Philosophy of Neuroscience

Edited by Robert Foley (University of Western Ontario)
Assistant editor: Michelle Thomas (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary The philosophy of neuroscience includes applications of neuroscience to philosophical problems as well as philosophical investigations of neuroscience. The application of neuroscience to philosophical problems (such as problems in philosophy of mind) is sometimes referred to as "neurophilosophy". The philosophical investigation of neuroscience is a sub-discipline of the philosophy of science.
Key works See the pioneering Churchland 1986 for an early overview of key themes in philosophy of neuroscience. Anthologies of note include Bickle 2009 and Bechtel et al 2001.
Introductions For a concise introductory overview, see Bickle et al 2006. See also Brook & Mandik 2007 and Bechtel et al 2001.
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  1. What Neuroscience Tells Us About Mental Illness: Scientific Realism in the Biomedical Sciences.Marc Jiménez Rolland & Mario Gensollen - 2022 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 20:119-140.
    Our philosophical understanding of mental illness is being shaped by neuroscience. However, it has the paradoxical effect of igniting two radically opposed groups of philosophical views. On one side, skepticism and denialism assume that, lacking clear biological mechanisms and etiologies for most mental illnesses, we should infer they are constructions best explained by means of social factors. This is strongly associated with medical nihilism: it considers psychiatry more harmful than benign. On the other side of the divide, naturalism and reductionism (...)
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  2. Neurodiversity, epistemic injustice, and the good human life.Robert Chapman & Havi Carel - 2023 - Journal of Social Philosophy 53 (4):614-631.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  3. Why Neuroethical Analyses of Invasiveness in Psychiatry Should Engage with Mental Health Service User Movement Knowledges and Considerations of Social In/Justice.A. Lee de Bie & Daniel Z. Buchman - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):25-28.
    Bluhm et al.’s (2023) qualitative study on psychiatric electroceutical interventions describes several types and characteristics of invasiveness identified by psychiatrists and people living with a...
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  4. Perceptions of Invasiveness: A Moving Target for Neuromodulation.Nir Lipsman, Patrick J. McDonald & Judy Illes - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):15-17.
    Major depression is among the most common, challenging and disabling conditions. It is highly heterogeneous, affects patients throughout the lifespan and, in up to one-third of people affected, res...
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  5. Invasiveness is Inevitable in Psychiatric Neurointerventions.Nick J. Davis - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):13-15.
    In their recent target article, Bluhm et al. (2023) discuss the construct of “invasiveness” as it relates to medical treatments, and in particular to treatments that affect brain function. Cruciall...
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  6. The Normative Evaluation of Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice: From Invasiveness to Human Rights.Sjors Ligthart, Vera Tesink, Thomas Douglas, Lisa Forsberg & Gerben Meynen - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):23-25.
    Medical interventions are usually categorized as “invasive” when they involve piercing the skin or inserting an object into the body. However, the findings of Bluhm and collaborators (2023) (hencef...
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  7. Neurotechnologies and Identity Changes: What the Narrative View Can Add to the Story.Alexandra Zorila - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):48-50.
    Do neuromodulation technologies change patients’ personal identities? Haeusermann et al. claim that there is not enough evidence to support this worry. In their study, participants, following a res...
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  8. Closed-Loop Neuromodulation and Self-Perception in Clinical Treatment of Refractory Epilepsy.Tobias Haeusermann, Cailin R. Lechner, Kristina Celeste Fong, Alissa Bernstein Sideman, Agnieszka Jaworska, Winston Chiong & Daniel Dohan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (1):32-44.
    Background: Newer “closed-loop” neurostimulation devices in development could, in theory, induce changes to patients’ personalities and self-perceptions. Empirically, however, only limited data of patient and family experiences exist. Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) as a treatment for refractory epilepsy is the first approved and commercially available closed-loop brain stimulation system in clinical practice, presenting an opportunity to observe how conceptual neuroethical concerns manifest in clinical treatment.Methods: We conducted ethnographic research at a single academic medical center with an active RNS treatment program and (...)
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  9. Conflict Over Death by Neurologic Criteria: Caution, Consent, and Nursing Considerations.Sabrina F. Derrington & Brenda Barnum - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (1):88-90.
    Maddie’s story illustrates the critical importance of healthcare teams (HCTs) having inclusive multidisciplinary provider meetings prior to siloed conversations with families. It is paramount that...
