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  1. Idealizations in Physics.Elay Shech - 2023 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Idealizations are ubiquitous in physics. They are distortions or falsities that enter into theories, laws, models, and scientific representations. Various questions suggest themselves: What are idealizations? Why do we appeal to idealizations and how do we justify them? Are idealizations essential to physics and, if so, in what sense and for which purpose? How can idealizations provide genuine understanding? If our motivation for believing in the existence of unobservable entities like electrons and quarks is that they are indispensable to our (...)
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  2. Idealizations in Physics.Elay Shech - 2023 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Idealizations are ubiquitous in physics. They are distortions or falsities that enter into theories, laws, models, and scientific representations. Various questions suggest themselves: What are idealizations? Why do we appeal to idealizations and how do we justify them? Are idealizations essential to physics and, if so, in what sense and for which purpose? How can idealizations provide genuine understanding? If our motivation for believing in the existence of unobservable entities like electrons and quarks is that they are indispensable to our (...)
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  3. Susan Stebbing.Frederique Janssen-Lauret - 2022 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Susan Stebbing (1885–1943), the UK’s first female professor of philosophy, was a key figure in the development of analytic philosophy. Stebbing wrote the world’s first accessible book on the new polyadic logic and its philosophy. She made major contributions to the philosophy of science, metaphysics, philosophical logic, critical thinking, and applied philosophy. Nonetheless she has remained largely neglected by historians of analytic philosophy. This Element provides a thorough yet accessible overview of Stebbing’s positive, original contributions, including her solution to the (...)
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  4. (Dis)satisfaction of female and early-career researchers with the academic system in physics.Vlasta Sikimić, Kaja Damnjanović & Slobodan Perovic - forthcoming - Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering.
    Modern physics encompasses theoretical and experimental research divided in subfields with specific features. For instance, high energy physics (HEP) attracts significant funding and has distinct organizational structures, i.e., large laboratories and cross-institutional collaborations. Expensive equipment and large experiments create a specific work atmosphere and human relations. While the gender misbalance is characteristic for STEM, early-career researchers are inherently dependent on their supervisors. This raises the question of how satisfied researchers with working in physics are and how different subgroups – female (...)
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  5. Relativistic Bohmian Trajectories and Klein-Gordon Currents for Spin-0 Particles.M. Alkhateeb & A. Matzkin - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (5):1-13.
    It is generally believed that the de Broglie-Bohm model does not admit a particle interpretation for massive relativistic spin-0 particles, on the basis that particle trajectories cannot be defined. We show this situation is due to the fact that in the standard representation of the Klein-Gordon equation the wavefunction systematically contains superpositions of particle and anti-particle contributions. We argue that by working in a Foldy-Wouthuysen type representation uncoupling the particle from the anti-particle evolutions, a positive conserved density for a particle (...)
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  6. The Growth of Modern Acoustics.Ivano Zanzarella - manuscript
    This essay aims to inquiry into the main factors responsible for the growth of modern acoustics, which basically have to be traced back to the empirical turn occurred in science of music around 1600. Helmholtz’s theory of sound will be regarded as most scientifically significant archetype of modern acoustics. In Section 1 a general historical overview of the science of music will be given and its importance for the development of modern science and mathematics considered. In Section 2 the internal (...)
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  7. The Concept of Entropy in Statistical Mechanics and Stochastic Music Theory.Ivano Zanzarella - manuscript
    Originally appeared in the field of thermodynamics, the concept of entropy, especially in its statistical acceptation, has found applications in many different disciplines, both inside and outside science. In this work we focus on the possibility of drawing an isomorphism between the entropy of Boltzmann’s statistical mechanics and that of Xenakis’s stochastic music theory. We expose the major technical aspects of the two entropies and then consider affinities and differences between them, both at syntactic and at semantic level, hereto particularly (...)
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  8. What Should Be the Ontology for the Standard Model?Ding Jia - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (4):1-20.
    Although the Standard Model of particle physics is usually formulated in terms of fields, it can be equivalently formulated in terms of particles and strings. In this picture particles and open strings are always coupled. This offers an intuitive and graphical explanation for the otherwise mysterious gauge symmetry. In addition, the particle–string formulation avoids introducing redundant path integral configurations that are present in the field formulation. For its explanatory power and economy, the particle–string ontology may be preferred over the field (...)
