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  1. Why It (Also) Matters What Infectious Disease Epidemiologists Call “Disease”.David Stoellger - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Infectious diseases figure prominently as (counter)examples in debates on how to conceptualize “disease.” But crucial epidemiological distinctions are often not heeded in the debate, and pathological and clinical perspectives focusing on individual patients are favored at the expense of perspectives from epidemiology focusing on populations. In clarifying epidemiological concepts, this paper highlights the distinct contributions infectious disease epidemiology can make to the conception of “disease,” and the fact that this is at least tacitly recognized by medical personnel and philosophers. Crucially, (...)
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  2. Visitor restrictions in hospitals during infectious disease outbreaks: An ethical approach to policy development and requests for exemptions.Rosalind McDougall, Chanelle Warton, Christopher Chew, Clare Delany, Danielle Ko & John Massie - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (7):715-724.
    In this paper, we explore the ethics of restricting visitation to hospitals during an infectious disease outbreak. We aim to answer three questions: What are the features of an ethically justified hospital visitor restriction policy? Should policies include scope for case‐by‐case exemptions? How should decisions about exemptions be made? Based on a critical interpretive review of the existing ethical literature on visitor restrictions, we argue that an ethically justified hospital visitor restriction policy has the following features: proportionality, comprehensiveness, harm mitigation, (...)
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  3. Global Health Partnerships and Emerging Infectious Diseases.Nancy S. Jecker - 2023 - In Erick Valdés & Juan Alberto Lecaros (eds.), Handbook of Bioethical Decisions. Volume I: Decisions at the Bench. Springer Verlag. pp. 397-413.
    Drawing on recent bioethics literature on emerging infectious diseases, as well as the authors’ own previous analyses, this chapter addresses the ethical underpinnings of global health partnerships to combat emerging infectious disease. After an introduction to the topic, section “Introduction” proposes the twin ends of establishing structural justice and ensuring threshold human capabilities as key justice standards. It shows how these standards play a critical role in determining justice in global health partnerships. Section “Next Steps: Global Health Partnerships” illustrates these (...)
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  4. The Patient as Victim and Vector: The Challenge of Infectious Disease for Bioethics.Margaret P. Battin, Leslie P. Francis, Jay A. Jacobson & Charles B. Smith - 2007 - In Rosamond Rhodes, Leslie P. Francis & Anita Silvers (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Medical Ethics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 269–288.
    The prelims comprise: Seeing Infectious Disease as Central The Birth of Bioethics Amid the Decline of Infectious Disease The Shifting Concerns of Public Health Bioethics and Public Health: How the Twain Didn't Meet The Case of HIV Bridging the Gap: Seeing Bioethics in Terms of the Patient as Victim and Vector An Ordinary Example Summing Up: Autonomous Agency in the Context of Infectious Disease Notes.
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  5. Infectious Disease.Michael J. Selgelid - 2009 - In Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 430–440.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Ethical Importance of Infectious Disease The Global Infectious Disease Status Quo: AIDS and TB Drug Resistance Limiting Liberty in Contexts of Contagion Improving Global Health References Further reading.
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  6. Legal Briefing: Coerced Treatment and Involuntary Confinement for Contagious Disease.Heather Michelle Bughman & Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2015 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 26 (1):73-83.
    This issue’s “Legal Briefing” column covers recent legal developments involving coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease. Recent high profile court cases involving measles, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and especially Ebola, have thrust this topic back into the bioethics and public spotlights. This has reignited debates over how best to balance individual liberty and public health. For example, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues has officially requested public comments, held open hearings, and published a 90-page report (...)
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  7. From lighthouse to hothouse: hospital hygiene, antibiotics and the evolution of infectious disease, 1950–1990.Christoph Gradmann - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):1-25.
    Upon entering clinical medicine in the 1940s, antibiotic therapy seemed to complete a transformation of hospitals that originated in the late nineteenth century. Former death sinks had become harbingers of therapeutic progress. Yet this triumph was short-lived. The arrival of pathologies caused by resistant bacteria, and of nosocomial infections whose spread was helped by antibiotic therapies, seemed to be intimately related to modern anti-infective therapy. The place where such problems culminated were hospitals, which increasingly appeared as dangerous environments where attempts (...)
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  8. The Patient as Victim and Vector: Ethics and Infectious Disease.Margaret Battin - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    'The Patient as Victim and Vector' is jointly written by four authors at the University of Utah with expertise in bioethics health law, and both clinical practice and public health policy concerning infectious disease.
