Results for 'Eva Kiefhaber'

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  1.  14
    Sustainability-Related Identities and the Institutional Environment: The Case of New Zealand Owner–Managers of Small- and Medium-Sized Hospitality Businesses.Eva Kiefhaber, Kathryn Pavlovich & Katharina Spraul - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 163 (1):37-51.
    While it is well known that SME owner–managers’ sustainability values and attitudes impact their company’s sustainability activities, they often face profit-driven institutional orders. In a qualitative study, we investigate which identities are critical for their engagement in sustainability and how these identities interrelate with their institutional environment. We applied a qualitative design with narratives from 29 owner–managers of hospitality businesses who belong to a New Zealand-based sustainability network. Our study revealed no single overarching sustainability identity; instead, six identities could be (...)
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  2.  23
    Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension.Eva Jablonka & Marion J. Lamb - 1995 - Oxford University Press UK.
    '...a challenging and useful book, both because it provokes a careful scrutiny of one's own basic ideas regarding evolutionary theory, and because it cuts across so many biological disciplines.' -The Quarterly Review of Biology 'In my view, this work exemplifies Theoretical Biology at its best...here is rampant speculation that is consistently based on cautious reasoning from the available data. Even more refreshing is the absence of sloganeering, grandstanding, and 'isms'.' -Biology and Philosophy 'Epigenetics is fundamental to understanding both development and (...)
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  3.  4
    Aleksandr Zinovʹev i aktualʹnye problemy logiki i metodologii: doklady uchastnikov Logicheskogo seminara "Sokhranenie i preumnozhenie nauchnogo (logiko-filosofskogo) nasledii︠a︡ A.A. Zinovʹeva".O. M. Zinovʹeva, I︠U︡. N. Solodukhin & V. Lepekhin (eds.) - 2017 - Moskva: ROOI "Reabilitat︠s︡ii︠a︡".
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  4.  6
    Mig nastoi︠a︡shchego i vechnostʹ budushchego: preduprezhdenii︠a︡ o buduzhchem Aleksandra Zinovʹeva.Olʹga Mironovna Zinovʹeva, V. Lepekhin & K. A. Zinov'eva (eds.) - 2020 - Moskva: ROOI "Reabilitat︠s︡ii︠a︡".
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  5.  5
    The selected writings of Eva Picardi: from Wittgenstein to neo-American pragmatism.Eva Picardi - 2020 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic. Edited by Annalisa Coliva.
    Eva Picardi has been one of the most influential Italian analytic philosophers of her generation. She taught for forty years at the University of Bologna, raising three generations of students. This collection of selected writings honors her work, confirming Picardi's status as one of the most important Frege scholars of her generation and a leading authority on the philosophy of Donald Davidson. Bringing together Picardi's contributions to the history of analytic philosophy, it includes her papers on major 20th-century figures such (...)
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  6.  52
    Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life.Eva Jablonka, Marion J. Lamb & Anna Zeligowski - 2005 - Bradford.
    Ideas about heredity and evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. New findings in molecular biology challenge the gene-centered version of Darwinian theory according to which adaptation occurs only through natural selection of chance DNA variations. In Evolution in Four Dimensions, Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb argue that there is more to heredity than genes. They trace four "dimensions" in evolution -- four inheritance systems that play a role in evolution: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic. These systems, they argue, can all (...)
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  7.  92
    Modest Nonconceptualism: Epistemology, Phenomenology, and Content.Eva Schmidt - 2015 - Cham: Springer.
    The author defends nonconceptualism, the claim that perceptual experience is nonconceptual and has nonconceptual content. Continuing the heated and complex debate surrounding this topic over the past two decades, she offers a sustained defense of a novel version of the view, Modest Nonconceptualism, and provides a systematic overview of some of the central controversies in the debate. -/- An explication of the notion of nonconceptual content and a distinction between nonconceptualist views of different strengths starts off the volume, then the (...)
