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  1. Racial Inequalities in Health Care: Affirmative Action Programs in Medical Education and Residency Training Programs.Jason F. Arnold - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):206-210.
    This article argues that because racial inequalities are embedded in American society, as well as in medicine, more evidence-based investigation of the effects and implications of affirmative action is needed. Residency training programs should also seek ways to recruit medical students from underrepresented groups and to create effective mentorship programs.
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  2. Affirmative Action in Medical School: A Comparative Exploration.Richard Sander - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):190-205.
    A significant body of evidence shows that law schools and many elite colleges use large admissions preferences based on race, and other evidence strongly suggests that large preferences can undermine student achievement in law school and undergraduate science majors, thus producing highly counterproductive effects. This article draws on available evidence to examine the use of racial preferences in medical school admissions, and finds strong reasons for concern about the effects and effectiveness of current affirmative action efforts. The author calls for (...)
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  3. How to Justify Mandatory Electoral Quotas: A Political Egalitarian Approach.Attila Mráz - 2021 - Legal Theory 27 (4):285-315.
    (OPEN ACCESS) This paper offers a novel substantive justification for mandatory electoral quotas—e.g., gender or racial quotas—and a new methodological approach to their justification. Substantively, I argue for a political egalitarian account of electoral quotas. Methodologically, based on this account and a political egalitarian grounding of political participatory rights, I offer an alternative to the External Restriction Approach to the justification of electoral quotas. The External Restriction Approach sees electoral quotas as at best justified restrictions on political participatory rights. I (...)
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  4. Nonideal Justice, Fairness, and Affirmative Action.Matthew Adams - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 20 (3).
    I defend affirmative action on the ground that it increases certain people’s ability to exercise their basic liberties, rather than because it rectifies injustice in the narrow context of educational admission procedures. I present this justification using a Rawlsian contractualist framework to forge a “nonideal principle of justice.” Drawing on social science, I argue that this principle supports affirmative-action policies like those in the contemporary U.S., and blocks the objection that such policies are unfair. In closing, I show how my (...)
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  5. Rawlsian Affirmative Action: Compensatory Justice as Seen From the Original Position.Robert Allen - 1998 - In George Leaman (ed.), 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Charlottesville, VA, USA: pp. 1-8.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is, those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties, rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. Rawls' method of adopting the "original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods. A just society would also have the need (unmet in the above work) to determine how the victims of injustice ought to be (...)
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  6. Rawlsian Affirmative Action: Compensatory Justice as Seen From the Original Position.Robert Allen - 1998 - In George Leaman (ed.), 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Charlottesville, VA, USA: pp. 1-8.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is,those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties,rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. (1) Rawls' method of adopting the"original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods.A just society would also have the need (unmet in the above work) to determine how the victims of injustice ought to be compensated, since history (...)
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  7. African Ethics and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring, and Other Partiality (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Abiola Olukemi Ogunyemi, Isaiah Adisa & Robert Ebo Hinson (eds.), Ethics and Accountable Governance in Africa's Public Sector, Volume I. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. ch. 6.
    Shortened and mildly revised version of an essay that initially appeared in Murove (ed.) African Ethics (2009). This chapter is a work of applied ethics that aims to provide a convincing comprehensive account of how a government official in a post-independence sub-Saharan country should make decisions about how to allocate goods such as civil service jobs and contracts with private firms. Should such a person refrain from considering any particulars about potential recipients, or might it be appropriate to consider, for (...)
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  8. Book Review: Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Making Sense of Affirmative Action. [REVIEW]Kristina Meshelski - 2021 - Ethics 131 (4):786-790.
    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen has written a thorough treatment of the morality of affirmative action, concluding ultimately that there are two good arguments that affirmative action is morally justified, and no good arguments that it is morally unjustified. He calls this a cautious positive view, but he believes that whether any particular affirmative action policy is all things considered justified is a question that would require empirical study beyond the scope of the book. So, on the one hand the aims of the (...)
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  9. COVID–19 and Job Losses: Should Affirmative Action and Preferential Hiring Still Be Applicable in South Africa?Ovett Nwosimiri - 2021 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 10 (1):1-18.
    The SARS-COVID-2 virus that causes the Coronavirus has been having a challenging and devastating impact on finances and jobs worldwide. More specifically, in South Africa, the COVID-19 pandemic is having a crippling effect on jobs. Companies and businesses are struggling to operate and retain workers as revenue streams are drying up. Owners of companies and businesses have been forced to make difficult decisions. An example is the retrenchment of workers by some organizations because of the financial fall-out due to the (...)
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  10. Deliberative Sincerity and the Opacity of the Self.Erik A. Anderson - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (3):422-440.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  11. Discrimination as an Individual Wrong.Michael P. Foran - 2019 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 39 (4):901-929.