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  9. 傳統中醫學傳染觀念的道德問題—以一則宋代公案為中心的討論.Guobin Cheng - 2022 - International Journal of Chinese and Comparative Philosophy of Medicine 20 (1):99-117.
    LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English. “瘟疫”是否具有傳染性,在中國的傳統文化認知中並不僅關乎純粹的醫學事實,而是與道德人倫、社會禮教和國家王政聯繫在一起的複雜的問題。南宋理學家程迥在《醫經正本書》中,分別從醫學理論和社會危害兩個方面,力 證疫疾並無人際傳染性。之後朱熹批判了這個論點,認為更應該告知民眾:雖然疫疾會傳染,但以恩義出發則不應迴避。他們做出如此論證的原因,是在現實的抗疫手段效果有限的情況下,將注意力集中在解決瘟疫所帶來的社會 倫理問題這個點上。但他們對瘟疫傳染性的觀點上,都採取了根據論證的需要而因應詮釋的立場,由於理學觀念上的差異,程迥的重點是如何克服外部因素的不利影響,朱熹則更關注如何從內部推動個人道德品質的精進。 In traditional Chinese culture, whether a “plague” is considered contagious is not only a matter of medical fact but a complex issue related to morality, social ethics, and national royal power. Cheng Jiong, a neo-Confucianist scholar in the Southern Song Dynasty, argued in Reserved Copy of Medical Classics that, based on both medical theory and the principle of social harms, an epidemic disease should not be considered contagious. Zhu (...)
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  10. 當代墨者對後疫情時代之生命倫理的反思.Hung En Hisao - 2022 - International Journal of Chinese and Comparative Philosophy of Medicine 20 (1):119-142.
    LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English. 世界衛生組織(WHO)在歷經自1976年伊波拉病毒病(EbolaHemorrhagicFever, 伊波拉出血熱)爆發以來,處理疫情爆發當中出現的種種倫理問題之後,於2016年出版“Guidance for Managing Ethical Issues in Infectious Disease Outbreaks”(中文暫譯:《傳染病爆發處理倫理議題之指引》)一書,其中整理出「正義、行善、效益、尊重自主、自由、團結、互惠」等七項倫理原則,於今面對新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的疫情上,各國防疫 政策,亦可作為應對。作為一名當代墨者,本文即以此為基礎,由醫療的角度,結合國內情況,企欲在墨學義理內作一生命倫理的反思,並試圖對後疫情時代給予具體作為之建議。 In response to various ethical problems that emerged after the 1976 Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic, WHO published the book Guidance for Managing Ethical Issues in Infectious Disease Outbreaks in 2016. The content of the book was organized around seven ethical principles, namely, justice, beneficence, benefit, respect for autonomy, freedom, reciprocity, and unity. These seven ethical principles can be used as (...)
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  11. “It kinda has like a mind”: Children's and parents' beliefs concerning viral disease transmission for COVID-19 and the common cold.Danielle Labotka & Susan A. Gelman - 2023 - Cognition 235 (C):105413.
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  12. Ethical Challenges Associated with Pathogen and Host Genetics in Infectious Disease.Richard Milne & Christine Patch - 2022 - The New Bioethics 29 (1):24-36.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has demonstrated the potential of genomic technologies for the detection and surveillance of infectious diseases. Pathogen genomics is likely to play a major role in the future of research and clinical implementation of genomic technologies. However, unlike human genetics, the specific ethical and social challenges associated with the implementation of infectious disease genomics has received comparatively little attention. In this paper, we contribute to this literature, focusing on the potential consequences for individuals and communities of the use (...)
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  13. Paleosyndemics: A Bioarchaeological and Biosocial Approach to Study Infectious Diseases in the Past.Clark Spencer Larsen & Fabian Crespo - 2022 - Centaurus 64 (1):181-196.
    Skeletons drawn from archaeological contexts provide a fund of data for assessing disease in general and timing of epidemics in particular in past societies. The bioarchaeological record presents an especially important perspective on timing of some of the world's most catastrophic diseases, such as leprosy, tuberculosis, plague (Black Death), and treponematosis. Application of new developments in paleogenomics and paleogenetics presents new opportunities to document ancient pathogens' DNA (for example, Black Death), track their history, and assess their beginning and end points. (...)
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  14. Norming COVID‐19: The Urgency of a Non‐Humanist Holism.Jeffrey P. Bishop & Martin J. Fitzgerald - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (3):333-348.
