Results for 'Mike Ashfield'

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Mike Ashfield
Utah State University
  1. Five problems for the moral consensus about sins.Mike Ashfield - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 90 (3):157-189.
    A number of Christian theologians and philosophers have been critical of overly moralizing approaches to the doctrine of sin, but nearly all Christian thinkers maintain that moral fault is necessary or sufficient for sin to obtain. Call this the “Moral Consensus.” I begin by clarifying the relevance of impurities to the biblical cataloguing of sins. I then present four extensional problems for the Moral Consensus on sin, based on the biblical catalogue of sins: (1) moral over-demandingness, (2) agential unfairness, (3) (...)
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  2.  43
    Love's Constancy: Mike W. Martin.Mike W. Martin - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (263):63-77.
    ‘Marital faithfulness’ refers to faithful love for a spouse or lover to whom one is committed, rather than the narrower idea of sexual fidelity. The distinction is clearly marked in traditional wedding vows. A commitment to love faithfully is central: ‘to have and to hold from this day forward, for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, till death us do part… and thereto I plight [pledge] thee my troth [faithfulness]’. (...)
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  3. 13 Mike Kelley.Mike Kelley - 2007 - In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg. pp. 13.
     
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  4.  24
    Mike Boone, Kathleen Fite, & Robert F. Reardon 43.Mike Boone - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  5.  68
    Probabilistic Effects in Data Selection.Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Becki Grainger - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (3):193 – 243.
    Four experiments investigated the effects of probability manipulations on the indicative four card selection task (Wason, 1966, 1968). All looked at the effects of high and low probability antecedents (p) and consequents (q) on participants' data selections when determining the truth or falsity of a conditional rule, if p then q . Experiments 1 and 2 also manipulated believability. In Experiment 1, 128 participants performed the task using rules with varied contents pretested for probability of occurrence. Probabilistic effects were observed (...)
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  6.  18
    A Rational Analysis of the Selection Task as Optimal Data Selection.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (4):608-631.
  7.  48
    Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Are people rational? This question was central to Greek thought and has been at the heart of psychology and philosophy for millennia. This book provides a radical and controversial reappraisal of conventional wisdom in the psychology of reasoning, proposing that the Western conception of the mind as a logical system is flawed at the very outset. It argues that cognition should be understood in terms of probability theory, the calculus of uncertain reasoning, rather than in terms of logic, the calculus (...)
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  8. Against the Minimalistic Reading of Epistemic Contextualism: A Reply to Wolfgang Freitag.Michael D. Ashfield - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (1):111-125.
    Several philosophers have argued that the factivity of knowledge poses a problem for epistemic contextualism (EC), which they have construed as a knowability problem. On a proposed minimalistic reading of EC’s commitments, Wolfgang Freitag argues that factivity yields no knowability problem for EC. I begin by explaining how factivity is thought to generate a contradiction out of paradigmatic contextualist cases on a certain reading of EC’s commitments. This reductio results in some kind of reflexivity problem for the contextualist when it (...)
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  9.  68
    Against Logicist Cognitive Science.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 1991 - Mind and Language 6 (1):1-38.
  10. The Sublime: A Reader in British Eighteenth-Century Aesthetic Theory.Andrew Ashfield & Peter de Bolla (eds.) - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of texts on the Sublime provides the historical context for the foundation and discussion of one of the most important aesthetic debates of the Enlightenment. The significance of the Sublime in the eighteenth century ranged across a number of fields - literary criticism, empirical psychology, political economy, connoisseurship, landscape design and aesthetics, painting and the fine arts, and moral philosophy - and has continued to animate aesthetic and theoretical debates to this day. However, the unavailability of many of (...)
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  11.  39
    The New Vanguard: Mike Martin.Mike Martin - 2002 - The Philosophers' Magazine 18:44-44.
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  12. Disagreement.Mike Ridge - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):41-63.
    Disagreement holds the key: the possibility of agreeing or disagreeing with a state of mind makes that state of mind act logically like accepting a claim. Charles Stevenson was quite right to begin his presentation of emotivism with disagreement.—Allan Gibbard.
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  13.  29
    The Varieties of Parsimony in Psychology.Mike Dacey - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (4):414-437.
