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  1. Black Reparations.Bernard Boxill - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  2. At the Bar of Conscience: A Kantian Argument for Slavery Reparations.Jason R. Fisette - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism:019145372110019.
    Arguments for slavery reparations have fallen out of favor even as reparations for other forms of racial injustice are taken more seriously. This retreat is unsurprising, as arguments for slavery reparations often rely on two normatively irregular claims: that reparations are owed to the dead (as opposed to, say, their living heirs), and that the present generation inherits an as yet unrequited guilt from past generations. Outside of some strands of Black thought and activism on slavery reparations, these claims are (...)
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  3. Individual and Structural Interventions.Alex Madva - forthcoming - In Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva (eds.), An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind.
    What can we do—and what should we do—to fight against bias? This final chapter introduces empirically-tested interventions for combating implicit (and explicit) bias and promoting a fairer world, from small daily-life debiasing tricks to larger structural interventions. Along the way, this chapter raises a range of moral, political, and strategic questions about these interventions. This chapter further stresses the importance of admitting that we don’t have all the answers. We should be humble about how much we still don’t know and (...)
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  4. Reconciliation in the African Tradition.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Maximillian Kiener (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Responsibility. Routledge.
    When it comes to how to hold people responsible for wrongdoing, what is salient in the African intellectual tradition is a focus on reconciliation (or restoration of harmony, repair of relationships) as the final aim. I expound an interpretation of reconciliation informed by characteristically sub-Saharan ideas and practices, and then draw out its implications for responsibility in respect to three matters. First, when it comes to criminal justice, I show that it entails that offenders should be held responsible for ‘cleaning (...)
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  5. Africanising Institutional Culture: What Is Possible and Plausible (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Dennis Masaka (ed.), Knowledge Production and the Search for Epistemic Liberation in Africa. Springer.
    Reprint of a chapter first published in Being at Home (2015).
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  6. The Proper Role of Economic Goods in Effecting National Reconciliation: Comparing Colombia and South Africa.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In David Bilchitz & Raisa Cachalia (eds.), Transitional and Distributive Justice in Transformative Constitutionalism: Comparing Colombia and South Africa. Oxford University Press.
    Scholars have compared the transitional justice processes of Colombia and South Africa in some respects, but there has yet to be a systematic moral-philosophical evaluation of them and specifically regarding the way they have sought to allocate economic goods. In this essay, I appraise the ways that South Africa and of Colombia have responded to their respective historical conflicts in respect of the distribution of property, especially land and money, and opportunities such as access to education and job training. I (...)
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  7. Economic Goods and the Communitarian Way of Life.Thaddeus Metz & Nathalia Bautista - forthcoming - In David Bilchitz & Raisa Cachalia (eds.), Transitional and Distributive Justice in Transformative Constitutionalism: Comparing Colombia and South Africa. Oxford University Press.
    The contributions elsewhere in this volume from us, Nathalia Bautista and Thaddeus Metz, address the proper way to respond to gross human rights violations, given a Global South context. Specifically, considering the histories of Colombia and South Africa and some of the values indigenous to those locales, respectively, we advance non-individualist and non-retributive approaches to the social conflicts that had taken place there. Broadly speaking, we both advocate relational and constructive forms of transitional justice that make victim compensation central. According (...)
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  8. Why Reconciliation Requires Punishment but Not Forgiveness.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Krisanna Scheiter & Paula Satne (eds.), Conflict and Resolution: The Ethics of Forgiveness, Revenge, and Punishment. Springer. pp. 265-281.
    Adherents to reconciliation, restorative justice, and related approaches to dealing with social conflict are well known for seeking to minimize punishment, in favor of offenders hearing out victims, making an apology, and effecting compensation for wrongful harm as well as victims forgiving offenders and accepting their reintegration into society. In contrast, I maintain that social reconciliation and similar concepts in fact characteristically require punishment but do not require forgiveness. I argue that a reconciliatory response to crime that includes punitive disavowal (...)
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  9. Reparations and Egalitarianism.Megan Blomfield - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (5):1177-1195.
    Some claim that a commitment to egalitarianism is in tension with support for reparations for historical injustice. This tension appears to arise insofar as egalitarianism is a forward-looking approach to justice: an approach that tells us what kind of world we should aim to build, where that world is not defined in terms of the decisions or actions of previous generations. Some have claimed that egalitarianism thereby renders reparations redundant. One popular option for egalitarians who aim to reject this thesis (...)
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  10. Supersession, Reparations, and Restitution.Caleb Harrison - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 19 (2).
