Results for 'Johannes Fehr'

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  1.  44
    “… The art of shaping a democratic reality and being directed by it …”—philososophy of science in turbulent times.Johannes Fehr - 2012 - Studies in East European Thought 64 (1-2):81-89.
    This article has three objectives: First, it revises the history of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s monograph Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache (1935, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact). Contrary to the established picture, Fleck’s book was largely discussed in the years before the outbreak of World War II. What becomes clear when reading these early reviews and especially Fleck’s comments to those written by representatives of Nazi Germany is, second, the political dimension of his epistemology. In this (...)
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  2. Circles of Scientific Practice: Regressus, Mathēsis, Denkstil.Jeff Kochan - 2015 - In Dimitri Ginev (ed.), Critical Science Studies after Ludwik Fleck. St. Kliment Ohridski University Press. pp. 83-99.
    Hermeneutic studies of science locate a circle at the heart of scientific practice: scientists only gain knowledge of what they, in some sense, already know. This may seem to threaten the rational validity of science, but one can argue that this circle is a virtuous rather than a vicious one. A virtuous circle is one in which research conclusions are already present in the premises, but only in an indeterminate and underdeveloped way. In order to defend the validity of science, (...)
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  3. Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory.Johannes B. Mahr & Gergely Csibra - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential,autonoeticcharacter. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken toward an event simulation. In this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the (...)
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  4.  27
    The dimensions of episodic simulation.Johannes B. Mahr - 2020 - Cognition 196:104085.
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  5. Mnemicity - A cognitive gadget?Johannes B. Mahr, Penny van Bergen, John Sutton, Daniel L. Schacter & Cecilia Heyes - 2023 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 1 (1).
    Episodic representations can be entertained either as “remembered” or “imagined”—as outcomes of experience or as simulations of such experience. Here, we argue that this feature is the product of a dedicated cognitive function: the metacognitive capacity to determine the mnemicity of mental event simulations. We argue that mnemicity attribution should be distinguished from other metacognitive operations (such as reality monitoring) and propose that this attribution is a “cognitive gadget”—a distinctively human ability made possible by cultural learning. Cultural learning is a (...)
     
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  6. Education, Fair Competition, and Concern for the Worst Off.Johannes Giesinger - 2011 - Educational Theory 61 (1):41-54.
    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger comments on the current philosophical debate on educational justice. He observes that while authors like Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz develop a so-called adequacy view of educational justice, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift defend an egalitarian principle. Giesinger focuses his analysis on the main objection that is formulated, from an egalitarian perspective, against the adequacy view: that it neglects the problem of securing fair opportunities in the competition for social rewards. Giesinger meets this objection (...)
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  7. Holism, entrenchment, and the future of climate model pluralism.Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (3):253-262.
    In this paper, we explore the extent to which issues of simulation model validation take on novel characteristics when the models in question become particularly complex. Our central claim is that complex simulation models in general, and global models of climate in particular, face a form of confirmation holism. This holism, moreover, makes analytic understanding of complex models of climate either extremely difficult or even impossible. We argue that this supports a position we call convergence skepticism: the belief that the (...)
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  8.  41
    What is a mathematical structure of conscious experience?Johannes Kleiner & Tim Ludwig - 2024 - Synthese 203 (3):1-23.
    Several promising approaches have been developed to represent conscious experience in terms of mathematical spaces and structures. What is missing, however, is an explicit definition of what a ‘mathematical structure of conscious experience’ is. Here, we propose such a definition. This definition provides a link between the abstract formal entities of mathematics and the concreta of conscious experience; it complements recent approaches that study quality spaces, qualia spaces, or phenomenal spaces; and it provides a general method to identify and investigate (...)
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  9.  41
    Towards a structural turn in consciousness science.Johannes Kleiner - 2024 - Consciousness and Cognition 119 (C):103653.
  10. Computer simulation: The cooperation between experimenting and modeling.Johannes Lenhard - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (2):176-194.
    The goal of the present article is to contribute to the epistemology and methodology of computer simulations. The central thesis is that the process of simulation modeling takes the form of an explorative cooperation between experimenting and modeling. This characteristic mode of modeling turns simulations into autonomous mediators in a specific way; namely, it makes it possible for the phenomena and the data to exert a direct influence on the model. The argumentation will be illustrated by a case study of (...)
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  11. Holism and Entrenchment in Climate Model Validation.Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 115--130.