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  8.  67
    22 the personal is philosophical is political: A philosopher and mother of a cognitively disabled person sends notes from the battlefield Eva Feder Kittay.Eva Feder Kittay - 2010 - In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  9.  4
    Filosofii︠a︡ kulʹtury N.A. Berdi︠a︡eva i aktualʹnye problemy sovremennosti.Margarita Veniaminovna Silantʹeva - 2005 - Moskva: Gos. akademii︠a︡ slavi︠a︡nskoĭ kulʹtury.
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  10.  6
    Ėkzistent︠s︡ialʹnai︠a︡ dialektika N. Berdi︠a︡eva kak metod sovremennoĭ filosofii.Margarita Veniaminovna Silantʹeva - 2004 - Moskva: Gos. akademii︠a︡ slavi︠a︡nskoĭ kulʹtury.
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  11.  48
    At the Margins of Moral Personhood.Eva Feder Kittay - 2005 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (2):137-156.
    In this article I examine the proposition that severe cognitive disability is an impediment to moral personhood. Moral personhood, as I understand it here, is articulated in the work of Jeff McMahan as that which confers a special moral status on a person. I rehearse the metaphysical arguments about the nature of personhood that ground McMahan’s claims regarding the moral status of the “congenitally severely mentally retarded” (CSMR for short). These claims, I argue, rest on the view that only intrinsic (...)
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  12.  7
    Refractions of mathematics education: festschrift for Eva Jablonka.Eva Jablonka, Christer Bergsten & Bharath Sriraman (eds.) - 2015 - Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
    A Volume in Cognition, Equity & Society: International Perspectives formally known as International Perspectives on Mathematics Education - Cognition, Equity & Society Series Editor Bharath Sriraman, The University of Montana and Lyn English, Queensland University of Technology The diversity of research in mathematics education has been addressed as both, a problem and a strength. When manifested through adherence to different intellectual roots and theoretical orientations, diversions constitute 'refractions' of mathematics education. The collection and analysis of empirical data in a study (...)
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  13. Possessing epistemic reasons: the role of rational capacities.Eva Https://Orcidorg Schmidt - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):483-501.
    In this paper, I defend a reasons-first view of epistemic justification, according to which the justification of our beliefs arises entirely in virtue of the epistemic reasons we possess. I remove three obstacles for this view, which result from its presupposition that epistemic reasons have to be possessed by the subject: the problem that reasons-first accounts of justification are necessarily circular; the problem that they cannot give special epistemic significance to perceptual experience; the problem that they have to say that (...)
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  14.  7
    Encounters in modern Jewish thought: the works of Eva Jospe.Eva Jospe - 2013 - Brighton, MA: Academic Studies Press. Edited by Raphael Jospe & Dov Schwartz.
    -- 2. Moses Mendelssohn -- 3. Hermann Cohen --.
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  15.  97
    Learning and the Evolution of Conscious Agents.Eva Jablonka & Simona Ginsburg - 2022 - Biosemiotics 15 (3):401-437.
    The scientific study of consciousness or subjective experiencing is a rapidly expanding research program engaging philosophers of mind, psychologists, cognitive scientists, neurobiologists, evolutionary biologists and biosemioticians. Here we outline an evolutionary approach that we have developed over the last two decades, focusing on the evolutionary transition from non-conscious to minimally conscious, subjectively experiencing organisms. We propose that the evolution of subjective experiencing was driven by the evolution of learning and we identify an open-ended, representational, generative and recursive form of associative (...)
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  16.  28
    Kant and the Claims of Taste.Eva Schaper - 1979 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38 (2):198-200.
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  17.  46
    Values that create value: Socially responsible business practices in SMEs – empirical evidence from German companies.Eva-Maria Hammann, André Habisch & Harald Pechlaner - 2008 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 18 (1):37-51.
    Socially responsible business and ethical behaviour of companies have been of interest to academia and practice for decades. But the focus has almost exclusively been on large corporations while small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have not received as much attention. Thus, this paper focuses on socially responsible business practices of SME entrepreneurs or owner–managers in Germany. Based on the assumption that decision-makers in SMEs are the central point where all business activities start, members of a German entrepreneurs association were approached (...)