  15. Cleansing and separation procedures reflect resource concerns.Simone Schnall & Robert K. Henderson - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that procedures of separation have two functions, namely first, to establish the integrity of individual parts, and second, to make previously joint entities discreet and therefore countable. This allows taking stock of available resources, including evaluating the use of individual objects, a process that is especially adaptive under conditions of threat of contagious disease and resource scarcity.
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  16. The Hard Sell of Genetically Engineered (GE) Mosquitoes with Gene Drives as the Solution to Malaria: Ethical, Political, Epistemic, and Epidemiological Issues in Global Health Governance.Zahra Meghani - 2020 - In Sharon Crasnow & Kristen Intemann (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Feminist Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 435-457.
    This chapter analyzes the ‘hard sell’ of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes with gene drives as the solution to mosquito-borne diseases. A defining characteristic of the aggressive sell of the bio-technology is the ‘biologization’ of the significant prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in certain socio-economically marginalized regions of the global South. Specifically, hard sell narratives either minimize or ignore the structural, systemic factors that are partially responsible for the public health problem that the GE mosquitoes are intended to bio-solve. The biologization of (...)
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  17. Preventing zoonotic emerging disease outbreaks: The need to complement One Health with ethical considerations.Angela K. Martin & Salome Dürr - 2021 - Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research 3 (1):5-15.
    Human encroachment on the habitats of wild animals and the dense living conditions of farmed animals increase spill-over risk of emerging infectious diseases from animals to humans (such as COVID-19). In this article, we defend two claims: First, we argue that in order to limit the risk of emerging infectious disease outbreaks in the future, a One Health approach is needed, which focuses on human, animal, and environmental health. Second, we claim that One Health should not solely be grounded in (...)
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  18. So Who Cares? Taking Livingston out of Africa.Christopher Hamlin - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):805-808.
  19. The Colonized Semites and the Infectious Disease: Theorizing and Narrativizing Anti-Semitism in the Levant, 1870–1914.Orit Bashkin - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 47 (2):189-217.
    This article studies the ways in which Arab intellectuals in Egypt and the Levant wrote about modern anti-Semitism during the four decades preceding the demise of the Ottoman Empire. This period is often described as the era of the Arab Nahda (revival); it refers to an era when Arab thinkers and writers showed great interest in the Arabic language, Islamic history, and Arab culture and consumed European literary and philosophical works. Arab intellectuals in this period wrote about Jewish affairs. They (...)
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  20. On The Issue Of Infectious Diseases: The Moral Shift From Bioethics To Public Health Ethics.Prasasti Pandit - 2015 - Jadavpur Journal of Philosophy 24 (1).
    This paper aims to search the question ‘whether the ethical issues of infectious disease, which has been so long considered as a problem in the discipline of bioethics, can be brought under the purview of public health ethics’. To explore the problem I begin with a brief description of the evolution of bioethics. I elaborate the six reasons of neglecting the discussion of infectious diseases in early bioethics as highlighted by Selgelid (2005). Then I analyse the view of Bayer and (...)
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  21. Patient Isolation during Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Arguments for Physical Family Presence.Teck Chuan Voo, Zohar Lederman & Sharon Kaur - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):133-142.
    This article argues that outbreak preparedness and response should implement a ‘family presence’ policy for infected patients in isolation that includes the option of physical visits and care within the isolation facility under some conditions. While such a ‘physical family presence’ policy could increase infections during an outbreak and may raise moral dilemmas, we argue that it is ethically justified based on the least infringement principle and the need to minimize the harms and burdens of isolation as a restrictive measure. (...)
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  22. Payment in challenge studies: ethics, attitudes and a new payment for risk model.Olivia Grimwade, Julian Savulescu, Alberto Giubilini, Justin Oakley, Joshua Osowicki, Andrew J. Pollard & Anne-Marie Nussberger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):815-826.
    Controlled Human Infection Model (CHIM) research involves the infection of otherwise healthy participants with disease often for the sake of vaccine development. The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the urgency of enhancing CHIM research capability and the importance of having clear ethical guidance for their conduct. The payment of CHIM participants is a controversial issue involving stakeholders across ethics, medicine and policymaking with allegations circulating suggesting exploitation, coercion and other violations of ethical principles. There are multiple approaches to payment: reimbursement, wage (...)
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  23. A general approach to compensation for losses incurred due to public health interventions in the infectious disease context.Søren Holm - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):32-46.
