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Summary In discussions on human enhancement, moral enhancement has emerged as an appealing blueprint. Moral enhancement refers to the use of certain technological means to transform individuals into more moral actors, including techniques such as neurotechnology, genetic technology, and AI technology. Other expressions for this concept include moral bioenhancement (MBE), biomedical moral enhancement (BME), moral neuroenhancement (MNE), among others. According to proponents of moral enhancement, its purpose is to address the numerous moral crises present in contemporary human society, which can not be overcome for our inherent biological attributes developed in evolutionary history. Therefore, they argue that only through moral enhancement methods can the development of human society be maintained. Philosophers are currently focused on exploring three levels of questions concerning moral enhancement: (1) metaethics, which delves into what morality is in the context of moral enhancement and whether morality can be enhanced; (2) normative ethics, examining issues such as whether moral enhancement undermines human identity, autonomy, authenticity, as well as concerns regarding responsibility and obligations resulting from moral enhancement; and (3) applied ethics, with some scholars discussing specific forms of moral enhancement such as moral neuroenhancement and moral genetic enhancement. Additionally, with the rise of artificial intelligence, many philosophers have started to consider whether AI, as a moral agent, can assist humans in moral reasoning through its superior computational abilities, thereby enhancing human moral levels. Topics related to moral enhancement include moral development, moral reasoning, moral cognition, and bioethics, particularly in relation to evolution and game theory, which have recently gained extensive application in related discussions.
Key works Discussions on moral enhancement can be roughly positioned along a continuum of perspectives, ranging from the most radical claims that advocate for large-scale, compulsory, and covert implementation of moral enhancement by governments, to the most conservative position that rejects all forms of moral enhancement under any circumstances. Thomas Douglas initiated the discussion on moral enhancement within the field of bioethics. Criticisms of moral enhancement began with John Harris, while Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu, and others have put forward counterarguments, asserting the moral acceptability of moral enhancement.
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  1. Why being morally virtuous enhances well-being: A Self-Determination Theory approach.Alexios Arvanitis & Matt Stichter - forthcoming - The Journal of Moral Education:1-17.
    Self-determination theory, like other psychological theories that study eudaimomia, focuses on general processes of growth and self-realization. An aspect that tends to be sidelined in the relevant literature is virtue. We propose that special focus needs to be placed on moral virtue and its development. We review different types of moral motivation and argue that morally virtuous behavior is regulated through integrated regulation. We describe the process of moral integration and how it relates to the development of moral virtue. We (...)
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  2. Psychedelics and Moral Psychology: The Case of Forgiveness.Samir Chopra & Chris Letheby - forthcoming - In Chris Letheby & Philip Gerrans (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Psychedelic Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
    Several authors have recently suggested that classic psychedelics might be safe and effective agents of moral enhancement. This raises the question: can we learn anything interesting about the nature of moral experience from a close examination of transformative psychedelic experiences? The interdisciplinary enterprise of philosophical psychopathology attempts to learn about the structure and function of the “ordinary” mind by studying the radically altered mind. By analogy, in this chapter we argue that we can gain knowledge about the everyday moral life (...)
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  3. Protecting Future Generations by Enhancing Current Generations.Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - In Fabrice Jotterand & Marcello Ienca (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Human Enhancement. New York: Routledge.
    It is plausible that current generations owe something to future generations. One possibility is that we have a duty to not harm them. Another possibility is that we have a duty to protect them. In either case, however, to satisfy the duties to future generations from environmental or political degradation, we need to engage in widespread collective action. But, as we are, we have a limited ability to do so, in part because we lack the self-discipline necessary for successful collective (...)
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  4. Besser ist besser? Enhancement der Moral aus einer handlungstheoretischen Perspektive.Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - In Raphael van Riel, Ezio Di Nucci & Jan Schildmann (eds.), Enhancement der Moral. Mentis. pp. Kapitel 4.
    Enhancement ist eine tolle Sache: dieser Begriff ist notwendigerweise positiv (ein bisschen wie der traditionelle Gottbegriff), so dass wenn eine Änderung keine richtige Verbesserung hervorbringt, es auch kein richtiges Enhancement gewesen ist: sehr praktisch. Wie könnte man unter diesen Umständen überhaupt gegen Enhancement sein? Beim Enhancement geht es nicht mal um das plausible aber nicht unumstrittene „mehr ist besser“; vielmehr geht es um das tautologische „besser ist besser“.