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  10. Disputes over Diagnosing Death: Is It Ethical to Test for Death by Neurologic Criteria over Parental Objection?Leah R. Eisenberg - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (1):86-87.
    In popular culture, death is typically presented as clear and binary- someone is either walking and talking and alive, or very obviously still and dead. Reality is more complicated than the movies,...
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  11. Responding to Parental Objections Over Testing for Death by Neurologic Criteria.Ian D. Wolfe - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (1):94-95.
    Navigating tragic circumstances in pediatrics requires consideration of parental grief responses. We meet parents where they are, not where we might want them to be. Different parents grieve differ...
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  12. Neurophenomenology and Intersubjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Mirko Di Bernardo - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (2):95-111.
    The article aims to provide the main conceptual coordinates in order to fully understand the state of the art of the most recent research in the field of neurobiology of interpersonal experience. The main purpose of this work is to analyze, at an anthropological, phenomenological and epistemological level, how the fundamental characteristics of the recognition of otherness and intercorporeity among human beings contribute to changing the image of nature in the light of a possible new relationship between living bodies, neurophysiological (...)
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  13. Reactive Natural Kinds and Varieties of Dependence.Harriet Fagerberg - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (4):1-27.
    This paper asks when a natural disease kind is truly 'reactive' and when it is merely associated with a corresponding social kind. I begin with a permissive account of real kinds and their structure, distinguishing natural kinds, indifferent kinds and reactive kinds as varieties of real kind characterised by super-explanatory properties. I then situate disease kinds within this framework, arguing that many disease kinds prima facie are both natural and reactive. I proceed to distinguish ‘simple dependence’, ‘secondary dependence’ and ‘essential (...)
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  14. The “cognitive neuroscience revolution” is not a (Kuhnian) revolution. Evidence from scientometrics.Eugenio Petrovich & Marco Viola - 2022 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 13 (2):142-156.
    _Abstract_: Fueled by the rapid development of neuroscientific tools and techniques, some scholars consider the shift from traditional cognitive psychology toward cognitive neuroscience to be a _revolution_ (most notably Boone and Piccinini). However, the term “revolution” in philosophy of science can easily be construed as involving a paradigm shift in the sense of Kuhn’s _The Structure of Scientific Revolutions_. Is a Kuhnian account sound in the case at hand? To answer this question, we consider heuristic indicators of two features of (...)
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  15. Neurofeedback as placebo: a case of unintentional deception?Louiza Kalokairinou, Laura Specker Sullivan & Anna Wexler - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):1037-1042.
    The use of placebo in clinical practice has been the topic of extensive debate in the bioethics literature, with much scholarship focusing on concerns regarding deception. While considerations of placebo without deception have largely centred on open-label placebo, this paper considers a different kind of ethical quandary regarding placebo without an intent to deceive—one where the provider believes a treatment is effective due to a direct physiological mechanism, even though that belief may not be supported by rigorous scientific evidence. This (...)
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  16. Transdisciplinarity, neuro‐techno‐philosophy, and the future of philosophy.Nayef Al-Rodhan - forthcoming - Metaphilosophy.
    Philosophy and science have always striven to make sense of the world, continuously influencing each other in the process. Their interplay paved the way for neurophilosophy, which harnesses neuroscientific insights to address traditionally philosophical questions. Given the rapid neuroscientific and technological advances in recent years, this paper argues that philosophers who wish to tackle intractable philosophical problems and influence public discourse and policies should engage in neuro-techno-philosophy. This novel type of inquiry describes the transdisciplinary endeavor of philosophers, (neuro)scientists, and others (...)
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  17. Violation of social perception in patients with neurosis-like schizophrenia with obsessive-phobic syndrome.Svetlana Lvovna Rudenko - 2022 - Известия Саратовского Университета: Новая Серия. Серия Философия. Психология. Педагогика 22 (3):322-326.
    Introduction. The study is focused on identifying disorientation in the communication of patients with neurosis-like schizophrenia with obsessive-phobic syndrome. Insufficient scientific development and high medical and social significance of the topic are shown. The assumption is formulated that patients have a pronounced violation of social perception, interconnected with positive, negative symptoms and quality of life. Empirical analysis. The results of the study showed significant difficulties of perception and interpretation of social information, interrelated with clinical symptoms. The leading role is played (...)
