid to the possibility that disputants are operating with contrasting definitions of the conscience. To illustrate this divergence, we contrast definitions stemming from Abrahamic religions and those stemming from secular moral tradition. Clear differences emerge regarding what the term conscience conveys, how the conscience should be informed, and what the consequences are for violating one's conscience. Importantly, these (...)
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  49.  85
    A Puzzle concerning Compositionality in Machines.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):47-75.
    This paper attempts to describe and address a specific puzzle related to compositionality in artificial networks such as Deep Neural Networks and machine learning in general. The puzzle identified here touches on a larger debate in Artificial Intelligence related to epistemic opacity but specifically focuses on computational applications of human level linguistic abilities or properties and a special difficulty with relation to these. Thus, the resulting issue is both general and unique. A partial solution is suggested.
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  50. 80,000 Hours for the Common Good: A Thomistic Appraisal of Effective Altruism.Ryan Miller - forthcoming - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
    Effective Altruism is a rapidly growing and influential contemporary philosophical movement committed to updating utilitarianism in both theory and practice. The movement focuses on identifying urgent but neglected causes and inspiring supererogatory giving to meet the need. It also tries to build a broader coalition by adopting a more ecumenical approach to ethics which recognizes a wide range of values and moral constraints. These interesting developments distinguish Effective Altruism from the utilitarianism of the past in ways that invite cooperation and (...)
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