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  5. The Morality of Moral Neuroenhancement.Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - In Clausen Jens & Levy Neil (eds.), Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer.
    This chapter reviews recent philosophical and neuroethical literature on the morality of moral neuroenhancements. It first briefly outlines the main moral arguments that have been made concerning moral status neuroenhancements. These are neurointerventions that would augment the moral status of human persons. It then surveys recent debate regarding moral desirability neuroenhancements: neurointerventions that augment that the moral desirability of human character traits, motives or conduct. This debate has contested, among other claims (i) Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu’s contention that there (...)
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  6. How drug patents might provide disincentives for moral bioenhancement.Emanuel Mihail Socaciu & Radu Uszkai - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
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  7. Creating Future People: The Science and Ethics of Genetic Enhancement (2nd edition).Jonathan Anomaly - 2024 - London, UK: Routledge.
  8. Moral Enhancement and the Public Good. ParkerCrutchfield, 2021. New York, Routledge. xi + 174 pp, £120.00 (hb) £33.29 (pb). [REVIEW]Gabriel Andrade - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 40 (3):572-575.
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  9. Cognitive and Moral Enhancement: A Practical Proposal.Emma C. Gordon & Viola Ragonese - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 40 (3):474-487.
    According to Persson and Savulescu, the risks posed by a morally corrupt minority's potential to abuse cognitive enhancement make it such that we have an urgent imperative to first pursue moral enhancement of humankind – and, consequently, if we are a long way from safe, effective moral enhancement, then we have at least one good reason to consider opposing further cognitive enhancement. However, as Harris points out, such a proposal seems to support delaying life-saving cognitive progress. In this article, we (...)
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  10. Moral Enhancement and Contextualism: Some Reasons for the Unattainability of the Program for Moralizing People.Consuelo Luverà - 2023 - In Alessandro Capone & Assunta Penna (eds.), Exploring Contextualism and Performativity: The Environment Matters. Springer Verlag. pp. 217-226.
    Thanks to scientific progress, we have today the possibility to improve some of our physical and cognitive abilities through pharmaceutical, surgical, or genetic techniques. In a broad sense, we can refer to all these practices as human enhancements. They are the topic of an interesting ethical debate. In this paper, a particular kind of human enhancement will be investigated: moral enhancement. It is the possibility, even if only prospective for the moment, to use biomedical technologies to improve not a physical (...)
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  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Weaponized: A Theory of Moral Injury.Duncan MacIntosh - 2023 - In Justin T. McDaniel, Evan R. Seamone & Stephen N. Xenakis (eds.), Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War: Combat Trauma, Moral Injury, and Psychological Health. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 175-206.
    This chapter conceptually analyzes the post-traumatic stress injuries called moral injury, moral fatigue or exhaustion, and broken spirit. It then identifies two puzzles. First, soldiers sometimes sustain moral injury even from doing right actions. Second, they experience moral exhaustion from making decisions even where the morally right choice is so obvious that it shouldn’t be stressful to make it; and even where rightness of decision is so murky that no decision could be morally faulted. The injuries result of mistaken moral (...)
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  12. What Can We Learn from Those Who Have a Moral Change of Heart?Joshua May - 2023 - Psyche.
    Society would likely be better off if we all exercised more agency over our ethical epiphanies. There is no shortage of controversial issues for us to resolve, such as climate change, wealth inequality, discrimination and animal welfare. If we seek moral knowledge and a willingness to escape our own echo chambers, then we might consider deliberately striking a match or two, safely and responsibly. But how?
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  13. Moral Enhancement Is Irrational.Stephen Napier - 2023 - Acta Analytica 38 (4):653-665.
    Debates on moral enhancement focus legitimate attention on the questions of whether it is possible and/or what could count as a moral enhancement given deep ethical disagreement. I argue here that moral enhancements might not even be rational to consider—from the perspective of the agent. At issue is the assessment of whether the enhancement is truly reliable. Since we assess reliable belief forming processes by their outputs, whether they are true, an agent who is entertaining a putative moral enhancement faces (...)