    Jeremy Waldron argues that claims to reparation for historic injustices can be superseded by the demands of justice in the present. For example, justified Maori claims to reparation resulting from the wrongful appropriation of their land by European settlers may be superseded by the claim to a just distribution of resources possessed by the world’s existing inhabitants. However, if we distinguish between reparative and restitutive claims, we see that while claims to restitution may be superseded by changes in circumstance, this (...)
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  11. Must Land Reform Benefit the Victims of Colonialism? (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Erasmus Masitera (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Land Reform in Southern Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 145-160.
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in the journal Philosophia Africana (2020).
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  12. Must Land Reform Benefit the Victims of Colonialism?Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - Philosophia Africana 19 (2):122-137.
    Appealing to African values associated with ubuntu such as communion and reconciliation, elsewhere I have argued that they require compensating those who have been wronged in ways that are likely to improve their lives. In the context of land reform, I further contended that this principle probably entails not transferring unjustly acquired land en masse and immediately to dispossessed populations since doing so would foreseeably lead to such things as capital flight and food shortages, which would harm them and the (...)
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  13. Cultural Gaslighting.Elena Ruíz - 2020 - Hypatia 35 (4):687-713.
    This essay frames systemic patterns of mental abuse against women of color and Indigenous women on Turtle Island (North America) in terms of larger design-of-distribution strategies in settler colonial societies, as these societies use various forms of social power to distribute, reproduce, and automate social inequalities (including public health precarities and mortality disadvantages) that skew socio-economic gain continuously toward white settler populations and their descendants. It departs from traditional studies in gender-based violence research that frame mental abuses such as gaslighting--commonly (...)
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  14. Should Current Generations Make Reparation for Slavery? [REVIEW]Thomas Mulligan - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):847-847.
    A brief review of Janna Thompson's *Should Current Generations Make Reparation for Slavery?* (2018, Polity Press).
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  15. Reparations for Police Killings.Jennifer Page - 2019 - Perspectives on Politics 17 (4):958-972.
    After a fatal police shooting in the United States, it is typical for city and police officials to view the family of the deceased through the lens of the law. If the family files a lawsuit, the city and police department consider it their legal right to defend themselves and to treat the plaintiffs as adversaries. However, reparations and the concept of “reparative justice” allow authorities to frame police killings in moral rather than legal terms. When a police officer kills (...)
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  16. Suicide by Democracy-- An Obituary for America and the World.Starks Michael - 2018 - In Michael Starks (ed.), Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 410-458.
    America and the world are in the process of collapse from excessive population growth, most of it for the last century, and now all of it, due to 3rd world people. Consumption of resources and the addition of 4 billion more ca. 2100 will collapse industrial civilization and bring about starvation, disease, violence and war on a staggering scale. The earth loses about 2% of its topsoil every year, so as it nears 2100, most of its food growing capacity will (...)
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  17. The Ethics of Reparations Policies.Alasia Nuti & Jennifer Page - 2018 - In Annabelle Lever & Andrei Poama (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 332-343.
    We identify the ethics of reparations policies as its own distinct field of inquiry, and consider several neglected ethical issues that arise in the process of devising reparations programmes. The problem of political instrumentalization has to do with the fact that reparations can be a way for the governments to bolster their legitimacy rather than achieve justice. The problem of exclusion refers to individuals with seemingly valid claims being turned away. Finally, the problem of inclusion has to do with including (...)
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  18. Towards Transitional Justice? Black Reparations and the End of Mass Incarceration.Jennifer Page & Desmond King - 2018 - Ethnic and Racial Studies 41 (4):739-758.
    There are many commonalities between the goals of transitional justice and domestic redress movements. We look at the movement for reparations for enslavement and Jim Crow in the United States as an example of a domestic reparations movement, and argue for the usefulness of the concept of transitional justice. We are particularly interested in showing that a future democratic transition – the end of mass incarceration – could animate a renewed push for reparations and a formal investigation into America’s legacy (...)
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  19. Is It Wrong to Topple Statues and Rename Schools?Joanna Burch-Brown - 2017 - Journal of Political Theory and Philosophy 1 (1):59-88.
    In recent years, campaigns across the globe have called for the removal of objects symbolic of white supremacy. This paper examines the ethics of altering or removing such objects. Do these strategies sanitize history, destroy heritage and suppress freedom of speech? Or are they important steps towards justice? Does removing monuments and renaming schools reflect a lack of parity and unfairly erase local identities? Or can it sometimes be morally required, as an expression of respect for the memories of people (...)
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  20. Legitimate Expectations, Historical Injustice, and Perverse Incentives for Settlers.Timothy Waligore - 2017 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 4 (2).
    This article argues against privileging the expectations of settlers over those of dispossessed peoples. I assume in this article that historical rights to occupancy do not persist through all changes in circumstances, but a theory of justice should reduce perverse incentives to unjustly settle on land in hopes of legitimating occupancy. Margaret Moore, in her 2015 book, A Political Theory of Territory, tries to balance these intuitions through an argument based on legitimate expectations. I argue that Moore’s attempt to reduce (...)
