Results for 'Raphael Gebrecht'

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  1.  3
    Das Verhältnis von Subjektivität und Zeit bei Kant und Schopenhauer.Raphael Gebrecht - 2021 - Kant-Studien 112 (4):551-593.
    This paper focuses on Kant’s and Schopenhauer’s models of self-consciousness and their specific relation to time. It aims to show that genuine philosophical theories can explain the idiosyncratic relation between ourselves and the world without relying on pure metaphysical speculations or strictly empirical and phenomenally oriented conceptions, as many contemporary proponents of analytic philosophy entail. The first groundbreaking doctrine in this regard is Kant’s transcendental theory of apperception, which unfolds a new theoretical dimension of thinking, grounding the logical unity of (...)
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  2. Der Staat und die Begriffe des Rechts und Unrechts in Schopenhauers „politischer Metaphysik“.Raphael Gebrecht - 2021 - Voluntas: Revista Internacional de Filosofia 12:e08.
    Die vorliegende Abhandlung versucht die systematischen und ontologischen Gründe für Schopenhauers politische Philosophie darzulegen, indem insbesondere auf die Verbindung von kontraktualistischen und metaphysischen Elementen in seiner Staatskonzeption eingegangen wird. Dabei wird sich zeigen, dass Schopenhauers Begriffe des „Rechts“ und „Unrechts“ innerhalb eines institutionellen Gesamtrahmens nicht ohne den systematischen Horizont der „Welt als Wille und Vorstellung“ begriffen werden können, der insbesondere auf der kantischen Unterscheidung zwischen Erscheinung und Ding an sich beruht. Die immanenten Implikationen seiner metaphysischen Annahmen sollten daher als Grundlage (...)
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  3.  77
    Between Autonomy and State Regulation: J.S. Mill's Elastic Paternalism: Raphael Cohen-Almagor.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2012 - Philosophy 87 (4):557-582.
    This paper analyses J.S. Mill's theory on the relationships between individual autonomy and State powers. It will be argued that there is a significant discrepancy between Mill's general liberal statements aimed to secure individual largest possible autonomy and the specific examples which provide the government with quite wide latitude for interference in the public and private spheres. The paper outlines the boundaries of government interference in the Millian theory. Subsequently it describes Mill's elastic paternalism designed to prevent people from inflicting (...)
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  4.  28
    Alexander Marr, Between Raphael and Galileo: Mutio Oddi and the Mathematical Culture of Late Renaissance Italy. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. Pp. Xvii+359. ISBN 978-0-226-50628-9. £29.00. [REVIEW]Renée Raphael - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (1):126-128.
  5.  23
    Interview: D.D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael & Gideon Calder - 2016 - Philosophy Now 112:28-29.
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  6.  19
    Maurice Cranston : D. D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (1):1-7.
    Professor Maurice Cranston, who died suddenly on 5 November 1993, was a man of many talents. Pre-eminent as a biographer of Locke and Rousseau, he was also distinguished for his own contribution to political philosophy and for his capacity to expound the political thought of others in clear, simple language. He did this with great success not only in the lecture room but also in numerous broadcast talks and discussions, notably on the Third Programme of the BBC. In his academic (...)
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  7.  8
    Will Kymlicka and Raphael Cohen-Almagor.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2000 - In Maria Baghramian & Attracta Ingram (eds.), Pluralism: The Philosophy and Politics of Diversity. Routledge. pp. 228.
  8. J. S. Mill's Proof of the Principle of Utility: D. D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (1):55-63.
    In the introductory chapter of his essay on Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill says his aim is to contribute towards the understanding of utilitarianism and towards ‘such proof as it is susceptible of’. He immediately adds that ‘this cannot be proof in the ordinary and popular meaning of the term’ because ‘ultimate ends are not amenable to direct proof’. A proof that something is good has to show that it is ‘a means to something admitted to be good without proof’. But, (...)
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  9.  39
    Philosophy and Sociology: D. D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael - 1970 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 4:91-104.