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  18. Mind, Cognition, and Neuroscience: A Philosophical Introduction.C. Dicey Jennings & B. D. Young (eds.) - 2021
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  19. PÉREZ CASTELLS, JAVIER, Neuronas y libre albedrío. Reflexiones sobre neurociencia y libertad, Digital Reasons, [S.l], 2018, 171 pp. [REVIEW]Javier Bernácer-María - 2019 - Anuario Filosófico 52 (3):650-653.
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  20. The moral epistemology of intuitionism: neuroethics and seeming states.Hossein Dabbagh - 2022 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Covering moral intuition, self-evidence, non-inferentiality, moral emotion and seeming states, Hossein Dabbagh defends the epistemology of moral intuitionism. His line of analysis resists the empirical challenges derived from empirical moral psychology and reveals the seeming-based account of moral intuitionism as the most tenable one. The Moral Epistemology of Intuitionism combines epistemological intuitionism with work in neuroethics to develop an account of the role that moral intuition and emotion play in moral judgment. The book culminates in a convincing argument about the (...)
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  21. Free will: philosophers and neuroscientists in conversation.Uri Maoz & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    What is free will? Can it exist in a determined universe? How can we determine who, if anyone, possesses it? Philosophers have been debating these questions for millennia. In recent decades neuroscientists have joined the fray with questions of their own. Which neural mechanisms could enable conscious control of action? What are intentional actions? Do contemporary developments in neuroscience rule out free will or, instead, illuminate how it works? Over the past few years, neuroscientists and philosophers have increasingly come to (...)
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  22. THE THIEF CAN NOT CATCH THIEF HIMSELF The ancestry of Meditation being explained by neurobiology.Regina Chamon, Liliana Centurione, Elaine Sales, Mary Uchiyama Nakamura & Roberto Cardoso - 2018 - Simbio-Logias Revista Eletrônica de Educação Filosofia e Nutrição 10 (13):141-148.
    Is the state we experienced meditating a religious, philosophical, mystical experience? Or is it just a change in brain physiology? Is it possible to achieve a state "beyond the mind" (meditative state) through a technique that uses the mind (meditative technique)? This article explores these aspects by the perspective of neurobiology.
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  23. Neurofenomenologia e Meditação: Breves Apontamentos Para o Diálogo Entre Práticas Contemplativas e as Ciências Cognitivas Enativistas No Século XXI a Partir da Noção Emergentista de Determinação Descendente.Leonardo Ferreira Almada - 2018 - Simbio-Logias Revista Eletrônica de Educação Filosofia e Nutrição 10 (13):119-140.
    From an investigation of the theoretical, structural, methodological, and conceptual rudiments of the neurophenomenology, such as developed by Francisco Javier Varela, I seek, at first, to investigate the possibility of a theoretical model whose purpose consists in the integration between the subjective experience and the cerebral dynamic. To the study of the fundamental diagnosis of neurophenomenology — namely, the interpretation which Varela offers to the theoretical and methodological position of Chalmers’ ‘hard problem’ of consciousness —, I will associate the conception (...)
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  24. Práticas Contemplativas e Tomada de Decisão: A Relação Entre a Neurofenomenologia, Meditação e a Regulação Top-Down Das Emoções.Marlos Vinícius Oliveira Ramos - 2018 - Simbio-Logias Revista Eletrônica de Educação Filosofia e Nutrição 10 (13):34-54.
    This article has as its objective to analyze the relationship between the human decision making processes and self-regulating capacity / in the development of top-down regulation, in this particular case, by means of contemplative practices, principally mindfulness meditation. This debate is supported upon the nexus established between the cognitive and emotional processes, searching for comprehension of the casual bases of human decision making and the cognitive and affective process. From this theoretical perspective, emotions exercise the role of prominent neurobiological mechanisms (...)
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  25. Lidová psychologie v současné neurovědě: diskuse o kognitivních ontologiích.Matěj Dražil - 2022 - Filozofia 77 (6):442-455.
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  26. Sociálno-etické dôsledky neurovylepšovania.Jana Tomašovičová - 2021 - Filozofia 76 (3):181-194.
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  27. Is punishment backward? On neurointerventions and forward‐looking moral responsibility.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Bioethics (2):1-9.