    This paper develops a general approach to how society should compensate for losses that individuals incur due to public health interventions aimed at controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The paper falls in three parts. The first part provides an initial introduction to the issues and briefly outlines five different kinds of public health interventions that will be used as test cases. They are all directed at individuals and aimed at controlling the spread of infectious diseases (1) isolation, (2) quarantine, (...)
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  24. Invisible epidemics: ethics and asymptomatic infection. [REVIEW]Michael J. Selgelid & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):1-16.
    Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease (which can be more or less severe), and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significant in situations where, and/or to the extent (...)
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  25. Informed consent for controlled human infection studies in low‐ and middle‐income countries: Ethical challenges and proposed solutions.Vina Vaswani, Abha Saxena, Seema K. Shah, Ricardo Palacios & Annette Rid - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (8):809-818.
    In controlled human infection studies (CHIs), participants are deliberately exposed to infectious agents in order to better understand the mechanism of infection or disease and test therapies or vaccines. While most CHIs have been conducted in high‐income countries, CHIs have recently been expanding into low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). One potential ethical concern about this expansion is the challenge of obtaining the voluntary informed consent of participants, especially those who may not be literate or have limited education. In some CHIs (...)
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  26. Dodging a Bullet: WHO, SARS, and the Successful Management of Infectious Disease.Evan S. Michelson - 2005 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 25 (5):379-386.
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the policy decisions made by the World Health Organization (WHO) in working to fight the spread of the first truly global infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), of the 21st century. In particular, the author pays attention to the WHO’s Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) and analyzes how it was employed in coordinating a variety of response efforts around the world. In addition, he identifies and assesses the successes and (...)
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  27. Emerging Infectious Disease/emerging forms of Biological Sovereignty.Niamh Stephenson - 2011 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 36 (5):616-637.
    Public health responses to emerging infectious disease rarely try to interrupt the mobility of goods and information. Rather, designed under the rubric of ‘‘public health security,’’ they extend the rationale of free circulation through efforts to intensify movement and communication between international agencies, national health departments, and the pharmaceutical industry. In this way, public health security extends postliberal modes of transnational regulation. This article examines an unfolding scenario which is testing public health’s fidelity to the ethos of international trade agreements: (...)
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  28. Risk and sacrament: Being human in a covid‐19 world.Ziba Norman & Michael J. Reiss - 2020 - Zygon 55 (3):577-590.
    In this article we examine the changing relationship to risk as revealed by the covid-19 pandemic and the ways this has, and may in future, alter sacramental practice, considering the radical effects this could have on traditional Christian practice. We consider the cultural trends that may lie behind this developing approach to risk, examining this in the context of an emergent transhuman identity that is technologically moderated and seeks to overcome risks of human mortality.
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  29. COVID‐19 and Religious Ethics.Toni Alimi, Elizabeth L. Antus, Alda Balthrop-Lewis, James F. Childress, Shannon Dunn, Ronald M. Green, Eric Gregory, Jennifer A. Herdt, Willis Jenkins, M. Cathleen Kaveny, Vincent W. Lloyd, Ping-Cheung Lo, Jonathan Malesic, David Newheiser, Irene Oh & Aaron Stalnaker - 2020 - Journal of Religious Ethics 48 (3):349-387.
    The editors of the JRE solicited short essays on the COVID‐19 pandemic from a group of scholars of religious ethics that reflected on how the field might help them make sense of the complex religious, cultural, ethical, and political implications of the pandemic, and on how the pandemic might shape the future of religious ethics.
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  30. One Health and Zoonotic Uncertainty in Singapore and Australia: Examining Different Regimes of Precaution in Outbreak Decision-Making.C. Degeling, G. L. Gilbert, P. Tambyah, J. Johnson & T. Lysaght - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):69-81.
    A One Health approach holds great promise for attenuating the risk and burdens of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in both human and animal populations. Because the course and costs of EID outbreaks are difficult to predict, One Health policies must deal with scientific uncertainty, whilst addressing the political, economic and ethical dimensions of communication and intervention strategies. Drawing on the outcomes of parallel Delphi surveys conducted with policymakers in Singapore and Australia, we explore the normative dimensions of two different precautionary (...)
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  31. Allocation of scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Jewish ethical perspective.Amy Solnica, Leonid Barski & Alan Jotkowitz - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):444-446.
    The novel COVID-19 pandemic has placed medical triage decision-making in the spotlight. As life-saving ventilators become scarce, clinicians are being forced to allocate scarce resources in even the wealthiest countries. The pervasiveness of air travel and high rate of transmission has caused this pandemic to spread swiftly throughout the world. Ethical triage decisions are commonly based on the utilitarian approach of maximising total benefits and life expectancy. We present triage guidelines from Italy, USA and the UK as well as the (...)