    We hear nowadays in literary criticism of a type of novel that is an ‘anti-novel’ and of a type of hero who is an ‘anti-hero’. I recently read an article which argued, rather well in my opinion, that the later philosophy of Wittgenstein is an anti-philosophy. One could say the same of the philosophie positive of Auguste Comte, who is often called the father of sociology. The principle with which Comte starts off his philosophy, ‘the fundamental law of mental development’, (...)
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  10.  26
    Adam Smith: Philosophy, Science, and Social Science: D. D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael - 1978 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 12:77-93.
    What darkness was the ‘Enlightenment’ supposed to have removed? The answer is irrational forms of religion. Most of the ‘enlightened’ took the view that revealed religion was irrational and that natural religion could be rational; but some were sceptical about natural religion too. Hume was the most honest and the most penetrating thinker of the latter group. His biographer, Professor E. C. Mossner, is not alone in believing that the Dialogues concerning Natural Religion is ‘his philosophical testament’.
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  11.  26
    Liberty and Authority: D. D. Raphael.D. D. Raphael - 1983 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 15:1-15.
    Everybody supports freedom—even authoritarians, though what they call freedom looks suspiciously like bondage. Rousseau begins The Social Contract with a flourish: ‘Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.’ He ends up by trying to persuade us that the chains, the restraints of law and organized society, are necessary for true freedom. He wants us to believe that true freedom, the freedom essential for human existence, is not the happy-go-lucky freedom of Liberty Hall, do as you like, but (...)
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  12.  83
    Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness.Raphaël Millière, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors. Few attempts have been made (...)
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  13.  87
    Causal Inference, Mechanisms, and the Semmelweis Case.Raphael Scholl - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):66-76.
    Semmelweis’s discovery of the cause of puerperal fever around the middle of the 19th century counts among the paradigm cases of scientific discovery. For several decades, philosophers of science have used the episode to illustrate, appraise and compare views of proper scientific methodology.Here I argue that the episode can be profitably reexamined in light of two cognate notions: causal reasoning and mechanisms. Semmelweis used several causal reasoning strategies both to support his own and to reject competing hypotheses. However, these strategies (...)
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  14. What is a Gene?Raphael Falk - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (2):133.
  15.  41
    Scenes From a Marriage: On the Confrontation Model of History and Philosophy of Science.Raphael Scholl - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 12 (2):212-238.
    According to the "confrontation model," integrated history and philosophy of science operates like an empirical science. It tests philosophical accounts of science against historical case studies much like other sciences test theory against data. However, the confrontation model's critics object that historical facts can neither support generalizations nor genuinely test philosophical theories. Here I argue that most of the model's defects trace to its usual framing in terms of two problematic accounts of empirical inference: the hypothetico-deductive method and enumerative induction. (...)
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  16. Aristotle: Eudemian Ethics.Brad Inwood & Raphael Woolf (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's Eudemian Ethics has been unjustly neglected in comparison with its more famous counterpart the Nicomachean Ethics. This is in large part due to the fact that until recently no complete translation of the work has been available. But the Eudemian Ethics is a masterpiece in its own right, offering valuable insights into Aristotle's ideas on virtue, happiness and the good life. This volume offers a translation by Brad Inwood and Raphael Woolf that is both fluent and exact, and (...)
     
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  17. Ethics and Robotics.Raphael Capurro & Michael Nagenborg (eds.) - 2009 - Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.
    P. M. Asaro: What should We Want from a Robot Ethic? G. Tamburrini: Robot Ethics: A View from the Philosophy of Science B. Becker: Social Robots - Emotional Agents: Some Remarks on Naturalizing Man-machine Interaction E. Datteri, G. Tamburrini: Ethical Reflections on Health Care Robotics P. Lin, G. Bekey, K. Abney: Robots in War: Issues of Risk and Ethics J. Altmann: Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles J. Weber: Robotic warfare, Human Rights & The Rhetorics of Ethical Machines T. (...)
     
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  18.  7
    The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies.Raphael Scholl & Tilman Sauer (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume collects reflections on the role of philosophy in case studies in the history of science. Case studies have played a prominent role in recent history and philosophy of science. They have been used to illustrate, question, explore, or explicate philosophical points of view. Even if not explicitly so, historical narratives are always guided by philosophical background assumptions. But what happens if different philosophies lead to different narratives of the same historical episodes? Can historical case studies decide between competing (...)