  12.  31
    Mindfulness and Leadership: Communication as a Behavioral Correlate of Leader Mindfulness and Its Effect on Follower Satisfaction.Johannes F. W. Arendt, Armin Pircher Verdorfer & Katharina G. Kugler - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    In recent years, the construct of mindfulness has gained growing attention in psychological research. However, little is known about the effects of mindfulness on interpersonal interactions and social relationships at work. Addressing this gap, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mindfulness in leader-follower-relationships. Building on prior research, we hypothesize that leaders’ mindfulness is reflected in a specific communication style (“mindfulness in communication”), which is positively related to followers’ satisfaction with their leaders. We used nested survey (...)
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  13. Social ethics.Johannes Messner - 1965 - St. Louis,: B. Herder Book Co..
  14.  9
    Cannabis, research ethics, and a duty of care.Johannes Wheeldon & Jon Heidt - 2023 - Research Ethics 19 (3):250-287.
    Despite growing evidence to the contrary, researchers continue to posit causal links between cannabis, crime, psychosis, and violence. These spurious connections are rooted in history and fueled decades of structural limitations that shaped how researchers studied cannabis. Until recently, research in this area was explicitly funded to link cannabis use and harm and ignore any potential benefits. Post-prohibition cannabis research has failed to replicate the dire findings of the past. This article outlines how the history of controlling cannabis research has (...)
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  15.  40
    Language and reality: on an episode in Indian thought.Johannes Bronkhorst - 2011 - Boston: Brill.
    Aim of the lectures -- Early Brahmanical literature -- Panini's grammar -- A passage from the Chandogya Upanisad -- The structures of languages -- The Buddhist contribution -- Vaisesika and language -- Verbal knowledge -- The contradictions of Nagarjuna -- The reactions of other thinkers -- Sarvastivada Samkhya -- The Agamasastra of Gaudapada -- Sankara -- Kashmiri Saivism -- Jainism -- Early Vaisesika -- Critiques of the existence of a thing before its arising -- Nyaya -- Mimamsa -- The Abhidharmakosa (...)
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  16.  72
    Vulnerability and Autonomy – Children and Adults.Johannes Giesinger - 2019 - Ethics and Social Welfare 13 (3):216-229.
  17.  49
    The special goods of childhood: lessons from social constructionism.Johannes Giesinger - 2017 - Ethics and Education 12 (2):201-217.
    To what extent does the common claim that childhood is ‘socially constructed’ affect the ethical debate on the ‘intrinsic’ and ‘special’ goods of childhood? Philosophers have referred to this kind of goods in their critique of overly adult-centred and future-oriented conceptions of childhood. The view that some goods are child-specific, in the sense that they are only good for children, not for adults, seems to presuppose an understanding of what children ‘are’, and how they differ from adults. However, if the (...)
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  18.  66
    Respect in Education.Johannes Giesinger - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (1):100-112.
    This article discusses the educational significance of the moral demand for respect. In Ethics and Education, Richard Peters presents a conception of educational respect that was recently taken up by Krassimir Stojanov. This article responds to both Peters' and Stojanov's contributions and proposes another understanding of educational respect: to respect children is to treat them in a way that enables them to see themselves as persons endowed with dignity; that is, as having the equal standing to make claims on others.
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  19.  22
    Boon and Bane: On the Role of Adjustable Parameters in Simulation Models.Johannes Lenhard & Hans Hasse - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool: Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    We claim that adjustable parameters play a crucial role in building and applying simulation models. We analyze that role and illustrate our findings using examples from equations of state in thermodynamics. In building simulation models, two types of experiments, namely, simulation and classical experiments, interact in a feedback loop, in which model parameters are adjusted. A critical discussion of how adjustable parameters function shows that they are boon and bane of simulation. They help to enlarge the scope of simulation far (...)
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  20.  36
    Stakeholder-sensitive business ethics teaching.Johannes Brinkmann & Ronald R. Sims - 2001 - Teaching Business Ethics 5 (2):171-193.
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  21.  7
    The Mathematical Structure of Integrated Information Theory.Johannes Kleiner & Sean Tull - 2020 - Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics 6.
    Integrated Information Theory is one of the leading models of consciousness. It aims to describe both the quality and quantity of the conscious experience of a physical system, such as the brain, in a particular state. In this contribution, we propound the mathematical structure of the theory, separating the essentials from auxiliary formal tools. We provide a definition of a generalized IIT which has IIT 3.0 of Tononi et al., as well as the Quantum IIT introduced by Zanardi et al. (...)