    This article focuses on justified responses to “immoral” behavior and crimes committed by patients undergoing neuromodulation therapies. Such patients could be held morally responsible in the basic desert sense—the one that serves as a justification of severe practices such as backward‐looking moral outrage, condemnation, and legal punishment—as long as they possess certain compatibilist capabilities that have traditionally served as the quintessence of free will, that is, reasons‐responsiveness; attributability; answerability; the abilities to act in accordance with moral reasons, second‐order volitions, or (...)
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  28. Neurosurgical robots and ethical challenges to medicine.Arthur Saniotis & Maciej Henneberg - 2021 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 21:25-30.
    Over the last 20 yr, neurosurgical robots have been increasingly assisting in neurosurgical procedures. Surgical robots are considered to have noticeable advantages over humans, such as reduction of procedure time, surgical dexterity, no experience of fatigue and improved healthcare outcomes. In recent years, neurosurgical robots have been developed to perform various procedures. Public demand is informing the direction of neurosurgery and placing greater pressure on neurosurgeons to use neurosurgical robots. The increasing diversity and sophistication of neurosurgical robots have received ethical (...)
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  29. José Manuel Giménez Amaya; Sergio Sánchez Migallón: De la Neurociencia a la Neuroética. Narrativa científica y reflexión filosófica, Pamplona: EUNSA 2010, 172 pp. [REVIEW]Roberto Casales Garcia - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 40 (1):261.
    José Manuel Giménez Amaya; Sergio Sánchez Migallón: De la Neurociencia a la Neuroética. Narrativa científica y reflexión filosófica, Pamplona: EUNSA 2010, 172 pp.
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  30. Unseld Lectures 2018: Patricia Churchland - The Neurobiology of Moral Conscience.Daniel Krchňák - 2018 - Pro-Fil 19 (1):67-68.
  31. Neurorehabilitation of Offenders, Consent and Consequentialist Ethics.Francisco Lara - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-15.
    The new biotechnology raises expectations for modifying human behaviour through its use. This article focuses on the ethical analysis of the not so remote possibility of rehabilitating criminals by means of neurotechnological techniques. The analysis is carried out from a synthetic position of, on the one hand, the consequentialist conception of what is right and, on the other hand, the emphasis on individual liberties. As a result, firstly, the ethical appropriateness of adopting a general predisposition for allowing the neurorehabilitation of (...)
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  32. Can we learn from hidden mistakes? Self-fulfilling prophecy and responsible neuroprognostic innovation.Mayli Mertens, Owen C. King, Michel J. A. M. van Putten & Marianne Boenink - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (11):922-928.
    A self-fulfilling prophecy in neuroprognostication occurs when a patient in coma is predicted to have a poor outcome, and life-sustaining treatment is withdrawn on the basis of that prediction, thus directly bringing about a poor outcome for that patient. In contrast to the predominant emphasis in the bioethics literature, we look beyond the moral issues raised by the possibility that an erroneous prediction might lead to the death of a patient who otherwise would have lived. Instead, we focus on the (...)
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  33. A New Interpretation of the Essence of Aesthetic Experience: From the Perspective of Cognitive Neuroaesthetics and Aesthetic Anthropology.Fanjun Meng & Yushui Liang - 2022 - The Journal of Aesthetic Education 56 (4):97-120.
    Abstract:In the transformation from classical to modern aesthetics, the proposition and exploration of aesthetic experience constitutes one of the major dimensions of various aesthetic problems. Pragmatic aesthetics, phenomenological aesthetics, hermeneutic aesthetics, analytical aesthetics, and new pragmatic aesthetics have comprehensively analyzed and discussed aesthetic experience. Through the construction and deconstruction of aesthetic experience in aesthetic history, the study of the key concept seems to have come to a certain predicament. This is mainly reflected in the fact that the subjective and objective (...)
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  34. Ethical consideration for neurodevelopmental disorder pathway service evaluation and research.Mithila Turna Tribenee, Barry Tolchard & Shamima Parvin Lasker - 2022 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):61-66.
    The Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 of United States in act to prevent social exclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and to cut back on unneeded expenditures to society. However, despite the protective legislation, the rights of adults with neurodevelopmental disorders have not yet been fully realised. There are several obstacles to overcome the neurological development related health care services, including health care usage, educational and career (...)