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  9. Hilbert Space dimensions 3, 4, 5.Paul Merriam, Daniel Huber & Bob Hanlon - forthcoming - Foundations of Physics:6.
    This is a pdf of a Mathematica calculation that supplements the paper "Presentist Fragmentalism and Quantum Mechanics" forthcoming in Foundations of Physics. In that paper the Born rule (or at least a progenitor) is derived from experimental conditions on the mutual observations of two fragments. In this pdf the experimental conditions are applied to Hilbert space dimensions 3, 4, and 5. It turns out each of these have a 1-dimensional solution space which, it is hoped, can be interpretated as the (...)
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  10. Probabilities and Certainties Within a Causally Symmetric Model.Roderick I. Sutherland - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (4):1-17.
    This paper is concerned with the causally symmetric version of the familiar de Broglie–Bohm interpretation, this version allowing the spacelike nonlocality and the configuration space ontology of the original model to be avoided via the addition of retrocausality. Two different features of this alternative formulation are considered here. With regard to probabilities, it is shown that the model provides a derivation of the Born rule identical to that in Bohm’s original formulation. This derivation holds just as well for a many-particle, (...)
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  11. From Quantum Physics to Classical Metaphysics.William Simpson - 2021 - In William Simpson, Robert C. Koons & James Orr (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Metaphysics and the Theology of Nature. pp. 21-65.
    In this chapter, I argue that Aristotle’s doctrine of hylomorphism, which conceived the natural world as consisting of substances which are metaphysically composed of matter and form, is ripe for rehabilitation in the light of quantum physics. I begin by discussing Aristotle’s conception of matter and form, as it was understood by Aquinas, and how Aristotle’s doctrine of hylomorphism was ‘physicalised’ and eventually abandoned with the rise of microphysicalism. I argue that the phenomenon of quantum entanglement, and the emergence of (...)
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  12. From Data to Quanta: Niels Bohr’s Vision of Physics - Perović Slobodan (2021), Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [REVIEW]Petar Nurkić - 2022 - Synesis 3 (1):85-90.
  13. 9 Temporal Knowledge Arguments and a Note on Presentism 2 17 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
  14. Children's Health in the Digital Age.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2020 - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9 (17):299..
    Can we identify potential long-term consequences of digitalisation on public health? Environmental studies, metabolic research, and state of the art research in neurobiology point towards the reduced amount of natural day and sunlight exposure of the developing child, as a consequence of increasingly long hours spent indoors online, as the single unifying source of a whole set of health risks identified worldwide, as is made clear in this review of currently available literature. Over exposure to digital environments, from abuse to (...)
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  15. No Time for Time from No-Time.Eugene Y. S. Chua & Craig Callender - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):1172-1184.
    Programs in quantum gravity often claim that time emerges from fundamentally timeless physics. In the semiclassical time program time arises only after approximations are taken. Here we ask what justifies taking these approximations and show that time seems to sneak in when answering this question. This raises the worry that the approach is either unjustified or circular in deriving time from no–time.
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  16. Applying Mathematics: Immersion, Inference, Interpretation.Otávio Bueno & Steven French - 2018 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    How is that when scientists need some piece of mathematics through which to frame their theory, it is there to hand? What has been called 'the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics' sets a challenge for philosophers. Some have responded to that challenge by arguing that mathematics is essentially anthropocentric in character, whereas others have pointed to the range of structures that mathematics offers. Otavio Bueno and Steven French offer a middle way, which focuses on the moves that have to be made (...)
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  17. On the Possibility of Feminist Philosophy of Physics.Maralee Harrell - 2016 - In Meta-Philosophical Reflection on Feminist Philosophies of Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 15-34.
    The dynamic nature of physics cannot be captured through an exclusive focus on the static mathematical formulations of physical theories. Instead, we can more fruitfully think of physics as a set of distinctively social, cognitive, and theoretical/methodological practices. An emphasis on practice has been one of the most notable aspects of the recent “naturalistic turn” in general philosophy of science, in no small part due to the arguments of many feminist philosophers of science. A major project of feminist philosophy of (...)