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  14. Immune moral models? Pro-social rule breaking as a moral enhancement approach for ethical AI.Rajitha Ramanayake, Philipp Wicke & Vivek Nallur - 2023 - AI and Society 38 (2):801-813.
    We are moving towards a future where Artificial Intelligence (AI) based agents make many decisions on behalf of humans. From healthcare decision-making to social media censoring, these agents face problems, and make decisions with ethical and societal implications. Ethical behaviour is a critical characteristic that we would like in a human-centric AI. A common observation in human-centric industries, like the service industry and healthcare, is that their professionals tend to break rules, if necessary, for pro-social reasons. This behaviour among humans (...)
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  15. AI Moral Enhancement: Upgrading the Socio-Technical System of Moral Engagement.Richard Volkman & Katleen Gabriels - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (2):1-14.
    Several proposals for moral enhancement would use AI to augment (auxiliary enhancement) or even supplant (exhaustive enhancement) human moral reasoning or judgment. Exhaustive enhancement proposals conceive AI as some self-contained oracle whose superiority to our own moral abilities is manifest in its ability to reliably deliver the ‘right’ answers to all our moral problems. We think this is a mistaken way to frame the project, as it presumes that we already know many things that we are still in the process (...)
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  16. Against Aggression? Revisiting an Overlooked Contender for Moral Bioenhancement.Cohen Marcus Lionel Brown - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-15.
    In moral bioenhancement (MBE) discourse, aggression has been identified as one potential target of biomedical intervention. Early suggestions that aggression might be modulated to improve moral outcomes were met with strong opposition from those claiming it is impossible to modulate aggression without harming traits of distinct social and agential value. If we are to preclude (or endorse) particular paths to moral enhancement then we ought to establish sound reasons for doing so. However, in paying due consideration to contemporary aggression studies (...)
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  17. Moral enhancement, acquired virtue, and theism: A response to Brummett and Crutchfield.Nicholas Colgrove, Derek McAllister & Burke Rea - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (8):891-898.
    Recently, Brummett and Crutchfield advanced two critiques of theists who object to moral enhancement. First, a conceptual critique: theists who oppose moral enhancement commonly do so because virtue is thought to be acquired only via a special kind of process. Enhancement does not involve such processes. Hence, enhancement cannot produce virtue. Yet theists also commonly claim that God is perfectly virtuous and not subject to processes. If virtue requires a process and God is perfectly virtuous without a process, however, then (...)
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  18. Moral Enhancement, Acquired Virtue, and Theism: A Response to Brummett and Crutchfield.Nicholas Colgrove, Derek McAllister & Burke Rea - 2022 - Bioethics 1 (Online First):1-8.
    Recently, Brummett and Crutchfield advanced two critiques of theists who object to moral enhancement. First, a conceptual critique: theists who oppose moral enhancement commonly do so because virtue is thought to be acquired only via a special kind of process. Enhancement does not involve such processes. Hence, enhancement cannot produce virtue. Yet theists also commonly claim that God is perfectly virtuous and not subject to processes. If virtue requires a process and God is perfectly virtuous without a process, however, then (...)
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  19. Trust and Psychedelic Moral Enhancement.Emma C. Gordon - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-14.
    Moral enhancement proposals struggle to be both plausible and ethically defensible while nevertheless interestingly distinct from both cognitive enhancement as well as (mere) moral education. Brian Earp (_Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement_ 83:415–439, 12 ) suggests that a promising middle ground lies in focusing on the (suitably qualified) use of psychedelics as _adjuncts_ to moral development. But what would such an adjunctive use of psychedelics look like in practice? In this paper, I draw on literature from three areas where techniques (...)
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  20. Perfecting agents.Luke Henderson - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 93 (2):83-105.
    The focus of this paper is the process of perfecting agents. There are two views that attempt to explain what perfecting an agent looks like, specifically in the context of temporal requirements. One view claims that it is part of Christian orthodoxy that those destined for heaven will be instantaneously changed upon death from imperfect agents to perfect ones. The other view says that it’s impossible to perform an instantaneous change if the agent wants to maintain their personal identity; an (...)
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  21. Moral Neuroenhancement for Prisoners of War.Blake Hereth - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-20.