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  35. Challenges and Problems of Neuroeconomics: Several Tasks for Social Scientists.Michal Müller - 2019 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 40 (2):157-190.
    Neuroscience is a fascinating discipline – its dynamic progress has led to the emergence of new interdisciplinary research programmes with great potential. One of these research areas is neuroeconomics. As will be shown in this article, this discipline, which is difficult to clearly characterize and define, is faced with many problems. This paper argues that social scientists should be interested in the problems and tendencies in social neuroscience for several reasons. Neuroeconomics, and other disciplines inspired by neuroscience, will compete with (...)
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  36. Implications of Neuroplasticity to the Philosophical Debate of Free Will and Determinism.Panagiotis Kormas, Antonia Moutzouri & Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2022 - Handbook of Computational Neurodegeneration.
    Neuroplasticity, the capacity of the brain to induce changes in response to environmental stimuli, entails a continuous rearrangement of the neural network through a complex interaction between genetics and environment. Within this process, the plastic brain uses its internal representations to predict future conditions and proactively proceed to actions. It can be said that plasticity demands a rethinking of the concept of determinism as the process of coming-to-be is directly related to modifications produced by experience. Pure determinism and complete randomness (...)
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  37. La prevalencia de los neuromitos en la educación.Fabio Morandín-Ahuerma - 2022 - In Neuroeducación como Herramienta Epistemológica. Puebla, Pue., México: pp. 1-22.
    El objetivo de este capitulo es identificar los llamados neuromitos, creencias justificadas o no, sobre el cerebro y su funcionamiento que han prevalecido a lo largo de los años y que, en muchos casos, llega a distorsionar e incluso prejuzgar la visión de los docentes hacia con sus alumnos, por lo que se cometen errores en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Aquí se analizan los argumentos que sostienen los neuromitos y los contraargumentos que la ciencia ofrece para desmentirlos.
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  38. Neuroeducación como Herramienta Epistemológica.Fabio Morandín-Ahuerma (ed.) - 2022 - Puebla, Pue., México: CONCYTEP.
    La neuroeducación es un campo académico cuyo objetivo final es dilucidar la base neuronal y los mecanismos bio-epistemológicos de la cognición, pero, en sí misma, es un campo transdisciplinar integral y complejo. Debido a la naturaleza de esta gran área, la neuroeducación tiene una conexión horizontal con una amplia variedad de saberes. Este trabajo multidisciplinario incluye los elementos de la neurociencia en las disciplinas relacionadas con el comportamiento humano y la educación, partiendo de la premisa de que el cerebro es (...)
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  39. Overcoming barriers to informed consent in neurological research: Perspectives from a national survey.Lauren R. Sankary, Megan E. Zelinsky, Paul J. Ford, Eric C. Blackstone & Robert J. Fox - 2023 - Research Ethics 19 (1):42-61.
    The ethical recruitment of participants with neurological disorders in clinical research requires obtaining initial and ongoing informed consent. The purpose of this study is to characterize barriers faced by research personnel in obtaining informed consent from research participants with neurological disorders and to identify strategies applied by researchers to overcome those barriers. This study was designed as a web-based survey of US researchers with an optional follow-up interview. A subset of participants who completed the survey were selected using a stratified (...)
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  40. Brain-Mind: From Neurons to Consciousness and Creativity by Paul Thagard.Samuel Taylor - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (4):831-833.
  41. (0November 2022 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE similarities between the ideas of some people (2006-2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in physics (quantum mechanics, cosmology), cognitive neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and philosophy (this manuscript would require a REVOLUTION in international academy environment!).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    The main ideas of the EDWs perspective are in Gabriel Vacariu’s PhD thesis posted online by UNSW (Australia) in 2007!!! I have realized the GREATEST discovery in the history of human knowledge: the EDWs! With discovering the EDWs, I have changed everything in Philosophy, Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience! This has been the main reason, so many people have published UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas, many years I published my first works! -/- UNBELIEVABLE, many (hundreds) “great” or small thinkers did (...)