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  18.  46
    Values that create value: socially responsible business practices in SMEs - empirical evidence from German companies.Eva-Maria Hammann, André Habisch & Harald Pechlaner - 2008 - Business Ethics 18 (1):37-51.
    Socially responsible business and ethical behaviour of companies have been of interest to academia and practice for decades. But the focus has almost exclusively been on large corporations while small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have not received as much attention. Thus, this paper focuses on socially responsible business practices of SME entrepreneurs or owner–managers in Germany. Based on the assumption that decision-makers in SMEs are the central point where all business activities start, members of a German entrepreneurs association were approached (...)
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  19.  12
    Item-Score Reliability as a Selection Tool in Test Construction.Eva A. O. Zijlmans, Jesper Tijmstra, L. Andries van der Ark & Klaas Sijtsma - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  20.  9
    The envisioned life: essays in honor of Eva Brann.Eva T. H. Brann, Peter Kalkavage & Eric Salem (eds.) - 2007 - Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books.
    A celebration of Eva Brann, prolific author and beloved teacher at St. John's College.
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  21.  21
    Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology.Eva Jablonka & Snait Gissis (eds.) - 2011 - MIT Press.
    In 1809--the year of Charles Darwin's birth--Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published Philosophie zoologique, the first comprehensive and systematic theory of biological evolution. The Lamarckian approach emphasizes the generation of developmental variations; Darwinism stresses selection. Lamarck's ideas were eventually eclipsed by Darwinian concepts, especially after the emergence of the Modern Synthesis in the twentieth century. The different approaches--which can be seen as complementary rather than mutually exclusive--have important implications for the kinds of questions biologists ask and for the type of research they conduct. (...)
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  22.  53
    Bare statistical evidence and the legitimacy of software-based judicial decisions.Eva Schmidt, Maximilian Köhl & Andreas Sesing-Wagenpfeil - 2023 - Synthese 201 (4):1-27.
    Can the evidence provided by software systems meet the standard of proof for civil or criminal cases, and is it individualized evidence? Or, to the contrary, do software systems exclusively provide bare statistical evidence? In this paper, we argue that there are cases in which evidence in the form of probabilities computed by software systems is not bare statistical evidence, and is thus able to meet the standard of proof. First, based on the case of State v. Loomis, we investigate (...)
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  23. Information: Its interpretation, its inheritance, and its sharing.Eva Jablonka - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):578-605.
    The semantic concept of information is one of the most important, and one of the most problematical concepts in biology. I suggest a broad definition of biological information: a source becomes an informational input when an interpreting receiver can react to the form of the source (and variations in this form) in a functional manner. The definition accommodates information stemming from environmental cues as well as from evolved signals, and calls for a comparison between information‐transmission in different types of inheritance (...)
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  24.  9
    Open Science por defecto. La nueva normalidad para la investigación.Eva Méndez - 2021 - Arbor 197 (799):a587.
    Este trabajo aborda el nuevo paradigma de la Open Science o ciencia en abierto desde la perspectiva europea, pero destacando su necesario alcance global. Se analiza el concepto, origen y evolución de la Open Science y se discuten sus retos y la demora de su completa implementación. Se parte de la hipótesis de que la Open Science debería de ser el paradigma de comunicación científico por defecto en el siglo XXI. En primer lugar, se revisa el concepto y alcance de (...)
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  25. What is Distinctive of Political Normativity? From Domain View to Role View.Erman Eva - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
  26.  14
    Feminismus Und Gerechtigkeit: Über Eine Ethik von Verantwortung Und Diskurs.Eva-Maria Schwickert - 2000 - De Gruyter.