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  19. The Impartial Spectator: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy.D. D. Raphael - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    D. D. Raphael examines the moral philosophy of Adam Smith (1723-90), best known for his famous work on economics, The Wealth of Nations, and shows that his thought still has much to offer philosophers today. Raphael gives particular attention to Smith's original theory of conscience, with its emphasis on the role of 'sympathy' (shared feelings).
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  20.  29
    Radical Disruptions of Self-Consciousness.Raphael Milliere & Thomas Metzinger - 2020 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 1 (I):1-13.
    This special issue is about something most of us might find very hard to conceive: states of consciousness in which self-consciousness is radically disrupted or altogether missing.
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  21.  9
    Genetic Analysis: A History of Genetic Thinking.Raphael Falk - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    There is a paradox lying at the heart of the study of heredity. To understand the ways in which features are passed down from one generation to the next, we have to dig deeper and deeper into the ultimate nature of things - from organisms, to genes, to molecules. And yet as we do this, increasingly we find we are out of focus with our subjects. What has any of this to do with the living, breathing organisms with which we (...)
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  22.  90
    Emotions as Objects of Argumentative Constructions.Raphaël Micheli - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (1):1-17.
    This paper takes part in the ongoing debate on how emotions can be dealt with by argumentation theory. Its main goal is to formulate a relationship between emotion and argumentation which differs from that usually found in most of the literature on the subject. In the “standard” conception, emotions are seen as the objects of appeals which function as adjuvants to argumentation: speakers appeal to pity, fear, shame and the like in order to enhance the cogency of an argument which (...)
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  23.  64
    Towards a Methodology for Integrated History and Philosophy of Science.Raphael Scholl & Tim Räz - 2016 - In Tim Räz & Raphael Scholl (eds.), The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies. Springer Verlag.
  24.  9
    Non‐Adjacent Dependencies Processing in Human and Non‐Human Primates.Raphaëlle Malassis, Arnaud Rey & Joël Fagot - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1677-1699.
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  25.  8
    Is It a Good Idea to Cultivate Lucid Dreaming?Raphael Vallat & Perrine Marie Ruby - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  26. Lying to Oneself.Raphael Demos - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (18):588-595.
  27. Introduction.Raphael Scholl & Tilman Sauer - 2016 - In Raphael Scholl & Tilman Sauer (eds.), The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies. Springer.
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  28.  39
    Panentheism: What It Is and Is Not.Raphael Lataster & Purushottama Bilimoria - 2018 - Journal of World Philosophies 3 (2):49-64.
    There has been much written of late on the topic of panentheism. Dissatisfied with many contemporary descriptions of “panentheism” and the related “pantheism,” which we feel arise out of theistic presuppositions, we produce our own definition of sorts, rooted in and paying respect to the term’s etymology and the concept’s roots in Indian religion and western philosophy. Furthermore, we consider and comment on the arguments and comments concerning panentheism’s definition and plausibility put forth by Göcke, Mullins, and Nickel.
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  29.  64
    Modeling Causal Structures: Volterra’s Struggle and Darwin’s Success.Raphael Scholl & Tim Räz - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (1):115-132.
    The Lotka–Volterra predator-prey-model is a widely known example of model-based science. Here we reexamine Vito Volterra’s and Umberto D’Ancona’s original publications on the model, and in particular their methodological reflections. On this basis we develop several ideas pertaining to the philosophical debate on the scientific practice of modeling. First, we show that Volterra and D’Ancona chose modeling because the problem in hand could not be approached by more direct methods such as causal inference. This suggests a philosophically insightful motivation for (...)
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  30. A Discussion of a Certain Type of Negative Proposition.Raphael Demos - 1917 - Mind 26 (102):188-196.
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  31. Nonconscious Semantic Processing of Emotional Words Modulates Conscious Access.Raphaël Gaillard, Antoine Del Cul, Lionel Naccache, Fabien Vinckier, Laurent Cohen, Stanislas Dehaene & Edward E. Smith - 2006 - Pnas Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (19):7524-7529.