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  32. Should Institutions Disclose the Names of Employees with Covid‐19?Daniel P. Sulmasy & Robert M. Veatch - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):25-27.
    Prestigious University is a large, private educational institution with a medical school, a university hospital, a law school, and graduate and undergraduate colleges all on a single campus. In the face of the Covid‐19 pandemic, students were told during spring break to return to campus only briefly to retrieve their belongings. Classes then went online. On March 23, 2020, the faculty, students, and staff were emailed the following by the university's director of infection control and public health: We have become (...)
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  33. Latin American healthcare systems in times of pandemic.Sergio G. Litewka & Elizabeth Heitman - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):69-73.
    The COVID‐ 19 pandemic is a critical test for the already overburdened and mostly underfunded public healthcare systems of Latin America. In a region that suffers from severe inequalities, public healthcare systems are the only source of medical care for a large sector of the population who work in the informal economy or are unemployed. State‐run hospitals and clinics are already overstressed by continuous demand for treatment of vector‐borne diseases and community‐acquired infections as well as high rates of non‐communicable diseases. (...)
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  34. Lessons Never Learned: Crisis and gender‐based violence.Neetu John, Sara E. Casey, Giselle Carino & Terry McGovern - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):65-68.
    The COVID‐19 pandemic exposes underlying inequalities in our socio‐economic and health systems, such as gender‐based violence (GBV). In emergencies, particularly ones that involve quarantine, GBV often increases. Policymakers must utilize community expertise, technology and existing global guidelines to disrupt these trends in the early stages of the COVID‐19 epidemic. Gender norms and roles relegating women to the realm of care work puts them on the frontlines in an epidemic, while often excluding them from developing the response. It is critical to (...)
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  35. Whose life to save? Scarce resources allocation in the COVID-19 outbreak.Chiara Mannelli - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):364-366.
    After initially emerging in China, the coronavirus outbreak has advanced rapidly. The World Health Organization has recently declared it a pandemic, with Europe becoming its new epicentre. Italy has so far been the most severely hit European country and demand for critical care in the northern region currently exceeds its supply. This raises significant ethical concerns, among which is the allocation of scarce resources. Professionals are considering the prioritisation of patients most likely to survive over those with remote chances, and (...)
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  36. How to hold an ethical pox party.Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104336.
    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties (...)
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  37. ICU triage in an impending crisis: uncertainty, pre-emption and preparation.Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):287-288.
    The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic raises a host of challenging ethical questions at every level of society. However, some of the most acute questions relate to decision making in intensive care. The problem is that a small but significant proportion of patients develop severe viral pneumonitis and respiratory failure. It now seems likely that the number of critically ill patients will overwhelm the capacity of intensive care units within many health systems, including the National Health Service in the UK. The experience (...)
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  38. Community perspectives on the benefits and risks of technologically enhanced communicable disease surveillance systems: a report on four community juries.Chris Degeling, Stacy M. Carter, Antoine M. van Oijen, Jeremy McAnulty, Vitali Sintchenko, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Trent Yarwood, Jane Johnson & Gwendolyn L. Gilbert - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-14.
    Background Outbreaks of infectious disease cause serious and costly health and social problems. Two new technologies – pathogen whole genome sequencing and Big Data analytics – promise to improve our capacity to detect and control outbreaks earlier, saving lives and resources. However, routinely using these technologies to capture more detailed and specific personal information could be perceived as intrusive and a threat to privacy. Method Four community juries were convened in two demographically different Sydney municipalities and two regional cities in (...)
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  39. What risks should be permissible in controlled human infection model studies?Ariella Binik - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):420-430.
    Controlled human infection model (CHIM) studies involve the intentional exposure of healthy research volunteers to infectious agents. These studies contribute to knowledge about the cause or development of disease and to the advancement of vaccine research. But they also raise ethical questions about the kinds of risks that should be permissible and whether limits should be imposed on research risks in CHIM studies. Two possible risk thresholds have been considered for CHIM studies. The first suggests constraining ethically permissible risks according (...)
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  40. COVID19 and Health.Darryl Macer Darryl - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (1).
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  41. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic.Robert D. Truog, Christine Mitchell & George Q. Daley - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has led to severe shortages of many essential goods and services, from hand sanitizers and N-95 masks to ICU beds and ventilators. Although rationing is not unprecedented, never before has the American public been faced with the prospect of having to ration medical goods and services on this scale.
