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  1. Equal Opportunity, Not Reparations.Thomas Mulligan - forthcoming - In Mitja Sardoc (ed.), Handbook of Equality of Opportunity. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    The thesis of this essay is that equal opportunity (EO) "strictly dominates" (in the game-theoretic sense) reparations. That is, (1) all the ways reparations would make our world more just would also be achieved under EO; (2) EO would make our world more just in ways reparations cannot; and (3) reparations would create injustices which EO would avoid. Further, (4) EO has important practical advantages over reparations. These include economic efficiency, feasibility, and long-term impact. Supporters of reparations should abandon that (...)
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  2. Does Political Equality Require Equal Power? A Pluralist Account.Attila Mráz - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    (OPEN ACCESS) In this paper, I criticize two views on how political equality is related to equally distributed political power, and I offer a novel, pluralist account of political equality to address their shortcomings—in particular, concerning their implications for affirmative action in the political domain, political representation, and the situation of permanent minorities. The Equal Power View holds that political equality requires equally distributed political power. It considers affirmative action—e.g., racial or gender electoral quotas—, representation, and more-than-equal power to permanent (...)
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  3. The End of Affirmative Action Will Help Blacks and Hispanics.Pan Pan - 2023 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2023 (204):163-173.
    ExcerptOne of the great achievements of American history has been the development of a broad consensus that racial discrimination has no place in our society, to the point that there is virtually no one who would openly espouse racist views. Even the divisions concerning affirmative action presume an underlying consensus that racial discrimination needs to be opposed and eliminated. The primary dispute is about the means of achieving a society without racism. Thus, in their differing reactions to the Supreme Court’s (...)
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  4. Rethinking Affirmative Action: Problematising the “Least Privileged”.Bhagat Oinam - forthcoming - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research:1-16.
    Affirmative action as a state policy is one of the powerful ways of empowering the underprivileged in the society. While such a policy is aimed at lifting the economic and social condition of the underprivileged, this comes with acts that are discriminatory and exclusionary. Yet these acts are termed as positive discrimination. Certain sections of the society are excluded from having access to economic resources and opportunities, while these privileges are earmarked for another section of the society considered marginalized and (...)
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  5. Doxastic Affirmative Action.Andreas Bengtson & Lauritz Aastrup Munch - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    According to the relational egalitarian theory of justice, justice requires that people relate as equals. To relate as equals, many relational egalitarians argue, people must (i) regard each other as equals, and (ii) treat each other as equals. In this paper, we argue that, under conditions of background injustice, such relational egalitarians should endorse affirmative action in the ways in which (dis)esteem is attributed to people as part of the regard-requirement for relating as equals.
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  6. Affirmative Action.Bernard Boxill & Jan Boxill - 2005 - In R. G. Frey & Christopher Heath Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 118–127.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Forward‐looking Arguments Backward‐looking Arguments.
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  7. Affirmative Action in Higher Education.Bernard Boxill - 2003 - In Randall Curren (ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Education. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 593–604.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Affirmative Action and Prejudice The Talented Tenth Objections.
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  8. Affirmative Action.David Benatar - 2012 - In The Second Sexism. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 212–238.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Rectifying Injustice Consequentialist Arguments Conclusion.
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  9. Affirmative Action: Meaning and Justification.Jorge J. E. Gracia - 2008 - In Latinos in America. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 95–111.
    This chapter contains section titled: Who Counts as Latino? What Are the Aims of Affirmative Action? Why Should There Be Affirmative Action for Latinos? Affirmative Action for Latinos.
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  10. Affirmative Action in Business.J. Angelo Corlett - 2023 - In Deborah C. Poff & Alex C. Michalos (eds.), Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer Verlag. pp. 44-48.
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  11. Affirmative Action: Employment Equity in Canada.Deborah C. Poff - 2023 - In Deborah C. Poff & Alex C. Michalos (eds.), Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer Verlag. pp. 48-54.
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  12. Is affirmative action racist? Reflections toward a theory of institutional racism.César Cabezas - 2022 - Journal of Social Philosophy 54 (2):218-235.
    I defend impact-based accounts of institutional racism against the criticism that they are over-inclusive. If having a negative impact on non-whites suffices to make an institution racist, too many institutions (including institutions whose affirmative action policies inadvertently harm its intended beneficiaries) would count as racist. To address this challenge, I consider a further necessary condition for these institutions to count as racist—they must stand in a particular relation to racist ideology. I argue that, on the impact-based model, institutions are racist (...)
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  13. Affirmative Action, Paternalism, and Respect.Andreas Bengtson & Viki Møller Lyngby Pedersen - forthcoming - British Journal of Political Science.