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  18. The Dirac large number hypothesis and a system of evolving fundamental constants.Andrew Holster - manuscript
    In his [1937, 1938], Paul Dirac proposed his “Large Number Hypothesis” (LNH), as a speculative law, based upon what we will call the “Large Number Coincidences” (LNC’s), which are essentially “coincidences” in the ratios of about six large dimensionless numbers in physics. Dirac’s LNH postulates that these numerical coincidences reflect a deeper set of law-like relations, pointing to a revolutionary theory of cosmology. This led to substantial work, including the development of Dirac’s later [1969/74] cosmology, and other alternative cosmologies, such (...)
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  19. Nominalism and Immutability.Daniel Berntson - manuscript
    Can we do science without numbers? How much contingency is there? These seemingly unrelated questions--one in the philosophy of math and science and the other in metaphysics--share an unexpectedly close connection. For as it turns out, a radical answer to the second leads to a breakthrough on the first. The radical answer is new view about modality called compossible immutabilism. The breakthrough is a new strategy for doing science without numbers. One of the chief benefits of the new strategy is (...)
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  20. Sympathy for the Demon. Rethinking Maxwell’s Thought Experiment in a Maxwellian Vein.Javier Anta - 2021 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 40 (3):49-64.
    In this paper I will defend an approach to the thought experiment known as ‘Maxwell’s Demon’ based on a Maxwellian conception of statistical mechanics. Instead of assuming that thermodynamic descriptions depend reductively on the dynamics of molecular components, I will adopt a conception of thermophysics as a ‘resource theory’ in the Maxwellian line recently defended by Myrvold (2011) and Wallace (2017). From this interpretative stance, Maxwell’s demon would not lead directly to the plausibility of violating the second law of thermodynamics, (...)
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  21. Quantum Foundations of Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics.Orly Shenker - 2021 - In Eleanor Knox & Alastair Wilson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics. Oxford: Routledge. pp. Ch. 29.
    Statistical mechanics is often taken to be the paradigm of a successful inter-theoretic reduction, which explains the high-level phenomena (primarily those described by thermodynamics) by using the fundamental theories of physics together with some auxiliary hypotheses. In my view, the scope of statistical mechanics is wider since it is the type-identity physicalist account of all the special sciences. But in this chapter, I focus on the more traditional and less controversial domain of this theory, namely, that of explaining the thermodynamic (...)
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  22. Infinite Sets: The Appearance of an Infinite Set Depends on the Perspective of the Observer.Roger Granet - manuscript
    Given an infinite set of finite-sized spheres extending in all directions forever, a finite-sized (relative to the spheres inside the set) observer within the set would view the set as a space composed of discrete, finite-sized objects. A hypothetical infinite-sized (relative to the spheres inside the set) observer would view the set as a continuous space and would see no distinct elements within the set. Using this analogy, the mathematics of infinities, such as the assignment of a cardinality to a (...)
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  23. What Entanglement Might Be Telling Us: Space, Quantum Mechanics, and Bohm's Fish Tank.Ismael Jenann - 2020 - In David Glick, George Darby & Marmodoro Anna (eds.), The Foundation of Reality: Fundamentality, Space, and Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 139-153.
  24. Everettian Formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Yu Feng - manuscript
    The second law of thermodynamics is traditionally interpreted as a coarse-grained result of classical mechanics. Recently its relation with quantum mechanical processes such as decoherence and measurement has been revealed in literature. In this paper we will formulate the second law and the associated time irreversibility following Everett’s idea: systems entangled with an object getting to know the branch in which they live. Accounting for this self-locating knowledge, we get two forms of entropy: objective entropy measuring the uncertainty of the (...)
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  25. The time asymmetry of quantum mechanics and concepts of physical directionality of time Part 1.Andrew Thomas Holster - manuscript
    This is Part 1 of a four part paper, intended to redress some of the most fundamental confusions in the subject of physical time directionality, and represent the concepts accurately. There are widespread fallacies in the subject that need to be corrected in introductory courses for physics students and philosophers. We start in Part 1 by analysing the time reversal symmetry of quantum probability laws. Time reversal symmetry is defined as the property of invariance under the time reversal transformation, T: (...)
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  26. Discrete space and the underlying reality of Quantum Mechanics.Sydney Ernest Grimm - manuscript
    Recently there is some new interest in understanding the physical reality behind the formalism of quantum mechanics. This paper relates the known “quantum mysteries” of QM with the properties of the underlying structure of discrete space. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5236617.