    Philosophers and psychologists make many different, seemingly incompatible parsimony claims in support of competing models of cognition in nonhuman animals. This variety of parsimony claims is problematic. Firstly, it is difficult to justify each specific variety. This problem is especially salient for Morgan's Canon, perhaps the most important variety of parsimony claimed. Secondly, there is no systematic way of adjudicating between particular claims when they conflict. I argue for a view of parsimony in comparative psychology that solves these problems, based (...)
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  14.  20
    metaSEM: An R Package for Meta-Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling.Mike W.-L. Cheung - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  15. Précis of Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):69-84.
    According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic – the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining (...)
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  16. What’s Puzzling Gottlob Frege?Mike Thau & Ben Caplan - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):159-200.
    By any reasonable reckoning, Gottlob Frege's ‘On Sense and Reference’ is one of the more important philosophical papers of all time. Although Frege briefly discusses the sense-reference distinction in an earlier work, it is through ‘Sense and Reference’ that most philosophers have become familiar with it. And the distinction so thoroughly permeates contemporary philosophy of language and mind that it is almost impossible to imagine these subjects without it.The distinction between the sense and the referent of a name is introduced (...)
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  17.  22
    What’s the Problem with the Cosmological Constant?Mike D. Schneider - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (1):1-20.
    The “Cosmological Constant Problem” is widely considered a crisis in contemporary theoretical physics. Unfortunately, the search for its resolution is hampered by open disagreement about what is, strictly, the problem. This disagreement stems from the observation that the CCP is not a problem within any of our current theories, and nearly all of the details of those future theories for which the CCP could be made a problem are up for grabs. Given this state of affairs, I discuss how one (...)
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  18.  79
    Conditional Probability and the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):359–379.
  19.  24
    Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book shows how these developments have led researchers to view people's conditional reasoning behaviour more as succesful probabilistic reasoning rather ...
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  20. The Body in Consumer Culture.Mike Featherstone - 1982 - Theory, Culture and Society 1 (2):18-33.
  21. Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule.Mike Collins - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  22. The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):349-357.
    A recent development in the cognitive science of reasoning has been the emergence of a probabilistic approach to the behaviour observed on ostensibly logical tasks. According to this approach the errors and biases documented on these tasks occur because people import their everyday uncertain reasoning strategies into the laboratory. Consequently participants' apparently irrational behaviour is the result of comparing it with an inappropriate logical standard. In this article, we contrast the probabilistic approach with other approaches to explaining rationality, and then (...)
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  23.  3
    Toward an Ethics of Algorithms: Convening, Observation, Probability, and Timeliness.Mike Ananny - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (1):93-117.
    Part of understanding the meaning and power of algorithms means asking what new demands they might make of ethical frameworks, and how they might be held accountable to ethical standards. I develop a definition of networked information algorithms as assemblages of institutionally situated code, practices, and norms with the power to create, sustain, and signify relationships among people and data through minimally observable, semiautonomous action. Starting from Merrill’s prompt to see ethics as the study of “what we ought to do,” (...)
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  24.  7
    Towards an Appreciation of Ethics in Social Enterprise Business Models.Mike Bull & Rory Ridley-Duff - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (3):619-634.
    How can a critical analysis of entrepreneurial intention inform an appreciation of ethics in social enterprise business models? In answering this question, we consider the ethical commitments that inform entrepreneurial action and the hybrid organisations that emerge out of these commitments and actions. Ethical theory can be a useful way to reorient the field of social enterprise so that it is more critical of bureaucratic and market-driven enterprises connected to neoliberal doctrine. Social enterprise hybrid business models are therefore reframed as (...)
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  25. Anthropomorphism as Cognitive Bias.Mike Dacey - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1152-1164.
    Philosophers and psychologists have long worried that the human tendency to anthropomorphize leads us to err in our understanding of nonhuman minds. This tendency, which I call intuitive anthropomorphism, is a heuristic used by our unconscious folk psychology to understand nonhuman animals. The dominant understanding of intuitive anthropomorphism underestimates its complexity. If we want to understand and control intuitive anthropomorphism, we must treat it as a cognitive bias and look to the empirical evidence. This evidence suggests that the most common (...)
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  26.  83
    Sports, Virtues and Vices: Morality Plays.Mike McNamee - 2008 - Routledge.
    Sports have long played an important role in society. By exploring the evolving link between sporting behaviour and the prevailing ethics of the time this comprehensive and wide-ranging study illuminates our understanding of the wider social significance of sport. The primary aim of _Sports, Virtues and Vices_ is to situate ethics at the heart of sports via ‘virtue ethical’ considerations that can be traced back to the gymnasia of ancient Greece. The central theme running through the book is that sports (...)