    Moral agential neuroenhancement can transform us into better people. However, critics of MB raise four central objections to MANEs use: It destroys moral freedom; it kills one moral agent and replaces them with another, better agent; it carries significant risk of infection and illness; it benefits society but not the enhanced person; and it’s wrong to experiment on nonconsenting persons. Herein, I defend MANE’s use for prisoners of war fighting unjustly. First, the permissibility of killing unjust combatants entails that, in (...)
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  22. The Evidence for the Pharmaceutical Strengthening of Attachment: What, Precisely, Would Love Drugs Enhance?Peter N. Herissone-Kelly - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (4):536-544.
    In recent decades, scientists have begun to identify the brain processes and neurochemicals associated with the different stages of love, including the all-important stage of attachment. Experimental findings—readily seized upon by those bioethicists who want to urge that we sometimes have good reason pharmaceutically to enhance flagging relationships—are presented as demonstrating that attachment is regulated and strengthened by the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. I shall argue, however, that often what the experimental data in fact show is only that exogenous administration (...)
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  23. Online dilemma discussions as a method of enhancing moral reasoning among health and social care graduate students.Soile Juujärvi & Liisa Myyry - 2022 - International Journal of Ethics Education 7 (2):271-287.
    Dilemma discussions have been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance students’ moral reasoning in ethics education. Dilemma discussions are increasingly arranged online, but research on the topic has remained sparse, especially in the context of continuing professional education. The aim of the present paper was to develop a method of dilemma discussions for professional ethics. The method was based on asynchronous discussions in small groups. Health and social care students raised work-related dilemmas from their experiences (...)
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  24. Towards a systematic evaluation of moral bioenhancement.Karolina Kudlek - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (2-3):95-110.
    The ongoing debate about moral bioenhancement has been exceptionally stimulating, but it is defined by extreme polarization and lack of consensus about any relevant aspect of MBE. This article reviews the discussion on MBE, showing that a lack of consensus about enhancements’ desirable features and the constant development of the debate calls for a more rigorous ethical analysis. I identify a list of factors that may be of crucial importance for illuminating the matters of moral permissibility in the MBE debate (...)
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  25. The Kantian Promise and Peril of Moral Bioenhancement.Karolina Kudlek & Patrick Taylor Smith - 2022 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 39 (3):487-503.
    Journal of Applied Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  26. Moral enhancement, the virtues, and transhumanism : moving beyond gene editing.Braden Molhoek - 2022 - In Arvin M. Gouw, Brian Patrick Green & Ted Peters (eds.), Religious Transhumanism and its Critics. Lexington Books.
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  27. How moral neuroenhancement impacts autonomy and agency.Sofie Møller - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (7):794-801.
    This paper challenges the role individual autonomy has played in debates on moral neuroenhancement (MN). It shows how John Hyman’s analysis of agency as consisting of functionally integrated dimensions allows us to reassess the impact of MN on practical agency. I discuss how MN affects what Hyman terms the four dimensions of agency: psychological, ethical, intellectual, and physical. Once we separate the different dimensions of agency, it becomes clear that many authors in the debate conflate the different dimensions in the (...)
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  28. Highway to Cocytus or Ascent into Paradise: Apatheia and Moral Bioenhancement.Benjamin N. Parks - 2022 - Christian Bioethics 28 (3):197-206.
    With the godlike powers of modern technology, just one bad actor can unleash hell on Earth. In the face of this threat posed by technology, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution. Although moral bioenhancement may at first seem like something Christian should support, it is my contention in this paper that there is at least one significant reason for Christians to be cautious in their appropriation of moral bioenhancement technology: it can at best give us a false apatheia, (...)
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  29. “Involuntary (Moral) Bioenhancement” Can Add Value to the Debate on Human Germline Genome Editing.Vojin Rakić - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (9):54-56.
    Robert Sparrow (2022) concludes his article “Human Germline Genome Editing: On the Nature of Our Reasons to Genome Edit” with the following sentence: “The issues around genome-editing are complex e...
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  30. A Virtual Prosthesis for Morality? Experiential Learning through XR Technologies for Autonomy Enhancement of Psychiatric Offenders.Jon Rueda & Emma Dore-Horgan - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (3):163-165.