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  27. Explaining Relativity. Summary of TAU. A unified theory.Andrew Thomas Holster -
    This is a summary presentation of TAU, a theory proposed to explain relativity and unify physics. It is a radical change, because it proposes six dimensions of space, instead of the usual three (normal physics) or nine (string theory). It starts with an alternative foundation for Special Relativity, and leads to a unified theory of physics. It is a realist theory because it is realist about space and time. The TAU concept is briefly introduced here, and its results explained in (...)
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  28. Does the Dome Defeat the Material Theory of Induction?William Peden - 2021 - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    According to John D. Norton's Material Theory of Induction, all inductive inferences are justified by local facts, rather than their formal features or some grand principles of nature's uniformity. Recently, Richard Dawid (Found Phys 45(9):1101–1109, 2015) has offered a challenge to this theory: in an adaptation of Norton's own celebrated "Dome" thought experiment, it seems that there are certain inductions that are intuitively reasonable, but which do not have any local facts that could serve to justify them in accordance with (...)
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  29. Time's arrow and self‐locating probability.Eddy Keming Chen - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    One of the most difficult problems in the foundations of physics is what gives rise to the arrow of time. Since the fundamental dynamical laws of physics are (essentially) symmetric in time, the explanation for time's arrow must come from elsewhere. A promising explanation introduces a special cosmological initial condition, now called the Past Hypothesis: the universe started in a low-entropy state. Unfortunately, in a universe where there are many copies of us (in the distant ''past'' or the distant ''future''), (...)
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  30. Sinnlich beginnt die Wissenschaft. Rezension von: David Cahan, Helmholtz: A Life in Science. [REVIEW]Gregor Schiemann - 2019 - German Studies Review 42 (3):592-595.
  31. Centering the Principal Principle.Isaac Wilhelm - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (6):1897-1915.
    I show that centered propositions—also called de se propositions, and usually modeled as sets of centered worlds—pose a serious problem for various versions of Lewis's Principal Principle. The problem, put roughly, is that in scenarios like Elga's `Sleeping Beauty' case, those principles imply that rational agents ought to have obviously irrational credences. To solve the problem, I propose a centered version of the Principal Principle. My version allows centered propositions to be objectively chancy.
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  32. Tausendfaltige Naturen. Zur Vielgestaltigkeit der Naturdeutungen in Novalis' "Die Lehrlinge zu Sais".Gregor Schiemann - 2020 - In Klaus Feldmann & Nils Höppner (eds.), Wie über Natur reden? Philosophische Zugänge zum Naturverständnis im 21. Jahrhundert. 21729 Freiburg (Elbe), Deutschland: pp. 91-106.
  33. New Foundations for Branching Space-Times.N. Belnap, T. Müller & T. Placek - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (2):239-284.
    The theory of branching space-times, put forward by Belnap, considers indeterminism as local in space and time. In the axiomatic foundations of that theory, so-called choice points mark the points at which the possible future can turn out in different ways. Working under the assumption of choice points is suitable for many applications, but has an unwelcome topological consequence that makes it difficult to employ branching space-times to represent a range of possible physical space-times. Therefore it is interesting to develop (...)
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  34. A Powerful Particulars View of Causation.Rögnvaldur D. Ingthorsson - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    This Open Access book (see link to Taylor & Francis below) critically examines the recent discussions of powers and powers-based accounts of causation. The author then develops an original view of powers-based causation that aims to be compatible with the theories and findings of natural science. Recently, there has been a dramatic revival of realist approaches to properties and causation, which focus on the relevance of Aristotelian metaphysics and the notion of powers for a scientifically informed view of causation. In (...)
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  35. Establish Knowledge System in the Most Rigorous Order— from Purely Logical Belief to Methodology and Universal Truths.Kai Jiang - manuscript
    Knowledge is correct and reliable when its foundation is correct, but humans never have the correct beliefs and methodology. Thus, knowledge is unreliable and the foundation of knowledge needs to be reconstructed. A pure rationalist only believes in logic. Thus, all matter and experience must be propositions derived from logic. The logically necessary consequence of this belief is truth; logically possible consequences are phenomena, and logically impossible consequence are fallacies and evils. This paper introduces belief and its logical consequences, such (...)