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  21. Rawls, Self-Respect, and Assurance: How Past Injustice Changes What Publicly Counts as Justice.Timothy Waligore - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (1):42-66.
    This article adapts John Rawls’s writings, arguing that past injustice can change what we ought to publicly affirm as the standard of justice today. My approach differs from forward-looking approaches based on alleviating prospective disadvantage and backward-looking historical entitlement approaches. In different contexts, Rawls’s own concern for the ‘social bases of self-respect’ and equal citizenship may require public endorsement of different principles or specifications of the standard of justice. Rawls’s difference principle focuses on the least advantaged socioeconomic group. I argue (...)
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  22. Compensation and Past Injustice.Bernard Boxill - 2014 - In Andrew I. Cohen & Christopher H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 22--191.
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  23. Take Off Your Shoes, Walk on the Ground: The Journey Towards Reconciliation in Australia [Book Review].Matthew Digges - 2012 - The Australasian Catholic Record 89 (2):255.
    Digges, Matthew Review(s) of: Take off your shoes, walk on the ground: The journey towards reconciliation in Australia, by Lyn Henderson-Yates, Brian McCoy SJ, Melissa Brickell, Catholic Social Justice Series No 71, Alexandria NSW: Australian Catholic Social Justice Council, 2012, pp.32, $6.60.
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  24. Act & Fact: Slavery Reparations as a Democratic Politics of Reconciliation.Lawrie Balfour - 2010 - In Will Kymlicka & Bashir Bashir (eds.), The Politics of Reconciliation in Multicultural Societies. Oxford University Press.
  25. Heirs of Oppression: Racism and Reparations.Angelo J. Corlett - 2010 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Packing his case with moral argument and relevant facts, Angelo Corlett offers the most comprehensive defense to date in favor of reparations for African Americans and American Indians. As Corlett see it, the heirs of oppression are both the descendants of the oppressors and the descendants of their victims. Corlett delves deeply into the philosophically related issues of collective responsibility, forgiveness and apology, and reparations as a human right in ways that no other book or article to date has done.
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  26. Reparations and Racial Inequality.Derrick Darby - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (1):55-66.
    A recent development in philosophical scholarship on reparations for black chattel slavery and Jim Crow segregation is reliance upon social science in normative arguments for reparations. Although there are certainly positive things to be said in favor of an empirically informed normative argument for black reparations, given the depth of empirical disagreement about the causes of persistent racial inequalities, and the ethos of 'post-racial' America, the strongest normative argument for reparations may be one that goes through irrespective of how we (...)
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  27. Reconciliation and Reparations.Howard Mcgary - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (4):546-562.
    Abstract: This article provides an account of the meaning of reparations and presents a brief explanation as to why African Americans believe they are entitled to reparations from the United States government. It then goes on to explain why reparations are necessary to address the distrust that is thought to exist between many African Americans and their government. Finally, it rejects the belief that reparations require reconciliation.
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  28. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - In Paul Omoyefa & Alex Antonites (eds.), Basic Applied Ethics: A Multidisciplinary Approach. VDM Verlag Dr Müller.
    Reprint of a chapter that initially appeared in _African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics_ (2009).
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  29. Review of Jon Miller, Rahul Kumar (Eds.), Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries[REVIEW]Bernard Boxill - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (2).
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  30. Books in Review: Psychology and the Natural Law of Reparation, by C. Fred Alford. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 171 Pp. $75.00. [REVIEW]Mary Caputi - 2009 - Political Theory 37 (2):313-315.
  31. Historic Injustice, Group Membership and Harm to Individuals: Defending Claims for Historic Justice From the Non-Identity Problem.Ori J. Herstein - 2009 - Harvard Journal of Racial and Ethnic Justice 25:229.
    Some claim slavery did not harm the descendants of slaves since, without slavery, its descendants would never have been born and a life worth living, even one including the subsequent harms of past slavery, is preferable to never having been born at all. This creates a classic puzzle known as the non-identity argument, applied to reject the validity of claims for historic justice based on harms to descendants of victims of historic wrongs: since descendants are never harmed by historic wrongs, (...)
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  32. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality.Thaddeus Metz - 2009 - In Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.), African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp. 335-356.
    Suppose a person lives in a sub-Saharan country that has won its independence from colonial powers in the last 50 years or so. Suppose also that that person has become a high-ranking government official who makes decisions on how to allocate goods, such as civil service jobs and contracts with private firms. Should such a person refrain from considering any particulars about potential recipients or might it be appropriate to consider, for example, family membership, party affiliation, race or revolutionary stature (...)