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  22.  27
    Brain states matter. A reply to the unfolding argument.Johannes Kleiner - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 85:102981.
  23. Internally Triggered Experiences of Hedonic Valence in Nonhuman Animals: Cognitive and Welfare Considerations.Johannes B. Mahr & Bob Fischer - 2022 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 1 (1).
    Do any nonhuman animals have hedonically valenced experiences not directly caused by stimuli in their current environment? Do they, like us humans, experience anticipated or previously experienced pains and pleasures as respectively painful and pleasurable? We review evidence from comparative neuroscience about hippocampus-dependent simulation in relation to this question. Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples and theta oscillations have been found to instantiate previous and anticipated experiences. These hippocampal activations coordinate with neural reward and fear centers as well as sensory and cortical areas (...)
     
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  24.  6
    Aristotle On the Generation of Animals: A Philosophical Study.Johannes Morsink - 1982
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  25.  31
    Against selection: Educational justice and the ascription of talent.Johannes Giesinger - 2021 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 53 (8):789-798.
    This essay starts from the observation that the issue of talent, in relation to the problem of distributive justice, can be approached from two different angles. First, it is common to discuss the justificatory function of talent, that is, its role in the justification of educational or social inequalities. In addition, however, this essay proposes to look at practices of talent ascription and their causal role in the distribution of educational prospects. These practices tend to exacerbate educational inequalities due to (...)
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  26.  5
    Existe una epistemología latinoamericana?Johannes Maerk (ed.) - 1999 - México, D.F.: Plaza y Valdés.
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  27.  37
    What is it to remember?Johannes B. Mahr & Gergely Csibra - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    In response to the commentaries, we clarify and defend our characterization of both the nature and function of episodic memory. Regarding the nature of episodic memory, we extend the distinction between event and episodic memory and discuss the relational role of episodic memory. We also address arguments against our characterization of autonoesis and argue that, while self-referential, it needs to be distinguished from an agentive notion of self. Regarding the function of episodic memory, we review arguments about the relation between (...)
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  28.  8
    Demokratie, und was kommt danach?: die Probleme der Demokratie von der Antike bis zur Moderne.Johannes Maier - 2018 - Baden-Baden: Deutscher Wissenschafts-Verlag (DWV).
  29. Wesen und Bewusstsein.Johannes-Jürgen Meister - 1967 - [München,: Dissertationsdruck F. Frank].
     
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  30.  11
    Zu Winnicotts »Psychologie der Verrücktheit«.Johannes Picht - 2018 - Psyche 72 (4):267-277.
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  31. Kant's Account of Moral Education.Johannes Giesinger - 2012 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (7):775-786.
    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas the former is situated within a transcendentalist framework, the latter relies on a teleological notion of human nature. The second part of this paper demonstrates that the core (...)
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  32.  27
    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away: How temporal are episodic contents?Johannes B. Mahr, Joshua D. Greene & Daniel L. Schacter - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 96 (C):103224.
  33.  32
    Disciplines, models, and computers: The path to computational quantum chemistry.Johannes Lenhard - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:89-96.
  34. Social ethics: natural law in the modern world.Johannes Messner - 1949 - St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co..
     
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  35.  2
    Social ethics.Johannes Messner - 1965 - St. Louis,: B. Herder Book Co..
  36.  19
    A remark on Gentzen's calculus of sequents.Johannes Czermak - 1977 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18 (3):471-474.
  37.  38
    Anthropology with an attitude: critical essays.Johannes Fabian - 2001 - Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
    This book collects published and unpublished work over the last dozen years by one of today's most distinguished and provocative anthropologists. Johannes Fabian is widely known outside of his discipline because his work so often overcomes traditional scholarly boundaries to bring fresh insight to central topics in philosophy, history, and cultural studies. The first part of the book addresses questions of current critical concern. The second part extends the work of critique into the past by examining the beginning of (...)
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  38.  10
    A śabda reader: language in classical Indian thought.Johannes Bronkhorst (ed.) - 2019 - New York: Columbia University Press.
    Language (śabda) occupied a central yet often unacknowledged place in classical Indian philosophical thought. Foundational thinkers considered topics such as the nature of language, its relationship to reality, the nature and existence of linguistic units and their capacity to convey meaning, and the role of language in the interpretation of sacred writings. The first reader on language in--and the language of--classical Indian philosophy, A Śabda Reader offers a comprehensive and pedagogically valuable treatment of this topic and its importance to Indian (...)