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  31. The morally disruptive future of reprogenetic enhancement technologies.Jon Rueda, Jonathan Pugh & Julian Savulescu - 2022 - Trends in Biotechnology.
    Emerging reprogenetic technologies may enable the enhancement of our offspring's genes. Beyond raising ethical questions, these biotechnologies may change some aspects of future morality. In the reproductive field, biotechnological innovations may transform moral views about reproductive choices regarding what we consider to be just or even of equal standing.
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  32. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Respect Post-Persons.Ethan Terrill - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 31 (1):1-14.
    Advocates of the Respect Model of moral status have expressed skepticism about the possibility that radically enhanced persons will have a higher threshold of moral status over non-radically enhanced persons. While several philosophers have already argued that advocates of the Respect Model of moral status should recognize such a possibility in a world with radically enhanced persons, I make room for a stronger claim: advocates of the Respect Model of moral status should not only recognize the possibility of higher thresholds (...)
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  33. In Favour of a Dialogue Between Neurosciences and Normative Ethics: Moral Enhancement via Sprayed Oxitocine?Facundo Garcia Valverde & Cristian Augusto Fatauros - 2022 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 20:57-75.
    In this paper we argue that there should be a relationship of dialogue (excluding subordination and independence) between neurosciences and normative ethics. Our main argument is based on the fact that knowledge from neuroscience (and, in particular, studies on the causal role of oxytocin in human behavior) can explain and give content to some motivational and psychological limits that would modify moral demands on individuals. We show that in the face of a hypothetical case proposing moral enhancement through the application (...)
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  34. Human Moral Enhancement via AI. 이을상 - 2022 - Journal of the New Korean Philosophical Association 108:183-204.
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  35. Managerial ethical leadership, ethical climate and employee ethical behavior: does moral attentiveness matter?Fadi Abdel Muniem Abdel Fattah, Rafael Morales-Sánchez, Pablo Ruiz-Palomino & Hussam Al Halbusi - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (8):604-627.
    ABSTRACT Ethical leaders can influence followers’ ethical behaviors by establishing an ethical climate. However, followers’ responses to an ethical climate may also differ according to the amount of attention they devote to moral questions. This study analyzes whether moral attentiveness augments the positive effect of an ethical climate on employees’ ethical behaviors, as well as the indirect effect of ethical leadership on employee ethical behavior through an ethical climate. Data from 270 employees in the Malaysian manufacturing industry indicate that the (...)
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  36. Moral Enhancement Frameworks and Narrative Identity.Marcos Alonso - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2):112-114.
    “Virtue theory for moral enhancement” is a solid article with a valuable proposal. In general, it succeeds in presenting virtue theory as the best framework for moral enhancement. I agree with the...
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  37. Identity, Virtue Theory, and the Death of Moral Enhancement.Davide Battisti & Federico Bina - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):114-116.
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  38. Moral Enhancement Where It Would Make the Most Difference.Tamara Kayali Browne - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):107-108.
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  39. Two internal critiques for theists who oppose moral enhancement on a process virtue basis.Abram Brummett & Parker Crutchfield - 2021 - Bioethics 36 (4):367-373.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 4, Page 367-373, May 2022.
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  40. Can Moral Enhancement Address Our Environmental Crisis? A Call for Collective Virtue-Oriented Action.Brooke Burns, Nicolae Morar, Rebekah Sinclair & Kirstin Waldkoenig - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2):124-126.
    Proponents of moral enhancement present this biotechnology as a viable solution to social and political problems. The projected imperative to enhance ourselves morally is a direct response to our p...
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  41. The limits of direct modulation of emotion for moral enhancement.Mary Carman - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):192-198.
    Assuming that moral enhancement is morally permissible, I contend that a more careful theoretical treatment of emotion and the affective landscape is needed to advance both our understanding and the prospects of interventions aimed at moral enhancement. Using Douglas’ proposal for the direct modulation of counter‐moral emotions as a foil for discussion, I argue that the direct modulation of emotion fails to address underlying aspects of an agent’s psychology that will give rise to a range of counter‐moral motives beyond the (...)
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  42. Kant and the enhancement debate: Imperfect duties and perfecting ourselves.Brian A. Chance - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (8):801-811.