    This article investigates the hitherto under-examined relations between affirmative action, paternalism and respect. We provide three main arguments. First, we argue that affirmative action initiatives are typically paternalistic and thus disrespectful towards those intended beneficiaries who oppose the initiatives in question. Second, we argue that not introducing affirmative action can also be disrespectful towards these potential beneficiaries because such inaction involves a failure to adequately recognize their moral worth. Third, we argue that the paternalistic disrespect involved in affirmative action is (...)
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  14. A Defense of Affirmative Action.Thomas Nagel - 1981 - Philosophy & Public Policy Quarterly 1 (4):6.
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  15. Handbook on Economics of Discrimination and Affirmative Action.Ashwini Deshpande (ed.) - 2022 - Springer.
    This Handbook deals with theoretical and empirical evidence on the economics of discrimination and affirmative action across the world, assessed over a variety of social identities, such as caste, race, ethnicity, gender, disability, age, tribal status. It also outlines methodological advances in this area, with plenty of additional references for the interested reader. It combines theoretical frameworks developed in the West with historical writings about discrimination and social justice from primarily Indian philosophers, aspects which are typically not found under one (...)
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  16. Affirmative action in healthcare resource allocation: Vaccines, ventilators and race.Hazem Zohny, Ben Davies & Dominic Wilkinson - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (9):970-977.
    This article is about the potential justification for deploying some form of affirmative action (AA) in the context of healthcare, and in particular in relation to the pandemic. We call this Affirmative Action in healthcare Resource Allocation (AARA). Specifically, we aim to investigate whether the rationale and justifications for using prioritization policies based on race in education and employment apply in a healthcare setting, and in particular to the COVID-19 pandemic. We concentrate in this article on vaccines and ventilators because (...)
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  17. Discrimination and Affirmative Action.Jesse Taylor - 2014 - In G. John M. Abbarno (ed.), Inherent and Instrumental Values: Excursions in Value Inquiry. University Press of America.
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  18. Essays on Apportionment Methods for Affirmative Action.Haydar Emin Evren - 2022 - Dissertation, Boston College
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  19. The IRR as False Witness.Phila M. Msimang - 2022 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 69 (172):1-31.
    Historically, the South African Institute of Race Relations (IRR) has been viewed as a reliable source of information given its near century-long work of compiling statistics and reports about race relations and the social conditions affecting different race groups in South Africa. I make the case that the IRR should not be considered a reliable source of information about race groups and their social conditions in contemporary South Africa because of how the IRR misrepresents the views of ordinary South Africans (...)
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  20. COVID-19 and Affirmative Action: A Response.Phila M. Msimang - 2022 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 11 (2):127-148.
    Ovett Nwosimiri argues in a paper he published in 2021 that affirmative action and preferential hiring policies are no longer appropriate for South Africa because of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The case he makes is that since COVID-19 has impacted people of all races, there should no longer be any consideration of race in hiring policies and practices. He claims that continued preferential hiring practices unfairly discriminate against non-designated groups. I argue that this claim presumes that the (...)
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  21. Making Sense of Extended Affirmative Action: Review of Making Sense of Affirmative Action by Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen. [REVIEW]Shu Ishida - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-7.
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  22. Climate Justice and the Duty of Restitution.Santiago Truccone-Borgogno - 2023 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 10 (1):203-224.
    Much of the climate justice discussion revolves around how the remaining carbon budget should be globally allocated. Some authors defend the unjust enrichment interpretation of the beneficiary pays principle (BPP). According to this principle, those states unjustly enriched from historical emissions should pay. I argue that if the BPP is to be constructed along the lines of the unjust enrichment doctrine, countervailing reasons that might be able to block the existence of a duty of restitution should be assessed. One might (...)
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  23. Affirmative Action in the Political Domain.Bengtson Andreas - 2022 - Political Studies.
    This paper has two parts. First, I argue that three prominent arguments in favour of affirmative action—the mitigating discrimination argument, the equality of opportunity argument and the diversity argument—may be based on a relational egalitarian theory of justice, as opposed to a distributive understanding of justice. Second, I argue that basing these arguments in favour of affirmative action on relational egalitarianism has an interesting implication when it comes to the site(s) of affirmative action. Whereas affirmative action is usually discussed and (...)
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  24. Administered entitlements: Collective bargaining to affirmative action.Paul Moreno - 2021 - Social Philosophy and Policy 38 (1):289-310.
    This essay tells the story of the development of two of the most significant and controversial entitlement programs in twentieth-century U.S. history—collective bargaining and affirmative action. It focuses on the nexus between them—how New Deal empowerment of labor unions contributed to racial discrimination, and thus fed the Great Society race-based programs of affirmative action. The evolving relationship between the courts and the bureaucracies is emphasized, particularly how the judiciary went from an obstacle to an enabler of the entitlement state.
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  25. Disability Affirmative Action Requirements for the U.S. HHS and Academic Medical Centers.Nicholas D. Lawson - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (1):21-28.