    This article argues that anti-discrimination rights are individual rights to be free from wrongful treatment and do not directly advance group-based interests or prohibit group-based harm. In light of this, a number of recurring accounts of the wrong of discrimination, particularly the wrong of indirect discrimination, are unsustainable. Claims that indirect discrimination is concerned with harm that is done to social groups or that laws prohibiting indirect discrimination seek to reduce or eliminate advantage gaps between social groups must be rejected (...)
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  12. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - In Paul Omoyefa & Alex Antonites (eds.), Basic Applied Ethics: A Multidisciplinary Approach. VDM Verlag Dr Müller.
    Reprint of a chapter that initially appeared in _African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics_ (2009).
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  13. Getting It Right.Marilyn Frye - 1992 - Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 17 (4):781-793.
  14. To Begin Where We Have Not Yet Reached: Affirmative Action in the Philosophy of Martin Luther King, Jr.Greg Moses - 1998 - NWSA Journal 10 (3):54-72.
    A recent trend in scholarship argues that certain features of affirmative action logic, such as group identification, quotas, and preferential treatments would be contradictory to principles of individual merit, nondiscrimination, and personal achievement that were once advocated by Martin Luther King, jr. On the contrary this paper will argue that King’s authority may be understood to clearly support the emergence of affirmative action principles. Furthermore, King offered an ethical framework that may prove helpful in resolving many of the problems that (...)
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  15. African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics.Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.) - 2009 - University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
    African ethics in the world -- The primacy of ubuntu in African ethics -- African ethics and Christianity -- African bioethics -- African business ethics -- African ethics and the environment -- African ethics and political transformation.
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  16. African Moral Theory and Public Governance: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and Other Partiality.Thaddeus Metz - 2009 - In Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.), African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp. 335-356.
    Suppose a person lives in a sub-Saharan country that has won its independence from colonial powers in the last 50 years or so. Suppose also that that person has become a high-ranking government official who makes decisions on how to allocate goods, such as civil service jobs and contracts with private firms. Should such a person refrain from considering any particulars about potential recipients or might it be appropriate to consider, for example, family membership, party affiliation, race or revolutionary stature (...)
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  17. Book ReviewsCarl Cohen,, and James P Sterba,. Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate.Oxford University Press, 2003. Pp. Xv+394. $30.00. [REVIEW]Stephen W. Ball - 2005 - Ethics 116 (1):226-228.
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  18. Affirmative Action, Old and New.Mane Hajdin - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):83-96.
  19. What's in a Number? Consequentialism and Employment Equity in Hall, Hurka, Sumner and Baker Et Al.Leo Groarke - 1996 - Dialogue 35 (2):359-374.
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  20. Can Affirmative Action in Medical School Admissions Be Just?James J. Mccartney - 1983 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 57:142.
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  21. The Message of Affirmative Action: THOMAS E. HILL, JR.Thomas E. Hill - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):108-129.
    Affirmative action programs remain controversial, I suspect, partly because the familiar arguments for and against them start from significantly different moral perspectives. Thus I want to step back for a while from the details of debate about particular programs and give attention to the moral viewpoints presupposed in different types of argument. My aim, more specifically, is to compare the “messages” expressed when affirmative action is defended from different moral perspectives. Exclusively forward-looking arguments, I suggest, tend to express the wrong (...)
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  22. Change and Continuity in the Concept of Civil Rights: Thurgood Marshall and Affirmative Action*: Mark Tushnet.Mark Tushnet - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):150-171.
    In analyzing the development of the concept of civil rights since the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, two historical accounts seem available. According to the first account, the concept initially encompassed a relatively limited set of rights, associated with the ability of all citizens to engage in the productive activities of the economy and avail themselves of the protection of the legal system. Then the concept gradually expanded to include what had initially been thought of as political rights, such as (...)
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  23. The Political Jurisprudence of Affirmative Action: DAVID L. KIRP.David L. Kirp - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):223-248.
    The headlines at the outset of 1987 told of Howard Beach, where a group of blacks had been chased, and one killed, because they had unwittingly entered a white enclave in New York City. And they told of Forsythe County, Georgia, where the mere presence of civil rights marchers, in a place from which blacks had been driven three-quarters of a century earlier, brought out depths of antagonism unknown since an earlier era of civil rights marches. Behind both events – (...)
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  24. Affirmative Action and the University: A Philosophical Inquiry.Bernard R. Boxill - 1995 - Ethics 105 (3):672-674.
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  25. Naked Racial Preference: The Case Against Affirmative Action.Eric Mack - 1997 - Ethics 107 (2):378-381.
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  26. Desert, Entitlement, and Affirmative Action: A Response to Francis Beckwith.Kenneth Einar Himma - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (1):157-166.