    This essay develops a Kantian approach to the permissibility of biomedical physical, cognitive, and moral enhancement. Kant holds that human beings have an imperfect duty to promote their physical, cognitive, and moral perfection. While an agent’s individual circumstances may limit the means she may permissibly use to enhance herself, whether biomedically or otherwise, I argue (1) that biomedical means of enhancing oneself are, generally speaking, both permissible and meritorious from a Kantian perspective. Despite often being equally permissible, I also argue (...)
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  43. Is enhancement inherently ableist?Lysette Chaproniere - 2021 - Bioethics 36 (4):356-366.
    Transhumanists and other proponents of enhancement have been criticized for their attitude to disability. Melinda Hall argues that transhumanists denigrate disabled people by devaluing interdependence and vulnerability, and implying that disabled people are dangerous. It might also be thought that further development of enhancement technologies would have bad consequences within current, ableist and otherwise oppressive social contexts. This paper responds to these objections, arguing that enhancement needn't be in conflict with disability justice. While enhancements can be used and promoted in (...)
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  44. Moral Enhancement and the Public Good.Parker Crutchfield - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    Currently, humans lack the cognitive and moral capacities to prevent the widespread suffering associated with collective risks, like pandemics, climate change, or even asteroids. In Moral Enhancement and the Public Good, Parker Crutchfield argues for the controversial, and initially counterintuitive claim that everyone should be administered a substance that makes us better people. Furthermore, he argues that it should be administered without our knowledge. That is, moral bioenhancement should be both compulsory and covert. Crutchfield demonstrates how our duty to future (...)
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  45. Functional Polymorphisms in Oxytocin and Dopamine Pathway Genes and the Development of Dispositional Compassion Over Time: The Young Finns Study.Henrik Dobewall, Aino Saarinen, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Terho Lehtimäki & Mirka Hintsanen - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: We define compassion as an enduring disposition that centers upon empathetic concern for another person's suffering and the motivation to act to alleviate it. The contribution of specific candidate genes to the development of dispositional compassion for others is currently unknown. We examine candidate genes in the oxytocin and dopamine signaling pathways.Methods: In a 32-year follow-up of the Young Finns Study, we examined with multiple indicators latent growth curve modeling the molecular genetic underpinnings of dispositional compassion for others across (...)
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  46. Virtue Theory for Moral Enhancement.Joao Fabiano - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):89-102.
    Our present moral traits are unable to provide the level of large-scale co-operation necessary to deal with risks such as nuclear proliferation, drastic climate change and pandemics. In order to survive in an environment with powerful and easily available technologies, some authors claim that we need to improve our moral traits with moral enhancement. But this is prone to produce paradoxical effects, be self-reinforcing and harm personal identity. The risks of moral enhancement require the use of a safety framework; such (...)
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  47. Moral Enhancement.Lisa Forsberg & Thomas Douglas - 2021 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Moral enhancements aim to morally improve a person, for example by increasing the frequency with which an individual does the right thing or acts from the right motives. Most of the applied ethics literature on moral enhancement focuses on moral bioenhancement – moral enhancement pursued through biomedical means – and considers examples such as the use of drugs to diminish aggression, suppress implicit racial biases, or amplify empathy. A number of authors have defended the voluntary pursuit of moral bioenhancement, or (...)
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  48. A Closer Look at the Adequacy of Proposed Frameworks for a “Virtue Theory for Moral Enhancement”.John A. Johnson - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):103-105.
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  49. Losing Our (Moral) Self in the Moral Bioenhancement Debate.Fabrice Jotterand - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):87-88.
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  50. On the uneasy alliance between moral bioenhancement and utilitarianism.Karolina Kudlek - 2021 - Bioethics 36 (2):210-217.
    Moral bioenhancement (MBE) is often associated with a consequentialist, especially utilitarian, framework, owing to its capacity to prevent great harm and motivate acts in accordance with basic moral principles such us universal impartial altruism or benevolence. However, it remains unclear whether we could de facto justify MBE on utilitarian grounds. This article examines whether there is a plausible utilitarian case for MBE and what the obstacles for justifying MBE on utilitarian grounds could be. More specifically, it explores the relationship between (...)
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