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  36. Logical Empiricism and the Physical Sciences: From Philosophy of Nature to Philosophy of Physics.Sebastian Lutz & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.) - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    This volume has two primary aims: to trace the traditions and changes in methods, concepts, and ideas that brought forth the logical empiricists’ philosophy of physics and to present and analyze the logical empiricists’ various and occasionally contrary ideas about the physical sciences and their philosophical relevance. These original chapters discuss these developments in their original contexts and social and institutional environments, thus showing the various fruitful conceptions and philosophies behind the history of 20th-century philosophy of science. Logical Empiricism and (...)
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  37. You: A Natural History, by William B Irvine. [REVIEW]Ross Pain - 2020 - Quarterly Review of Biology 95 (3):250-251.
  38. Why is Information Retrieval a Scientific Discipline?Robert W. P. Luk - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):427-453.
    It is relatively easy to state that information retrieval is a scientific discipline but it is rather difficult to understand why it is science because what is science is still under debate in the philosophy of science. To be able to convince others that IR is science, our ability to explain why is crucial. To explain why IR is a scientific discipline, we use a theory and a model of scientific study, which were proposed recently. The explanation involves mapping the (...)
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  39. Ontological and methodological virtues of unification.Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2020 - Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1466 (012006).
    The widespread mistrust of metaphysics-the main obstacle to the unification of physics and philosophy-is based on the myth that metaphysical claims cannot be falsified or verified, because they are supposedly true independently of empirical knowledge. This is not true of metaphysical naturalism, whose approach is to critically reflect on the theories and findings of all the empirical disciplines and abstract from them a theory about such general features of reality that no single empirical discipline can be the authority on. Causation (...)
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  40. Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics, and Bohm's Implicate Order.George Williams - 2019 - Mind and Matter 2 (17):155-186.
    The persistent interpretation problem for quantum mechanics may indicate an unwillingness to consider unpalatable assumptions that could open the way toward progress. With this in mind, I focus on the work of David Bohm, whose earlier work has been more influential than that of his later. As I’ll discuss, I believe two assumptions play a strong role in explaining the disparity: 1) that theories in physics must be grounded in mathematical structure and 2) that consciousness must supervene on material processes. (...)
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  41. Philosophical foundations of effective field theories.Sébastien Rivat & Alexei Grinbaum - 2020 - European Physical Journal A 56 (3).
    This survey covers some of the main philosophical debates raised by the framework of effective field theories during the last decades. It is centered on three issues: whether effective field theories underpin a specific realist picture of the world, whether they support an anti-reductionist picture of physics, and whether they provide reasons to give up the ultimate aspiration of formulating a final and complete physical theory. Reviewing the past and current literature, we argue that effective field theories do not give (...)
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  42. Jung, il Simbolo e la ricerca del senso nell'Età della Tecnica. Il carattere spirituale della matrice quanto -psicoide dell'energetica del Simbolo.Donato Santarcangelo - 2015 - Ombra 5.
    The thesis of the paper maintains it is impossible to disregard a change in the statue of analytical psychology involving the notion of psychoid and its correlation to quantum physics, being psyche not separable from matter. This change finds its most accomplished and impressive epicentre in C.G. Jung and W. Pauli’s theory of synchronicity, in which the Jungian Self becomes the psyche’s quantum psychoid regulatory center, in a Spiritual sense.
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  43. More Observations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Anthropic principle, Perspectival ontology, Hard problem, Why something rather than nothing, Life after death, Buddhism, God.
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  44. Advancing the Aristotelian Project in Contemporary Metaphysics: A Review Essay.Robert C. Koons - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):435-442.
    In a recent book, Substance and the Fundamentality of the Familiar, Ross Inman demonstrates the contemporary relevance of an Aristotelian approach to metaphysics and the philosophy of nature. Inman successfully applies the Aristotelian framework to a number of outstanding problems in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of physics. Inman tackles some intriguing questions about the ontological status of proper parts, questions which constitute a central focus of ongoing debate and investigation.
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  45. A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos. [REVIEW]William Lane Craig - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):596-599.
  46. Jesper Lützen, "Mechanistic Images in Geometric Form. Heinrich Hertz's Principles of Mechanics". [REVIEW]Rafael Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer - 2009 - Latin American Journal of Physics Education 3:184-188.