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  27. Affirmative Action and the University: A Philosophical Inquiry. [REVIEW]Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1993 - Teaching Philosophy 16 (4):366-369.
  28. Comments on Sterba’s “The Michigan Cases and Furthering the Justification of Affirmative Action”.Terence J. Pell - 2004 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (1):35-38.
    In my comments on Prof. Sterba’s paper, I argue that evidence about the educational value of racial preferences reveals not that these policies produce good educational outcomes, but that schools use racial preferences regardless of whether they produce desirable outcomes. I further argue that in the absence of objective evidence about the value of racial preferences, proponents of these policies tend to rely on personal anecdotes. Often, these anecdotes reveal complex institutional and personal motives having little to do with the (...)
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  29. A Meritocratic Argument for Preferential Treatment.Richard B. Miller - 1991 - Social Philosophy Today 5:205-220.
  30. Affirmative Action in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Liberal Dilemma.George Carwe - 2000 - Social Philosophy Today 16:77-94.
    In order to dismantle the racial and social hierarchy that is the legacy of apartheid, South Africa has followed the lead of Western liberal democracies andappropriated the discourse of affirmative action. This paper argues that current affirmative action policy fails in significant ways because it paradoxically ignores the concrete social and historical conditions of race and racism in South Africa and simply aims to normalize competition among abstract individuals by using a principle of racial neutrality The author argues that social (...)
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  31. Affirmative Action and Electoral Engineering: Two Forms of Race-Conscious Distracting.Andrew W. Schwartz - 2002 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 9 (2):93-100.
    Majority-Minority electoral districts, while increasing the number of minorities in legislatures, work to deepen divisions among racial groups, to exacerbate the systematic disadvantages of some individuals, and to impede effective representation. I examine another form of race-conscious districting that will increase marginalized minority presence in legislatures while avoiding these problems.
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  32. The Ethical Case for Affirmative Action.Prue Burns & Jan Schapper - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):369-379.
    Affirmative action has been a particularly contentious policy issue that has polarised contributions to the debate. Over recent times in most western countries, support for affirmative action has, however, been largely snuffed out or beaten into retreat and replaced by the concept of ‹diversity management’. Thus, any contemporary study that examines the development of affirmative action would suggest that its opponents have won the battle. Nonetheless, this article argues that because the battle has been won on dubious ethical grounds it (...)
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  33. Affirmative Action Policy and Changing Views.Anthony F. Libertella, Sebastian A. Sora & Samuel M. Natale - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):65-71.
    Critiquing any practice, theory, or law, requires understanding the characteristics of the environment which created a need for this law. There are hundreds of different cultures in the world, and each one has its own set of norms, characteristics, and values. What in one country is perceived normal, ethical or unethical, right or wrong, may not be the same somewhere else in the world. The first civilizations begun in Africa and Europe many thousands of years ago when people were hunters (...)
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  34. Operational Modes for Multinational Corporations in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Proposal for a Code of Affirmative Action in the Marketplace.S. Prakash Sethi - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (1):1-12.
    The economic and socio-political impact of multinational corporations (MNCs) on third world countries has been the subject of intense debate and controversy leading to charges of exploitation and colonization on the one hand, and demands for codes of conduct on the other. This article examines the working of one of the most comprehensive of such codes under the most reprehensible political conditions, i.e., the operations of U.S.—based multinational corporations in South Africa under the acgis of the Sullivan Principles. It is (...)
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  35. Shared Being, Old Promises, and the Just Necessity of Affirmative Action.Peter McHugh - 2005 - Human Studies 28 (2):129-156.
    Although the residues of official segregation are widespread, affirmative action continues to meet resistance in both official and everyday life, even in such recent Supreme Court decisions as Grutter v Bollinger (539 U.S. 306). This is due in part to a governing ontology that draws the line between individual and collective. But there are other possibilities for conceiving the social, and I offer one here in a theory of affirmative action that is developed through close examination of sharing and promising (...)
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  36. Should Race Matter?: Unusual Answers to the Usual Questions.David Boonin - 1970 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, philosopher David Boonin attempts to answer the moral questions raised by five important and widely contested racial practices: slave reparations, affirmative action, hate speech restrictions, hate crime laws and racial profiling. Arguing from premises that virtually everyone on both sides of the debates over these issues already accepts, Boonin arrives at an unusual and unorthodox set of conclusions, one that is neither liberal nor conservative, color conscious nor color blind. Defended with the rigor that has characterized his (...)
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  37. Affirmative Action: A Kuhnian Anomaly for the Liberal Democratic Paradigm?David Lee Cherry - 1991 - Dissertation, Northern Arizona University
    Affirmative action is preferential treatment in recruiting, hiring, or promoting individuals belonging to groups which have been victims of discrimination. It attempts to remedy the effects of this previous discrimination. While this effect is the problem or puzzle, and affirmative action is the proposed solution, many perceive affirmative action to be a greater danger than the problem it attempts to resolve. ;In addition to analyzing the fairness of affirmative action, this dissertation uses the language and logic of Thomas S. Kuhn (...)