    Hastings Center Report, Volume 52, Issue 1, Page 21-28, January/February 2022.
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  26. Racial Inequalities in Health Care: Affirmative Action Programs in Medical Education and Residency Training Programs.Jason F. Arnold - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):206-210.
    This article argues that because racial inequalities are embedded in American society, as well as in medicine, more evidence-based investigation of the effects and implications of affirmative action is needed. Residency training programs should also seek ways to recruit medical students from underrepresented groups and to create effective mentorship programs.
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  27. Affirmative Action in Medical School: A Comparative Exploration.Richard Sander - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):190-205.
    A significant body of evidence shows that law schools and many elite colleges use large admissions preferences based on race, and other evidence strongly suggests that large preferences can undermine student achievement in law school and undergraduate science majors, thus producing highly counterproductive effects. This article draws on available evidence to examine the use of racial preferences in medical school admissions, and finds strong reasons for concern about the effects and effectiveness of current affirmative action efforts. The author calls for (...)
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  28. How to Justify Mandatory Electoral Quotas: A Political Egalitarian Approach.Attila Mráz - 2021 - Legal Theory 27 (4):285-315.
    (OPEN ACCESS) This paper offers a novel substantive justification for mandatory electoral quotas—e.g., gender or racial quotas—and a new methodological approach to their justification. Substantively, I argue for a political egalitarian account of electoral quotas. Methodologically, based on this account and a political egalitarian grounding of political participatory rights, I offer an alternative to the External Restriction Approach to the justification of electoral quotas. The External Restriction Approach sees electoral quotas as at best justified restrictions on political participatory rights. I (...)
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  29. Nonideal Justice, Fairness, and Affirmative Action.Matthew Adams - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 20 (3).
    I defend affirmative action on the ground that it increases certain people’s ability to exercise their basic liberties, rather than because it rectifies injustice in the narrow context of educational admission procedures. I present this justification using a Rawlsian contractualist framework to forge a “nonideal principle of justice.” Drawing on social science, I argue that this principle supports affirmative-action policies like those in the contemporary U.S., and blocks the objection that such policies are unfair. In closing, I show how my (...)
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  30. Rawlsian Affirmative Action: Compensatory Justice as Seen from the Original Position.Robert Allen - 1998 - In George Leaman (ed.), 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Charlottesville, VA, USA: pp. 1-8.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is, those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties, rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. Rawls' method of adopting the "original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods. A just society would also have the need (unmet in the above work) to ascertain how the victims of injustice ought to be (...)
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  31. Rawlsian Affirmative Action: Compensatory Justice as Seen from the Original Position.Robert Allen - 1998 - In George Leaman (ed.), 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Charlottesville, VA, USA: pp. 1-8.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is,those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties,rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. (1) Rawls' method of adopting the"original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods.A just society would also have the need (unmet in the above work) to determine how the victims of injustice ought to be compensated, since history (...)
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  32. African Ethics and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring, and Other Partiality (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Abiola Olukemi Ogunyemi, Isaiah Adisa & Robert Ebo Hinson (eds.), Ethics and Accountable Governance in Africa's Public Sector, Volume I. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 109-129.
    Shortened and mildly revised version of an essay that initially appeared in Murove (ed.) African Ethics (2009). This chapter is a work of applied ethics that aims to provide a convincing comprehensive account of how a government official in a post-independence sub-Saharan country should make decisions about how to allocate goods such as civil service jobs and contracts with private firms. Should such a person refrain from considering any particulars about potential recipients, or might it be appropriate to consider, for (...)
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  33. Book Review: Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Making Sense of Affirmative Action. [REVIEW]Kristina Meshelski - 2021 - Ethics 131 (4):786-790.
    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen has written a thorough treatment of the morality of affirmative action, concluding ultimately that there are two good arguments that affirmative action is morally justified, and no good arguments that it is morally unjustified. He calls this a cautious positive view, but he believes that whether any particular affirmative action policy is all things considered justified is a question that would require empirical study beyond the scope of the book. So, on the one hand the aims of the (...)
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  34. COVID–19 and Job Losses: Should Affirmative Action and Preferential Hiring still be Applicable in South Africa?Ovett Nwosimiri - 2021 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 10 (1):1-18.
    The SARS-COVID-2 virus that causes the Coronavirus has been having a challenging and devastating impact on finances and jobs worldwide. More specifically, in South Africa, the COVID-19 pandemic is having a crippling effect on jobs. Companies and businesses are struggling to operate and retain workers as revenue streams are drying up. Owners of companies and businesses have been forced to make difficult decisions. An example is the retrenchment of workers by some organizations because of the financial fall-out due to the (...)