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  42. Women Proficiency in Global Crises Management: The case of Ethiopia.Debela Bedada - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (4).
    The COVID-19 virus is a new pathogen that is highly contagious, can spread quickly, considered capable of causing enormous health, economic and societal impacts. According to the WHO report, about (78%-85%) human-to-human transmission of the COVID-19 virus is the household transmission that has occurred in families where women's conventional role is very crucial. The main purpose of this paper is to assess women's proficiency in addressing the Covid-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. The finding suggests that women's leadership is more likely than (...)
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  43. Scarcity in the Covid‐19 Pandemic.Mildred Z. Solomon, Matthew Wynia & Lawrence O. Gostin - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):3-3.
    As we write, U.S. cities and states with extensive community transmission of Covid‐19 are in harm's way—not only because of the disease itself but also because of prior and current failures to act. During the 2009 influenza pandemic, public health agencies and hospitals developed but never adequately implemented preparedness plans. Focused on efficiency in a competitive market, health systems had few incentives to maintain stockpiles of essential medical equipment. Just‐in‐time economic models resulted in storage of only those supplies needed then. (...)
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  44. Responding to Covid‐19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically.Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman & Sarah A. Wetter - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):8-12.
    Few novel or emerging infectious diseases have posed such vital ethical challenges so quickly and dramatically as the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2. The World Health Organization declared a public health emergency of international concern and recently classified Covid‐19 as a worldwide pandemic. As of this writing, the epidemic has not yet peaked in the United States, but community transmission is widespread. President Trump declared a national emergency as fifty governors declared state emergencies. In the coming weeks, hospitals will become overrun, stretched (...)
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  45. The COVID-19 containment in Vietnam: What are we doing?Toan Luu Duc Huynh - 2020 - Journal of Global Health 10 (1):010338.
    This viewpoint provides an explanation from the public health policies of Vietnamese government to contain the contagious disease with regard to COVID-19 pandemic. A combination of an early lockdown, increase in “virality” of the health information, encouragement in health declaration, regulation for wearing mask in the public, and country’s unity have been the effective ways to cope with this deadly virus in Vietnam, a developing country, which became the first country to halt the SARS spread successfully in 2003.
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  46. Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Ross Upshur, Beatriz Thome, Michael Parker, Aaron Glickman, Cathy Zhang & Connor Boyle - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine 45:10.1056/NEJMsb2005114.
    Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
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  47. Policy Response, Social Media and Science Journalism for the Sustainability of the Public Health System Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons.La Viet Phuong, Pham Thanh Hang, Manh-Toan Ho, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Phuc Khanh Linh, Vuong Thu Trang, Nguyen To Hong Kong, Tran Trung, Khuc Van Quy, Ho Manh Tung & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2020 - Sustainability 12:2931.
    Vietnam, with a geographical proximity and a high volume of trade with China, was the first country to record an outbreak of the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. While the country was expected to have a high risk of transmission, as of April 4, 2020—in comparison to attempts to contain the disease around the world—responses from Vietnam are being seen as prompt and effective in protecting the interests of its citizens, (...)
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  48. YouTube, WeCensor: The Pandemic of Information Control in times of Covid-19.Martin A. M. Gansinger - manuscript
    This work is focused on the rise of institutionalized information control exercised by governments in times of the Covid-19 crisis and the systematic removal or demonetization of content that contradicts or challenges the defined official narrative on influencial platforms like YouTube. With national authorities fragmenting reality into contradicitng national narratives of confinement/no confinement, masks/no masks, ibuprofen/no ibuprofen, chloroquin/no chloroquin etc. the illusion of objective reality in the perpection of the world and even in the context of scientific discourse become more (...)
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  49. We Need to Relax Intellectual Property Rules to Fight this Virus.James Cooper - 2020 - The Hill 1 (1):1.
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  50. Assessing National Public Health Law to Prevent Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Immunization Law as a Basis for Global Health Security.Tsion Berhane Ghedamu & Benjamin Mason Meier - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):412-426.
    Immunization plays a crucial role in global health security, preventing public health emergencies of international concern and protecting individuals from infectious disease outbreaks, yet these critical public health benefits are dependent on immunization law. Where public health law has become central to preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease, public health law reform is seen as necessary to implement the Global Health Security Agenda. This article examines national immunization laws as a basis to implement the GHSA and promote the public's (...)
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