  32. Chapter Twenty K».Raphaël Jeanson & Jean-Louis Deneubourg - 2009 - In Juergen Gadau & Jennifer Fewell (eds.), Organization of Insect Societies: From Genome to Sociocomplexity. Harvard. pp. 460.
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  33.  50
    Arguing Without Trying to Persuade? Elements for a Non-Persuasive Definition of Argumentation.Raphaël Micheli - 2012 - Argumentation 26 (1):115-126.
    If we consider the field of argumentation studies, we notice that many approaches consider argumentation in a pragmatic manner and define it as a verbal activity oriented towards the realization of a goal . The idea that subtends—in an explicit or implicit way—most of these approaches is that argumentation fundamentally aims to produce an effect upon an addressee, and that this effect consists in a change of attitude with respect to a viewpoint : argumentation theories inevitably confront the issue of (...)
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  34.  17
    Plato and the Hero: Courage, Manliness and the Impersonal Good.Raphael Woolf & Angela Hobbs - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):95.
    The main title of this work is a little misleading. Hobbs does not begin to consider in any detail Plato’s relation to traditional Greek models of the hero until chapter 6, nearly two-thirds of the way through the book. In fact, Hobbs’s treatment of Plato’s re-working of the hero-figure is embedded in a nexus of themes revolving round the Greek virtue of andreia and its psychological basis in that part of the soul that Plato in the Republic calls the thumos. (...)
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  35.  74
    The Problem of Polytheisms: A Serious Challenge to Theism.Raphael Lataster & Herman Philipse - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 81 (3):233-246.
    Theistic and analytic philosophers of religion typically privilege classical theism and monotheism by ignoring or underestimating the great threat of polytheism. We develop an argument from infinitely many alternatives, which decisively demonstrates that if a monotheistic or polytheistic god-model obtains, it will almost certainly be polytheistic. Probabilistic calculations are performed in order to illustrate the difficulties faced by the monotheistic proponent. After considering possible objections, such as whether there should be limits placed on how many possible god-models could obtain, we (...)
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  36. Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-Induced Ego Dissolution.Raphaël Millière - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11:1-22.
    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as “drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)”, for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid (...)
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  37.  36
    The Attractiveness of Panentheism—a Reply to Benedikt Paul Göcke.Raphael Lataster - 2014 - Sophia 53 (3):389-395.
    In his recent article in Sophia, Benedikt Paul Göcke concluded that ‘as long as we do not have a sound argument entailing the necessity of the world, panentheism is not an attractive alternative to classical theism’ : 75). As the article progresses, Göcke clarifies his view of what panentheism is, essentially identical to Göcke’s view of classical theism in every way, except in the world’s modal relation to God. This concept is vastly different to many of the panentheistic notions that (...)
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  38.  24
    Raphael Meldola and the Nineteenth-Century Neo-Darwinians.Anthony S. Travis - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):143 - 172.
    Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), an industrial chemist and keen naturalist, under the influence of Darwin, brought new German studies on evolution by natural selection that appeared in the 1870s to the attention of the British scientific community. Meldola's special interest was in mimicry among butterflies; through this he became a prominent neo-Darwinian. His wide-ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific societies, and of a local club of like-minded amateurs, particularly field naturalists. This is an (...)
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  39.  41
    Inference to the Best Explanation in the Catch-22: How Much Autonomy for Mill’s Method of Difference?Raphael Scholl - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (1):89-110.
    In his seminal Inference to the Best Explanation, Peter Lipton adopted a causal view of explanation and a broadly Millian view of how causal knowledge is obtained. This made his account vulnerable to critics who charged that Inference to the Best Explanation is merely a dressed-up version of Mill’s methods, which in the critics’ view do the real inductive work. Lipton advanced two arguments to protect Inference to the Best Explanation against this line of criticism: the problem of multiple differences (...)
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  40.  34
    Discovery of Causal Mechanisms: Oxidative Phosphorylation and the Calvin–Benson Cycle.Raphael Scholl & Kärin Nickelsen - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (2):180-209.