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  38. Legal Regulation of Affirmative Action in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Assessment.McCrudden Christopher, Ford Robert & Heath Anthony - 2004 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24 (3):363-415.
    We address the question of the effectiveness of affirmative action agreements concluded by a regulatory body with employers in order to achieve greater equality in employment. We analyse the pattern of affirmative action agreements concluded by the Fair Employment Commission with employers in Northern Ireland between 1990 and 2000. We examine the association between these agreements and changes occurring in the religio-political composition of these employer's workforces during that period, based on a statistical analysis of monitoring data collected by the (...)
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  39. The Browning of America and the Evasion of Social Justice.Ronald R. Sundstrom - 2008 - State University of New York Press.
    Considers the effects of the browning of America on philosophical debates over race, racism, and social justice.
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  40. Anthropophagies, racisme et actions affirmatives.Giuseppe Cocco - 2008 - Multitudes 35 (4):41.
    Oswald de Andrade’s « Cannnibal Manifesto » was anticipative in its apprehension of the Brazilian dynamic as it emerged from its European colonial heritage projecting itself towards the future. As Brasil entered modernity, what Oswald observed was « a country of the future », not from the perspective of the dynamic of a construction of a national trajectory of development, but from the perspective of the development of the indigenous Brazilian relation to colonial alterity. The anthropophagic revolution, as it projected (...)
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  41. Making Sense of the Diversity-Based Legal Argument for Affirmative Action.Robert F. Card - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (1):11-24.
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  42. The Gender Quota and Female Leadership: Effects of the Norwegian Gender Quota on Board Chairs and CEOs. [REVIEW]Mingzhu Wang & Elisabeth Kelan - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):449-466.
    In this article, we use a sample of Norwegian quoted companies in the period of 2001–2010 to explore whether the gender quota requiring 40 % female directors on corporate boards changes the likelihood of women being appointed to top leadership roles as board chairs or corporate CEOs. Our empirical results indicate that the gender quota and the resulting increased representation of female directors provide a fertile ground for women to take top leadership positions. The presence of female board chairs is (...)
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  43. Does Feminism Discriminate Against Men?: A Debate.Warren Farrell & James P. Sterba - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    Does feminism give a much-needed voice to women in a patriarchal world? Or is the world not really patriarchal? Has feminism begun to level the playing field in a world in which women are more often paid less at work and abused at home? Or are women paid equally for the same work and not abused more at home? Does feminism support equality in education and in the military, or does it discriminate against men by ignoring such issues as male-only (...)
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  44. Affirmative Action in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Liberal Dilemma.George Carwe - 2000 - Social Philosophy Today 16:77-94.
    In order to dismantle the racial and social hierarchy that is the legacy of apartheid, South Africa has followed the lead of Western liberal democracies andappropriated the discourse of affirmative action. This paper argues that current affirmative action policy fails in significant ways because it paradoxically ignores the concrete social and historical conditions of race and racism in South Africa and simply aims to normalize competition among abstract individuals by using a principle of racial neutrality The author argues that social (...)
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  45. Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward.Anita L. Allen - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (3):253-263.
    As a U.S. civil rights policy, affirmative action commonly denotes race-conscious and result-oriented efforts by private and public officials to correct the unequal distribution of economic opportunity and education attributed to slavery, segregation, poverty and racism. Opponents argue that affirmative action (1) violates ideals of color-blind public policies, offending moral principles of fairness and constitutional principles of equality and due process; (2) has proven to be socially and politically divisive; (3) has not made things better; (4) mainly benefits middle-class, wealthy (...)
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  46. “Group Rights” and Racial Affirmative Action.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (3):265-280.
    This article argues against the view that affirmative action is wrong because it involves assigning group rights. First, affirmative action does not have to proceed by assigning rights at all. Second, there are, in fact, legitimate “group rights” both legal and moral; there are collective rights—which are exercised by groups—and membership rights—which are rights people have in virtue of group membership. Third, there are continuing harms that people suffer as blacks and claims to remediation for these harms can fairly treat (...)
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  47. Review: The Rationale for Racial Preference. [REVIEW]Max Hocutt Ph D. - 1999 - Behavior and Philosophy 27 (2):165 - 172.
  48. Relaxing the Limits on Preferential Treatment.Alison Jaggar - 1977 - Social Theory and Practice 4 (2):227-235.
  49. Affirmative Action and Philosophy Instruction.Parker English - 1992 - Teaching Philosophy 15 (4):311-327.
  50. Talking About Affirmative Action.Paul J. Gibbs - 1996 - Teaching Philosophy 19 (3):285-287.
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