    Gibt es eine weibliche bzw. männliche Moral? Orientiert sich das Moralverhalten beider Geschlechter tatsächlich tendenziell an unterschiedlichen Wertvorstellungen? Diese in den letzten Jahren leidenschaftlich und äußerst kontrovers diskutierte Frage beantwortet Eva-Maria Schwickert aus der Perspektive der philosophischen Ethik. Im Blickpunkt des Interesses stehen die begriffliche Bestimmung und die moralische Legitimation beider Orientierungen. Den von Carol Gilligan erhobenen Vorwurf, die "männliche" Gerechtigkeitsmoral sei zu sehr auf Prinzipien konzentriert, findet die Autorin bestätigt und schlägt vor, das Defizit der Gerechtigkeits- durch die Fürsorgeethik (...)
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  27.  68
    Conscientious objection to referrals for abortion: pragmatic solution or threat to women’s rights?Eva M. K. Nordberg, Helge Skirbekk & Morten Magelssen - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):15.
    Conscientious objection has spurred impassioned debate in many Western countries. Some Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) refuse to refer for abortion. Little is know about how the GPs carry out their refusals in practice, how they perceive their refusal to fit with their role as professionals, and how refusals impact patients. Empirical data can inform subsequent normative analysis.
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  28.  25
    First prosecution of a Dutch doctor since the Euthanasia Act of 2002: what does the verdict mean?Eva Constance Alida Asscher & Suzanne van de Vathorst - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):71-75.
    On 11 September 2019, the verdict was read in the first prosecution of a doctor for euthanasia since the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act of 2002 was installed in the Netherlands. The case concerned euthanasia on the basis of an advance euthanasia directive for a patient with severe dementia. In this paper we describe the review process for euthanasia cases in the Netherlands. Then we describe the case in detail, the judgement of the Regional Review Committees (...)
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  29.  23
    Learning from My Daughter: The Value and Care of Disabled Minds.Eva Kittay & Eva Feder Kittay - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford UP.
    Does life have meaning? What is flourishing? How do we attain the good life? Philosophers, and many others of us, have explored these questions for centuries. As Eva Feder Kittay points out, however, there is a flaw in the essential premise of these questions: they seem oblivious to the very nature of the ways in which humans live, omitting a world of co-dependency, and of the fact that we live in and through our bodies, whether they are fully abled or (...)
  30.  71
    Bayesian argumentation and the value of logical validity.Benjamin Eva & Stephan Hartmann - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (5):806-821.
    According to the Bayesian paradigm in the psychology of reasoning, the norms by which everyday human cognition is best evaluated are probabilistic rather than logical in character. Recently, the Bayesian paradigm has been applied to the domain of argumentation, where the fundamental norms are traditionally assumed to be logical. Here, we present a major generalisation of extant Bayesian approaches to argumentation that utilizes a new class of Bayesian learning methods that are better suited to modelling dynamic and conditional inferences than (...)
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  31.  9
    ‘Can you hear me?’: communication, relationship and ethics in video-based telepsychiatric consultations.Eva-Maria Frittgen & Joschka Haltaufderheide - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (1):22-30.
    Telepsychiatry has long been discussed as a supplement to or substitute for face-to-face therapeutic consultations. The current pandemic crisis has fueled the development in an unprecedented way. More and more psychiatric consultations are now carried out online as video-based consultations. Treatment results appear to be comparable with those of face-to-face care in terms of clinical outcome, acceptance, adherence and patient satisfaction. However, evidence on videoconferencing in a variety of different fields indicates that there are extensive changes in the communication behaviour (...)
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  32. Inheritance Systems and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.Eva Jablonka & Marion J. Lamb - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    Current knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic systems of inheritance requires a revision and extension of the mid-twentieth-century, gene-based, 'Modern Synthesis' version of Darwinian evolutionary theory. We present the case for this by first outlining the history that led to the neo-Darwinian view of evolution. In the second section we describe and compare different types of inheritance, and in the third discuss the implications of a broad view of heredity for various aspects of evolutionary theory. We end with (...)
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  33.  3
    Concepts of Originality in the Natural Science, Medical, and Engineering Disciplines: An Analysis of Research Proposals.Eva Barlösius - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 44 (6):915-937.