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  42. (1October 2022 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE similarities between the ideas of some people (2006-2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in physics (quantum mechanics, cosmology), cognitive neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and philosophy (this manuscript would require a REVOLUTION in international academy environment!).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    The main ideas of the EDWs perspective are in Gabriel Vacariu’s PhD thesis posted online by UNSW (Australia) in 2007!!! I have realized the GREATEST discovery in the history of human knowledge: the EDWs! With discovering the EDWs, I have changed everything in Philosophy, Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience! This has been the main reason, so many people have published UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas, many years I published my first works! -/- UNBELIEVABLE, many (hundreds) “great” or small thinkers did (...)
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  43. The Reflected Face as a Mask of the Self: An Appraisal of the Psychological and Neuroscientific Research About Self-face Recognition.Gabriele Volpara, Andrea Nani & Franco Cauda - 2022 - Topoi 41 (4):715-730.
    This study reviews research about the recognition of one’s own face and discusses scientific techniques to investigate differences in brain activation when looking at familiar faces compared to unfamiliar ones. Our analysis highlights how people do not possess a perception of their own face that corresponds precisely to reality, and how the awareness of one’s face can also be modulated by means of the enfacement illusion. This illusion allows one to maintain a sense of self at the expense of a (...)
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  44. Depersonalization Puzzle: A New View from the Neurophenomenological Selfhood Perspective.Andrew And Alexander Fingelkurts - 2022 - Journal of Neurophilosophy 1 (2):181-202.
    While there is still a limited understanding of the Selfhood phenomenon, an emerging consensus is that the experiential Selfhood refers to a sense of the undergoing experience in its implicit first-person mode of givenness that is immediately and tacitly given as “mine”. It is also evident that there are phenomenological disruptions within self-consciousness ranging from normal everyday short-lived dissociative episodes to pathological, intense and prolonged forms of dissociative experience classified as depersonalization disorder (DD). In the present study we explored the (...)
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  45. Understanding the development and use of tools in neuroscience: the case of the tungsten micro-electrode.Juan Manuel Garrido Wainer - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-22.
    The philosophical interest in experimental practice in neuroscience has brought renewed attention to the study of the development and use of techniques and tools for data production. John Bickle has argued that the construction and progression of theories in neuroscience are entirely dependent on the development and ingenious use of research tools. In Bickle's account, theory plays a tertiary role, as it depends on what the tools allow researchers to manipulate, and the tools, in turn, are developed not in order (...)
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  46. Distinctly Entangled. [REVIEW]Carolyn Dicey Jennings - 2022 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
    Pessoa envisions an approach to neuroscience that treats the brain as an “interactionally complex system”: a system that cannot be understood through analysis and manipulation of its parts. I provide reason to support Pessoa's overall approach while putting pressure on some of the specific claims. -/- .
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  47. “You've Got to Work on This Axon”: J. Z. Young and Squid Giant Axon Preparations in 20th‐Century Neurobiology.Kathryn Maxson Jones - 2022 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 45 (3):317-331.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Volume 45, Issue 3, Page 317-331, September 2022.
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  48. “You've Got to Work on This Axon”: J. Z. Young and Squid Giant Axon Preparations in 20th‐Century Neurobiology.Kathryn Maxson Jones - 2022 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 45 (3):317-331.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Volume 45, Issue 3, Page 317-331, September 2022.
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  49. (October 2022 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE similarities between the ideas of some people (2006-2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in physics (quantum mechanics, cosmology), cognitive neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and philosophy (this manuscript would require a REVOLUTION in international academy environment!).Gabriel Vacariu -
    The main ideas of the EDWs perspective are in Gabriel Vacariu’s PhD thesis posted online by UNSW (Australia) in 2007!!! I have realized the GREATEST discovery in the history of human knowledge: the EDWs! With discovering the EDWs, I have changed everything in Philosophy, Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience! This has been the main reason, so many people have published UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas, many years I published my first works! -/- UNBELIEVABLE, many (hundreds) “great” or small thinkers did (...)
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  50. Effect of pinch types on pinch force sense in healthy adults.Lin Li, YanXia Li, Peng Jia, Shuyan Wang, Wanpeng Wang & Yuxiang Liu - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    Pinch force sense plays an important role in the performance of daily finger movements, including tip, key, palmar pinch. The present study investigated the roles of pinch type in the sensation of pinch force among healthy participants in the ipsilateral force reproduction trial. This study instructed forty healthy adult subjects in producing reference forces at different levels [10, 30, 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction ] by adopting 3 pinch types and in reproducing the above force levels with the identical hand. (...)
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