    En esta obra monumental de Jesper Lützen sobre la mecánica de Heinrich Hertz encontramos una magnífica exposición de la vida y obra de este insigne físico germano. Un interesante relato de las influencias intelectuales que modelaron su pensamiento científico, culmina con un exhaustivo análisis de la reformulación de la mecánica clásica que Hertz planteó poco antes de su prematuro fallecimiento.
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  47. Dependence relations in general relativity.Antonio Vassallo - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-28.
    The paper discusses from a metaphysical standpoint the nature of the dependence relation underpinning the talk of mutual action between material and spatiotemporal structures in general relativity. It is shown that the standard analyses of dependence in terms of causation or grounding are ill-suited for the general relativistic context. Instead, a non-standard analytical framework in terms of structural equation modeling is exploited, which leads to the conclusion that the kind of dependence encoded in the Einstein field equations is a novel (...)
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  48. Who's afraid of coordinate systems? An essay on representation of spacetime structure.David Wallace - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 67:125-136.
    Coordinate-based approaches to physical theories remain standard in mainstream physics but are largely eschewed in foundational discussion in favour of coordinate-free differential-geometric approaches. I defend the conceptual and mathematical legitimacy of the coordinate-based approach for foundational work. In doing so, I provide an account of the Kleinian conception of geometry as a theory of invariance under symmetry groups; I argue that this conception continues to play a very substantial role in contemporary mathematical physics and indeed that supposedly ``coordinate-free'' differential geometry (...)
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  49. Pure Logic and its Equivalence with the Universe: A Unique Method to Establish the Final Theory.Kai Jiang - 2019 - International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 9 (1):45-56.
    The theme of this study is about establishing a purely logical theory about the Universe. Logic is the premier candidate for the reality behind phenomena. If there is a final theory, the Universe must be logic itself, called pure logic, elements of which include not only logic and illogic but also logical and illogical manipulations between them. The kernel is the revised law of the excluded middle: between two basic concepts are four possible manipulations, three logical and one illogical, whereas (...)
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  50. 真理进化论--模仿宇宙建立完美社会.Kai Jiang - 2005
    宇宙追求最小作用量,也就是最大负作用量,社会追求最大幸福,创新追求最大知识,“真理进化论”认为,这种类似不是偶然的,是由于追求之间的共性,追求方法的优越性与追求量的量纲无关,所以最好的追求方法适用于所 有追求系统。“真理进化论”认为,即使世界一无所有,只要拥有产生微小系统的自由,那么,最好的追求系统由于拥有最快的增长速度,就会获得最大的规模。增长是好的追求系统的标志,宇宙膨胀和社会发展都是增长的过程 。所有存在都可以来自于绝对的自由:只要允许产生所有微小系统,其中发展最快的系统最终必将成为宇宙。“真理进化论”在自然科学主要解决了真理的目的问题。“真理进化论”认为宇宙是目的性的,宇宙规律是追求最大负 作用量的最好方法。“真理进化论”采用目的论的方法解决所有宇宙和社会问题,将宇宙的一切规律和追求最大负作用量联系起来,将社会的一切行为和追求最大幸福联系起来,将创新行为和知识追求联系起来。在“追求科学” 中,追求目标处于核心地位,决定了系统的规律,决定了最佳追求方法。“真理进化论”也统一了人类社会的是非标准,提出建立“宇宙主义”社会:为了使人类社会成为完美社会,应该模仿完美追求系统---宇宙。法律代表 着大众共同遵守的追求方法,因此,应该将法律、道德、行政法规等统一为“一致遵守的追求方法”。法律的根本任务是鼓励符合最佳追求方法的行为,惩罚违反最佳追求方法的行为。法律的最终形式应该是完美追求方法体系, 因此,法律中的不完美部分应该有时限。模仿宇宙就可以建立完美的市场经济,例如,模仿时空建立统一市场,模仿电磁场传播让所有交易信息通过公开市场平等传播,准确发布信息等。在宇宙中,粒子有随时随地改变状态的自 由,因此,完美市场经济是彻底的自由主义经济,为了保护未来欲望的自由,要求全面推广短期合同,房屋、汽车、电器等耐用消费品应该采用短期租赁的方法;为了保障连续变化的自由,要求保护自由组合权利,尤其是劳动者 自由组合工作的权利。 .
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