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  35. Deliberative Sincerity and the Opacity of the Self.Erik A. Anderson - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (3):422-440.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  36. Discrimination as an Individual Wrong.Michael P. Foran - 2019 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 39 (4):901-929.
    This article argues that anti-discrimination rights are individual rights to be free from wrongful treatment and do not directly advance group-based interests or prohibit group-based harm. In light of this, a number of recurring accounts of the wrong of discrimination, particularly the wrong of indirect discrimination, are unsustainable. Claims that indirect discrimination is concerned with harm that is done to social groups or that laws prohibiting indirect discrimination seek to reduce or eliminate advantage gaps between social groups must be rejected (...)
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  37. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - In Paul Omoyefa & Alex Antonites (eds.), Basic Applied Ethics: A Multidisciplinary Approach. VDM Verlag Dr Müller.
    Reprint of a chapter that initially appeared in _African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics_ (2009).
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  38. Getting It Right.Marilyn Frye - 1992 - Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 17 (4):781-793.
  39. To Begin Where We Have Not Yet Reached: Affirmative Action in the Philosophy of Martin Luther King, Jr.Greg Moses - 1998 - NWSA Journal 10 (3):54-72.
    A recent trend in scholarship argues that certain features of affirmative action logic, such as group identification, quotas, and preferential treatments would be contradictory to principles of individual merit, nondiscrimination, and personal achievement that were once advocated by Martin Luther King, jr. On the contrary this paper will argue that King’s authority may be understood to clearly support the emergence of affirmative action principles. Furthermore, King offered an ethical framework that may prove helpful in resolving many of the problems that (...)
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  40. African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics.Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.) - 2009 - Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
    African ethics in the world -- The primacy of ubuntu in African ethics -- African ethics and Christianity -- African bioethics -- African business ethics -- African ethics and the environment -- African ethics and political transformation.
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  41. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality.Thaddeus Metz - 2009 - In Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.), African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp. 335-356.
    Suppose a person lives in a sub-Saharan country that has won its independence from colonial powers in the last 50 years or so. Suppose also that that person has become a high-ranking government official who makes decisions on how to allocate goods, such as civil service jobs and contracts with private firms. Should such a person refrain from considering any particulars about potential recipients or might it be appropriate to consider, for example, family membership, party affiliation, race or revolutionary stature (...)
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  42. Book ReviewsCarl Cohen,, and James P Sterba,. Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate.Oxford University Press, 2003. Pp. xv+394. $30.00. [REVIEW]Stephen W. Ball - 2005 - Ethics 116 (1):226-228.
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  43. Affirmative Action, Old and New.Mane Hajdin - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):83-96.
  44. What's in a Number? Consequentialism and Employment Equity in Hall, Hurka, Sumner and Baker et al.Leo Groarke - 1996 - Dialogue 35 (2):359-374.
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  45. Can Affirmative Action in Medical School Admissions Be Just?James J. Mccartney - 1983 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 57:142.
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  46. The Message of Affirmative Action: THOMAS E. HILL, JR.Thomas E. Hill - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):108-129.
    Affirmative action programs remain controversial, I suspect, partly because the familiar arguments for and against them start from significantly different moral perspectives. Thus I want to step back for a while from the details of debate about particular programs and give attention to the moral viewpoints presupposed in different types of argument. My aim, more specifically, is to compare the “messages” expressed when affirmative action is defended from different moral perspectives. Exclusively forward-looking arguments, I suggest, tend to express the wrong (...)
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  47. Change and continuity in the concept of civil rights: Thurgood Marshall and affirmative action*: Mark Tushnet.Mark Tushnet - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):150-171.
    In analyzing the development of the concept of civil rights since the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, two historical accounts seem available. According to the first account, the concept initially encompassed a relatively limited set of rights, associated with the ability of all citizens to engage in the productive activities of the economy and avail themselves of the protection of the legal system. Then the concept gradually expanded to include what had initially been thought of as political rights, such as (...)
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  48. The Political Jurisprudence of Affirmative Action: DAVID L. KIRP.David L. Kirp - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):223-248.
    The headlines at the outset of 1987 told of Howard Beach, where a group of blacks had been chased, and one killed, because they had unwittingly entered a white enclave in New York City. And they told of Forsythe County, Georgia, where the mere presence of civil rights marchers, in a place from which blacks had been driven three-quarters of a century earlier, brought out depths of antagonism unknown since an earlier era of civil rights marches. Behind both events – (...)
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  49. Review of Steven M. Cahn: Affirmative Action and the University: A Philosophical Inquiry[REVIEW]Bernard R. Boxill - 1995 - Ethics 105 (3):672-674.
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  50. Review of Carl Cohen: Naked Racial Preference: The Case Against Affirmative Action.[REVIEW]Eric Mack - 1997 - Ethics 107 (2):378-381.
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