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  27.  46
    Sporting Practices, Institutions, and Virtues: A Critique and a Restatement.Mike McNamee - 1995 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 22 (1):61-82.
  28.  28
    Dynamic Inference and Everyday Conditional Reasoning in the New Paradigm.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):346-379.
  29.  12
    Implications of Moral Uncertainty: Implausible or Just Unpalatable?Mike King - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):451-452.
    Setting aside some complexities, Koplin and Wilkinson1 argue: 1. Moral status is uncertain if there is a non-zero chance that an entity has, or would develop, full moral status. 2. If its moral status is uncertain, then moral caution is warranted towards that entity. 3. The moral status of both non-chimeric pigs and human-pig chimaeras is uncertain. Therefore, consistency demands that moral caution is warranted towards both non-chimeric pigs and human-pig chimaeras. 4. The commonly held view is that moral caution (...)
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  30. The Multiverse and Divine Creation.Mike Almeida - 2017 - Religions 8 (12):1 - 10.
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  31.  12
    The ‘Social Life of Methods’: A Critical Introduction.Mike Savage - 2013 - Theory, Culture and Society 30 (4):3-21.
    This paper explores the distinctive features of the critical agenda associated with the ‘Social Life of Methods’. I argue that although this perspective can be associated with the increasing interest, often associated with scholars in Science and Technology Studies, to reflect on how methods can become objects of inquiry, it also needs to be rooted in the current crisis of positivist methods. I identify the challenge for positivism in terms of the decreasing ability of its procedures to effectively organize increasingly (...)
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  32.  77
    Moral Assertion for Expressivists.Mike Ridge - 2009 - Philosophical Issues 19 (1):182-204.
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  33.  13
    Knowing, Believing, and Understanding: What Goals for Science Education?Mike U. Smith & Harvey Siegel - 2004 - Science and Education: Academic Journal of Ushynsky University 13 (6):553-582.
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  34. Defining Versus Describing the Nature of Science: A Pragmatic Analysis for Classroom Teachers and Science Educators.Mike U. Smith & Lawrence C. Scharmann - 1999 - Science Education 83 (4):493-509.
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  35.  14
    The Case for Welfare Biology.Mike R. King, Philip J. Seddon, Andrew J. Moore & Asher A. Soryl - 2021 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 34 (2):1-25.
    Animal welfare science and ecology are both generally concerned with the lives of animals, however they differ in their objectives and scope; the former studies the welfare of animals considered ‘domestic’ and under the domain of humans, while the latter studies wild animals with respect to ecological processes. Each of these approaches addresses certain aspects of the lives of animals living in the world though neither, we argue, tells us important information about the welfare of wild animals. This paper argues (...)
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  36. Locke's Answer to Molyneux's Thought Experiment.Mike Bruno & Eric Mandelbaum - 2010 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 27 (2):165-80.
    Philosophical discussions of Molyneux's problem within contemporary philosophy of mind tend to characterize the problem as primarily concerned with the role innately known principles, amodal spatial concepts, and rational cognitive faculties play in our perceptual lives. Indeed, for broadly similar reasons, rationalists have generally advocated an affirmative answer, while empiricists have generally advocated a negative one, to the question Molyneux posed after presenting his famous thought experiment. This historical characterization of the dialectic, however, somewhat obscures the role Molyneux's problem has (...)
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  37. Lucky Libertarianism.Mike Almeida & M. Bernstein - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 113 (2):93-119.
    Perhaps the greatest impediment to a viable libertarianism is the provision of a satisfactory explanation of how actions that are undetermined by an agent's character can still be under the control of, or 'up to', the agent. The 'luck problem' has been most assiduously examined by Robert Kane who supplies a detailed account of how this problem can be resolved. Although Kane's theory is innovative, insightful, and more resourceful than most of his critics believe, it ultimately cannot account for the (...)
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  38.  41
    Mind in Life or Life in Mind? Making Sense of Deep Continuity.Mike Wheeler - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (5-6):148-168.
  39. Connectionist Modelling in Psychology: A Localist Manifesto.Mike Page - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):443-467.