    We investigate the context of discovery of two significant achievements of twentieth century biochemistry: the chemiosmotic mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation and the dark reaction of photosynthesis. The pursuit of these problems involved discovery strategies such as the transfer, recombination and reversal of previous causal and mechanistic knowledge in biochemistry. We study the operation and scope of these strategies by careful historical analysis, reaching a number of systematic conclusions: even basic strategies can illuminate “hard cases” of scientific discovery that go far (...)
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  41.  11
    Interpretive Context, Counterpart Theory and Fictional Realism Without Contradictions.Raphael Morris - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (54):231-253.
    Models for truth in fiction must be able to account for differing versions and interpretations of a given fiction in such a way that prevents contradictions from arising. I propose an analysis of truth in fiction designed to accommodate this. I examine both the interpretation of claims about truth in fiction and the metaphysical nature of fictional worlds and entities. My reply to the Interpretation Problem is a semantic contextualism influenced by Cameron, while my reply to the Metaphysical Problem involves (...)
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  42.  9
    The Case Against Theism: Why the Evidence Disproves God’s Existence.Raphael Lataster - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This monograph offers a critique of arguments for the existence of a specifically Christian God advanced by prominent scholar William Lane Craig. The discussion incorporates philosophical, mathematical, scientific, historical, and sociological approaches. The author does not seek to criticize religion in general, or Christianity specifically. Rather, he examines the modern and relatively sophisticated evidential case for Christian theism. Scholars have been arguing for theism or naturalism for centuries, and there seems little to add to the discussion, especially from the theistic (...)
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  43.  13
    A Discussion of a Certain Type of Negative Proposition.Raphael Demos - 2016 - Philosophical Inquiry 40 (3-4):192-200.
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  44.  20
    Letters on Loan: Antonin Artaud's Correspondence with Jacques Rivière?Raphaël Sigal - 2017 - Diacritics 45 (1):50-73.
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  45.  40
    The Real Objective of Mendel's Paper: A Response to Monaghan and Corcos. [REVIEW]Raphael Falk & Sahotra Sarkar - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):447-451.
    Mendel's work in hybridization is ipso facto a study in inheritance. He is explicit in his interest to formulate universal generalizations, and at least in the case of the independent segregation of traits, he formulated his conclusions in the form of a law. Mendel did not discern, however, the inheritance of traits from that of the potential for traits. Choosing to study discrete non-overlapping traits, this did not hamper his efforts.
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  46. The Proximate–Ultimate Distinction and Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Causal Irrelevance Versus Explanatory Abstraction.Massimo Pigliucci & Raphael Scholl - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (5):653-670.
    Mayr’s proximate–ultimate distinction has received renewed interest in recent years. Here we discuss its role in arguments about the relevance of developmental to evolutionary biology. We show that two recent critiques of the proximate–ultimate distinction fail to explain why developmental processes in particular should be of interest to evolutionary biologists. We trace these failures to a common problem: both critiques take the proximate–ultimate distinction to neglect specific causal interactions in nature. We argue that this is implausible, and that the distinction (...)
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  47. The Practice of a Philosopher.Raphael Woolf - 2004 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26:97-129.
  48.  7
    Increased Evoked Potentials to Arousing Auditory Stimuli During Sleep: Implication for the Understanding of Dream Recall.Raphael Vallat, Tarek Lajnef, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Christian Berthomier, Karim Jerbi, Dominique Morlet & Perrine M. Ruby - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  49.  19
    Playing in the First Baire Class.Raphaël Carroy - 2014 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 60 (1-2):10.
  50.  43
    Moral Philosophy.D. D. Raphael - 1994 - Oxford University Press.
    In this new and enlarged edition of a standard introduction to moral philosophy, Raphael shows in clear and simple language the connections between abstract ethics and practical problems in law, government, medicine, and the social sciences in general. Moral Philosophy deals with six main areas. First, it looks at the two opposed traditions of naturalism and rationalism, and considers more recent discussion in terms of logic and language. Next, it explores the attractions and defects of Utilitarianism, and then turns (...)
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