    Science is fundamentally devoted to generating original knowledge, and therefore concepts of scientific originality are keys to understanding its very essence. Scientific originality has long been thought of as discovery, but new studies of the humanities and social sciences have shown that other, discipline-specific concepts of originality are used in these fields of study. Does this finding also hold for disciplines in the natural science, medicine, and engineering? Are concepts of originality scientifically grounded or do they instead reflect extrascientific modes (...)
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  34.  18
    Can federations expel member states? On the political theory of expulsion.Eva Marlene Hausteiner - 2018 - Journal of International Political Theory 16 (1):47-67.
    When, if at all, can a federal political order expel a member state against its will? In political theory, expulsion has—unlike the scenario of secession as voluntary separation—so far received no...
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  35.  27
    Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social.Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta & Agnieszka Wykowska - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:281017.
    Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to inter-act with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user’s needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots (...)
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  36.  17
    The Zone of Latent Solutions and Its Relation to the Classics: Vygotsky and Köhler.Eva Reindl, Elisa Bandini & Claudio Tennie - 2018 - In Laura Desirèe Di Paolo, Fabio Di Vincenzo & Francesca De Petrillo (eds.), Evolution of Primate Social Cognition. Springer Verlag. pp. 231-248.
    In 2009, Tennie et al. proposed the theory of the Zone of Latent Solutions, defined as the range of behaviors an individual of a species can invent independently, i.e., which it can acquire without any form of social learning. By definition, species limited to their ZLS are unable to innovate and/or transmit behavioral traits outside their ZLS, i.e., they lack traits which go beyond the level of the individual—traits resulting from a gradual cultural evolution over successive transmission events [“cumulative culture”, (...)
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  37.  31
    Strengthening moral competence: A 'train the Trainer' course on military ethics.Eva Wortel & Jolanda Bosch - 2011 - Journal of Military Ethics 10 (1):17-35.
    If one of the most important aims of education on military ethics is to strengthen moral competence, we argue that it is important to base ethics education on virtue ethics, the Socratic attitude and the process of ?living learning?. This article illustrates this position by means of the example of a ?train the trainer? course on military ethics for Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs), which is developed at the Netherlands Defence Academy, and uses a number of examples both from its structure and (...)
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  38. Principles of Indifference.Benjamin Eva - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (7):390-411.
    The principle of indifference states that in the absence of any relevant evidence, a rational agent will distribute their credence equally among all the possible outcomes under consideration. Despite its intuitive plausibility, PI famously falls prey to paradox, and so is widely rejected as a principle of ideal rationality. In this article, I present a novel rehabilitation of PI in terms of the epistemology of comparative confidence judgments. In particular, I consider two natural comparative reformulations of PI and argue that (...)
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  39.  14
    Care, Laboratory Beagles and Affective Utopia.Eva Giraud & Gregory Hollin - 2016 - Theory, Culture and Society 33 (4):27-49.
    A caring approach to knowledge production has been portrayed as epistemologically radical, ethically vital and as fostering continuous responsibility between researchers and research-subjects. This article examines these arguments through focusing on the ambivalent role of care within the first large-scale experimental beagle colony, a self-professed ‘beagle utopia’ at the University of California, Davis. We argue that care was at the core of the beagle colony; the lived environment was re-shaped in response to animals ‘speaking back’ to researchers, and ‘love’ and (...)
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  40. Private Conscience, Public Acts.Eva LaFollette & Hugh LaFollette - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (5):249-254.
    A growing number of medical professionals claim a right of conscience, a right to refuse to perform any professional duty they deem immoral—and to do so with impunity. We argue that professionals do not have the unqualified right of conscience. At most they have a highly qualified right. We focus on the claims of pharmacists, since they are the professionals most commonly claiming this right.
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  41.  43
    Time gestalt and the observer.Eva Ruhnau - 1995 - In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh. pp. 165--184.
  42.  38
    Prevention of Unethical Actions in Nursing Homes.Eva Merethe Solum, Åshild Slettebø & Solveig Hauge - 2008 - Nursing Ethics 15 (4):536-548.