    Over the last decade, fully distributed models have become dominant in connectionist psychological modelling, whereas the virtues of localist models have been underestimated. This target article illustrates some of the benefits of localist modelling. Localist models are characterized by the presence of localist representations rather than the absence of distributed representations. A generalized localist model is proposed that exhibits many of the properties of fully distributed models. It can be applied to a number of problems that are difficult for fully (...)
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  40.  16
    Creativity in the Social Epistemology of Science.Mike D. Schneider - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):882-893.
    Currie (2019) has introduced a novel account of creativity within the social epistemology of science. The account is intended to capture how conservatism can be detrimental to the health of inquiry within certain scientific communities, given the aims of research there. I argue that recent remarks by Rovelli (2018) put pressure on the applicability of the account. Altogether, it seems we do not yet well understand the relationship between creativity, conservatism, and the health of inquiry in science.
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  41. What is Hegemonic Masculinity?Mike Donaldson - 1993 - Theory and Society 22 (5):643-657.
  42.  17
    Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: II. Pedagogical Issues.Mike U. Smith - 2010 - Science & Education 19 (6-8):539-571.
  43.  11
    Body, Image and Affect in Consumer Culture.Mike Featherstone - 2010 - Body and Society 16 (1):193-221.
    This article is concerned with the relationship between body, image and affect within consumer culture. Body image is generally understood as a mental image of the body as it appears to others. It is often assumed in consumer culture that people attend to their body image in an instrumental manner, as status and social acceptability depend on how a person looks. This view is based on popular physiognomic assumptions that the body, especially the face, is a reflection of the self: (...)
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  44.  17
    The Establishment and Enforcement of Codes.Mike Healy & Jennifer Iles - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):117 - 124.
    Information and communications technology (ICT) is now used more by non-IT professional end-users than by IT professionals. A survey of 125 London-based organisations found that the majority had instituted codes of conduct designed to govern the use of ICT by their employees. However, the primary purpose of adopting such codes was to ensure the security and efficient operation of the organisation's information systems rather than for wider ethical considerations. Hence, few of the codes of conduct addressed issues relating to the (...)
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  45.  17
    Cosmopolitan Climates.Mike Hulme - 2010 - Theory, Culture and Society 27 (2-3):267-276.
    This essay argues for the fruitfulness of Beck’s idea of cosmopolitanism for understanding the changing political, sociological and psychological attributes of climate change. This argument is illustrated through brief examinations of how climate change is contributing to the dissolution of three modern dualisms: nature-culture, present-future and global-local. Not only does the cosmopolitan perspective help to understand the ways in which science and society are mutually constructing the phenomenon of climate change, it also offers us a way of asking ‘what can (...)
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  46.  22
    Mental Models and the Tractability of Everyday Reasoning.Mike Oaksford - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):360-361.
  47.  43
    Global Culture: An Introduction.Mike Featherstone - 1990 - Theory, Culture and Society 7 (2-3):1-14.
  48.  41
    Foucault on Governmentality and Liberalism: The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the College de France, 1978--1979 by Michel Foucault, Trans. Graham Burchell Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, Pp. 346 Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the College de France, 1977--1978 by Michel Foucault, Trans. Graham Burchell Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, Pp. 401. [REVIEW]Mike Gane - 2008 - Theory, Culture and Society 25 (7-8):353-363.
    Foucault announced that his lectures of 1977—78 would be on `biopolitics'; in the end, they were on governmentality: from the pastoral of souls to the raison d'état. He announced his lectures of 1978—79 would also be on `biopolitics', but then presented lectures based on textual analysis, examining the way Smith and Ferguson invented a distinctive conception of civil society from that of Hobbes, Rousseau or Montesquieu, one that opened a site of civil society. These latter lectures continued by examining the (...)
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  49.  18
    Knowing, Believing, and Understanding: What Goals for Science Education?Mike U. Smith & Harvey Siegel - 2004 - Science & Education 13 (6):553-582.
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  50.  18
    Priority and Privilege in Scientific Discovery.Mike D. Schneider & Hannah Rubin - unknown
    The priority rule in science has been interpreted as a behavior regulator for the scientific community, which benefits society by adequately structuring the distribution of intellectual labor across pre-existing research programs. Further, it has been lauded as part of society's "grand reward scheme" because it fairly rewards people for the benefits they produce. But considerations about how news of scientific developments spreads throughout a scientific community at large suggest that the priority rule is something else entirely, which can disadvantage historically (...)
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