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  39.  36
    Holism, or the Erosion of Modularity: A Methodological Challenge for Validation.Johannes Lenhard - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):832-844.
    Modularity is a key concept in building and evaluating complex simulation models. My main claim is that in simulation modeling modularity degenerates for systematic methodological reasons. Consequently, it is hard, if not impossible, to accessing how representational structure and dynamical properties of a model are related. The resulting problem for validating models is one of holism. The argument will proceed by analyzing the techniques of parameterization, tuning, and kludging. They are – to a certain extent – inevitable when building complex (...)
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  40. Bentham on animal welfare.Johannes Kniess - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (3):556-572.
    ABSTRACT Jeremy Bentham is often thought to have set the groundwork for the modern ‘animal liberation’ movement, but in fact he wrote little on the subject. A full examination of his work reveals a less radical position than that commonly attributed to him. Bentham was the first Western philosopher to grant animals equal consideration from within a comprehensive, non-religious moral theory, and he was a staunch defender of animal welfare laws. But he also approved of killing and using animals, as (...)
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  41.  17
    Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - De Gruyter.
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  42.  10
    The Politics of Pictures: Approaching a Difficult Concept.Johannes Grave - 2019 - Social Epistemology 33 (5):442-451.
    The article takes Cornelius Castoriadis’ concept of the ‘political imaginary’ as an invitation to reflect on the role of pictures in politics and in facilitating alternative policies. For this purpose, pictures are not understood as merely rhetorical or propagandistic representations of political statements, which are actually to be thought of independently of the particular picture. Instead, by means of their specific pictorial qualities, pictures also influence the ways politics are negotiated or pursued and, moreover, they can stimulate alternative forms of (...)
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  43.  42
    Evolution of Different Dual-use Concepts in International and National Law and Its Implications on Research Ethics and Governance.Johannes Rath, Monique Ischi & Dana Perkins - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):769-790.
    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution (...)
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  44.  12
    Heiligkeit und Gottes Beistand: ein moraltheologischer Blick auf die Ethikvorlesungen und die Religionsschrift Immanuel Kants.Johannes Reich - 2019 - Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto.
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  45.  83
    The Mind of Donald Davidson.Johannes Brandl (ed.) - 1989 - Netherlands: Rodopi.
    WHAT IS PRESENT TO THE MIND? Donald DAVIDSON The University of California at Berkeley There is a sense in which anything we think about is, ...
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  46.  67
    The interdisciplinary decision problem : Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism in forestry.Johannes Persson, Henrik Thorén & Lennart Olsson - forthcoming - Ecology and Society 23 (3).
    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian (...)
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  47. Yoga and Sesvara Samkhya.Johannes Bronkhorst - 1981 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 9:309.
     
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  48.  53
    Justice in the Social Distribution of Health.Johannes Kniess - 2019 - Social Theory and Practice 45 (3):397-425.
    How should we think, from the point of view of distributive justice, about inequalities in health and longevity? Norman Daniels’s influential account derives a social duty to reduce health inequalities from Rawls’s principle of fair equality of opportunity. This paper criticises Daniels’s approach and offers an alternative. To the extent that the basic structure of society shapes people’s opportunities to be healthy, we ought to think of ‘the social bases of health’ directly as a Rawlsian primary social good. The paper (...)
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  49.  11
    The interdisciplinary decision problem : Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism in forestry.Johannes Persson, Henrik Thorén & Lennart Olsson - 2018 - Ecology and Society 23 (3).
    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian (...)
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  50.  4
    Todestrieb und »Todesgedanke«.Johannes Picht - 2020 - Psyche 74 (11):868-894.
    Vorgestellt wird der Versuch, »Jenseits des Lustprinzips« als Dokument einer Diskontinuität zu lesen. Als Vorarbeit hierzu entfaltet der Autor verschiedene Dimensionen, in und zwischen denen sich der Text bewegt, und arbeitet in ihnen aufkommende Disparitäten sowie Fragen heraus, die der Text stellt, indem er sie verhüllt. Leithypothese der Interpretation ist, dass der Text als ganzer Ausdruck, aber auch beginnende Auslegung und Entstellung eines undenkbaren »Gedankens« (des »Todesgedankens«) ist, auf den er zuläuft und vor dem er ausweicht, und dass das Todestriebkonzept (...)
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