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  33. Reparations for U.S. Slavery and Justice Over Time.Seana Valentine Shiffrin - 2009 - In David Wasserman & Melinda Roberts (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer.
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  34. Race, Equality, and the Burdens of History.John Arthur - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    John Arthur philosophically addresses the problems of racism and the legacy of past racial discrimination in the United States. Offering a thorough analysis of the concepts of race and racism, Arthur also discusses racial equality, poverty and race, reparations and affirmative action, and merit in ways that cut across the usual political lines. A philosopher, former civil-rights plaintiff and professor at an historically black college in the South, Arthur draws on both his personal experiences as well as his rigorous philosophical (...)
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  35. Further Trouble for Unsettled Waters: Attention to Gender in the Debate on Black Reparations.Carolyn Benson - 2007 - In Jon Miller & Rahul Kumar (eds.), Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries. Oxford University Press. pp. 130.
  36. Housing Discrimination As a Basis for Black Reparations.Jonathan Kaplan & Andrew Valls - 2007 - Public Affairs Quarterly 21 (3):255-274.
    The renewed interest in the issue of black reparations, both in the public sphere and among scholars, is a welcome development because the racial injustices of the past continue to shape American society by disadvantaging African Americans in a variety of ways. Attention to the past and how it has shaped present-day inequality seems essential both to understanding our predicament and to justifying policies that would address and undermine racial inequality. Given this, any argument for policies designed to pursue racial (...)
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  37. The Object of Repair: Commentary on Margaret Urban Walker’s ‘Restorative Justice and Reparations'.Alice MacLachlan - 2007 - Symposium on Race, Gender and Philosophy 3 (2).
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  38. Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries.Jon Miller & Rahul Kumar (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Reparations is an idea whose time has come. From civilian victims of war in Iraq and South America to descendents of slaves in the US to citizens of colonized nations in Africa and south Asia to indigenous peoples around the world--these groups and their advocates are increasingly arguing for the importance of addressing historical injustices that have long been either ignored or denied. This volume contributes to these debates by focusing the attention of a group of highly distinguished international experts (...)
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  39. Should There Be an Apology for American Slavery?George Schedler - 2007 - Should There Be an Apology for American Slavery? 21 (2):125-148.
    Contemporary white Americans cannot meaningfully ask forgiveness from present-day African Americans for slavery, because such a group apology does not have the mental state needed to communicate regret and intend that listeners forgive the group. Even if the requisite mental state were present, contemporary white Americans are not responsible for the wrong and cannot apologize for wrongs for which they are not responsible. Additionally, such a purported apology is not directed to the victims of the wrong but instead seeks forgiveness (...)
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  40. Reconsidering the Case for Black Reparations.Andrew Valls - 2007 - In Jon Miller & Rahul Kumar (eds.), Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries. Oxford University Press.
  41. Who? Whom? Reparations and the Problem of Agency.Chandran Kukathas - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (3):330–341.
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  42. Uncertain Justice: History and Reparations.Stephen Winter - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (3):342–359.
  43. Reparations After Identity Politics.Lawrie Balfour - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (6):786-811.
    The end of the twentieth century witnessed a resurgence of demands for reparations for slavery and segregation in the United States. At the same time, a chorus of prominent political theorists warned against the threat "identity politics" poses for democratic politics. This essay considers whether it is possible to construct an argument for reparations that responds to these concerns, particularly as they are articulated by Wendy Brown. To do so, I explore how Brown's analysis of the dangers of political organizing (...)
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  44. Race, Racism, and Reparations.J. Angelo Corlett - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (4):568–585.
  45. Reparations for Emancipation: Mill's Vindication of the Rights of Slave Owners.Dale E. Miller - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (2):245-265.
  46. Race, Racism, and Reparations.J. P. Sterba - 2005 - Mind 114 (454):407-409.
  47. Three Questions About Race, Racism, and Reparations.Paul C. Taylor - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (4):559–567.
  48. The Reparations Argument: A Reply.Robert K. Fullinwider - 2004 - Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (2):256–263.
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  49. Rectification and Reparation: What Does Citizen Responsibility Require?Paul M. Hughes - 2004 - Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (2):244–255.
  50. Justice for the Past.Stephen Kershnar - 2004 - State University of New York Press.
    Among the most controversial issues in the United States is the question of whether public or private agencies should adopt preferential treatment programs or be required to pay reparations for slavery. Using a carefully reasoned philosophical approach, Stephen Kershnar argues that programs such as affirmative action and calls for slavery reparations are unjust for three reasons. First, the state has a duty to direct resources to hose persons who, through their abilities, will benefit most from them. Second, he argues that, (...)
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