    Ethical problems regularly arise during daily care in nursing homes. These include violation of patients' right to autonomy and to be treated with respect. The aim of this study was to investigate how caregivers emphasize daily dialogue and mutual reflection to reach moral alternatives in daily care. The data were collected by participant observation and interviews with seven caregivers in a Norwegian nursing home. A number of ethical problems linked to 10 patients were disclosed. Moral problems were revealed as the (...)
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  43.  42
    The child in the world: Embodiment, time, and language in early childhood.Eva M. Simms - 2008 - Wayne State University Press.
    Illuminates childrens experiences of embodiment, inter-subjectivity, place, thing, time, and language through a dialogue between developmental research and ...
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  44. On the Relationship between Global Justice and Global Democracy: A Three-Layered View.Erman Eva - 2022 - Ethics and International Affairs 36 (3):321-331.
    How should we understand the relationship between global justice and global democracy? One popular view is captured by the aphorism “No global justice without global democracy.” According to Dryzek and Tanasoca's reading of this aphorism, a particular form of deliberative global democracy is seen as the way to specify and justify what global justice is and requires in various contexts. Taking its point of departure in a criticism of this proposal, this essay analyzes how to best understand the relationship between (...)
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  45.  34
    Logics of Political Secrecy.Eva Horn - 2011 - Theory, Culture and Society 28 (7-8):103-122.
    In the modern age, the political secret has acquired a bad reputation. With modern democracy’s ideal of transparency, political secrecy is identified with political crime or corruption. The article argues that this repression of secrecy in modern democracies falls short of a substantial understanding of the structure and workings of political secrecy. By outlining a genealogy of political secrecy, it elucidates the logic as well as the blind spots of a current culture of secrecy. It focuses on two fundamental logics (...)
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  46. Learning from Conditionals.Benjamin Eva, Stephan Hartmann & Soroush Rafiee Rad - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):461-508.
    In this article, we address a major outstanding question of probabilistic Bayesian epistemology: how should a rational Bayesian agent update their beliefs upon learning an indicative conditional? A number of authors have recently contended that this question is fundamentally underdetermined by Bayesian norms, and hence that there is no single update procedure that rational agents are obliged to follow upon learning an indicative conditional. Here we resist this trend and argue that a core set of widely accepted Bayesian norms is (...)
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  47. Evaluating a patient's request for life-prolonging treatment: an ethical framework.Eva C. Winkler, Wolfgang Hiddemann & Georg Marckmann - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):647-651.
    Contrary to the widespread concern about over-treatment at the end of life, today, patient preferences for palliative care at the end of life are frequently respected. However, ethically challenging situations in the current healthcare climate are, instead, situations in which a competent patient requests active treatment with the goal of life-prolongation while the physician suggests best supportive care only. The argument of futility has often been used to justify unilateral decisions made by physicians to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment. However, (...)
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  48.  46
    Signs of Consciousness?Eva Jablonka - 2021 - Biosemiotics 14 (1):25-29.
    In this commentary I expand on the first of Noble’s illusions, the selection metaphor. Building on my work with Simona Ginsburg on the evolution of minimal consciousness, I argue that the existence of some complex sensory and motor patterns in the living world can be accounted for only through the evolution of conscious choice.
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  49.  5
    Age of acquisition effects in picture naming: evidence for a lexical-semantic competition hypothesis.Eva Belke, Marc Brysbaert, Antje S. Meyer & Mandy Ghyselinck - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):B45-B54.
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  50.  16
    The relation between consciousness and attention: An empirical study using the priming paradigm.Eva Van den Bussche, Gethin Hughes, Nathalie Van Humbeeck & Bert Reynvoet - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):86-97.
    6 and 14 recently proposed taxonomies that distinguish between four processing states, based on bottom-up stimulus strength and top-down attentional amplification. The aim of the present study was to empirically test these processing states using the priming paradigm. Our results showed that attention and stimulus strength significantly modulated priming effects: either receiving top-down attention or possessing sufficient bottom-up strength was a prerequisite for a stimulus to elicit priming. When both top-down attention and sufficient bottom-up strength were present, the priming effect (...)
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