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  1. Legitimate Expectations: Assessing Policies of Transformation to a Low-Carbon Society.Lukas H. Meyer & Santiago Truccone-Borgogno - 2022 - Environmental Values 999:1-20.
    Legitimate expectations should be considered in the transition to a low-carbon society. After explaining under what conditions and circumstances expectations are legitimate, this paper shows that those expectations whose frustration undermines the ability to plan, infringes basic moral rights, or is extremely costly for its bearer might justify a deviation in the baseline of justice in favour of the expectation holder. People should be notified about the likely frustration of their expectations so that they can avoid the frustration of their (...)
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  2. Allocating Medicine Fairly in an Unfair Pandemic.Govind Persad - 2021 - University of Illinois Law Review 2021 (3):1085-1134.
    America’s COVID-19 pandemic has both devastated and disparately harmed minority communities. How can the allocation of scarce treatments for COVID-19 and similar public health threats fairly and legally respond to these racial disparities? Some have proposed that members of racial groups who have been especially hard-hit by the pandemic should receive priority for scarce treatments. Others have worried that this prioritization misidentifies racial disparities as reflecting biological differences rather than structural racism, or that it will generate mistrust among groups who (...)
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  3. A History of Utilitarian Ethics: Studies in Private Motivation and Distributive Justice, 1700-1875.Samuel Hollander - 2020 - London: Routledge.
    In this landmark volume, Samuel Hollander presents a fresh and compelling history of moral philosophy from Locke to John Stuart Mill, showing that a ‘moral sense’ can actually be considered compatible with utilitarianism. The book also explores the link between utilitarianism and distributive justice. Hollander engages in close textual exegesis of the works relating to individual authors, while never losing sight of the intellectual relationships between them. Tying together the greatest of the British moral philosophers, this volume reveals an unexpected (...)
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  4. The Choice of Efficiencies and the Necessity of Politics.Michael Bennett - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.
    Efficiency requires legislative political institutions. There are many ways efficiency can be promoted, and so an ongoing legislative institution is necessary to resolve this choice in a politically sustainable and economically flexible way. This poses serious problems for classical liberal proposals to constitutionally protect markets from government intervention, as seen in the work of Ilya Somin, Guido Pincione & Fernando Tesón and others. The argument for the political nature of efficiency is set out in terms of both Pareto optimality and (...)
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  5. Social Cooperation as Institutional Rule-Following.Chris Melenovsky - 2020 - Public Affairs Quarterly 1 (34):26-49.
    The idea that society is a cooperative venture has been used by contractualists, contractarians, and deliberative democrats to justify the burdens of society to each member. In such a coop- erative venture, those who benefit from society owe a contribution and those that contribute are owed benefits. Even though this idea is quite intuitive, there are deep disagreements about what makes society cooperative. Some focus on acts of production, others on fair interaction, and still others on the intention to contribute (...)
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  6. Give What You Can, Take What You Need – The Effect of Framing on Rule-Breaking Behavior in Social Dilemmas.Marc Wyszynski & Alexander Max Bauer - manuscript
    To investigate the impact of framing on rule-breaking behavior in social dilemmas, we incorporated a rule in a one-shot resource game with two framing-treatments: One frame was a give-some dilemma (i.e., a variant of a public goods game) and the other frame a take-some dilemma (i.e., a variant of a commons dilemma game). In each frame, all participants were part of one single collective sharing a common good. Each participant was initially equipped with one of five different endowments of points (...)
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  7. Sylvie Loriaux, Kant and Global Distributive Justice Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020 Pp. 64 ISBN 9781108729062 (Pbk) $20.00. [REVIEW]Milla Vaha - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (4):671-675.
  8. Sidgwick and Rawls on Distributive Justice and Desert.David Miller - 2021 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 20 (4):385-408.
    This article explores, comparatively and critically, Sidgwick’s and Rawls’s reasons for rejecting desert as a principle of distributive justice. Their ethical methods, though not identical, each re...
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  9. Priority, Ethical Principle, and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources. Di Wu - 2021 - Studies in Dialectics of Nature 11 (37):62-68.
    Aiming at the allocation of scarce medical resources, Immanuel and other scholars have put forward a set of influential ethical values and guiding principles. It assigns the priority of resource allocation to those whose lives can be saved and maximized, those who can bring the greatest instrumental value, and those who are the worse off. For other members of society, random selection under the same conditions is adopted. Following the Rawlsian "lexical order, lexicographical" rule, this priority arrangement requires that the (...)
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  10. Must Egalitarians Rely on the State to Attain Distributive Justice?Kaveh Pourvand - forthcoming - Social Philosophy and Policy.
    It is widely accepted among egalitarian political philosophers that distributive justice should be promoted by the state. This paper challenges this presumption by making two key claims. First, the state is not the only possible mechanism for attaining distributive justice. We could rely alternatively on the voluntary efforts and interactions of individuals and associations in civil society. The question of which mechanism we should rely upon is a comparative and empirical one. What matters is which better promotes distributive justice. We (...)
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  11. Fair Machine Learning Under Partial Compliance.Jessica Dai, Sina Fazelpour & Zachary Lipton - 2021 - In Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. pp. 55–65.
    Typically, fair machine learning research focuses on a single decision maker and assumes that the underlying population is stationary. However, many of the critical domains motivating this work are characterized by competitive marketplaces with many decision makers. Realistically, we might expect only a subset of them to adopt any non-compulsory fairness-conscious policy, a situation that political philosophers call partial compliance. This possibility raises important questions: how does partial compliance and the consequent strategic behavior of decision subjects affect the allocation outcomes? (...)
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  12. Political Theory and the Nonprofit Sector.Theodore Lechterman & Rob Reich - 2020 - In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook. Stanford, CA, USA: pp. 171-91.
    This chapter defends an overarching ideal of liberal democracy—government for and by the people, where each is considered free and equal—and shows how different conceptions of this ideal lead to different visions of the nonprofit sector. The argument reflects a more fundamental point: that claims about the proper shape and scope of civil society, and certainly the dimensions of nonprofit organizations, are structured by larger political ideals. We cannot understand competing visions of the nonprofit sector without seeing it in relation (...)
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  13. Making Sense of Alternative Currencies: A Summary.Louis Larue - 2019 - Reflets Et Perspectives de la Vie Économique 57 (4):63-72.
    The main goal of this thesis is to provide a clear basis for the analysis of alternative currencies, such as Bitcoin, LETS, Local currencies, the WIR or Carbon currencies. It attempts to determine whether alternative currencies might constitute just and workable alternatives, either in the form of small-scale experiments or in the form of more radical reforms. The first chapter proposes a new way to classify currencies. The second examines the case in favour of monetary plurality. The third analyses the (...)
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  14. Marché.Louis Larue - 2019 - L'Encyclopédie Philosophique.
    Qu’est-ce que le marché ? A quelles conditions peut-il être juste ? Quelle place doit-il prendre dans notre société ? Cet article passe en revue les réponses principales qui ont été apportées à ces questions. En premier lieu, il insiste sur les éléments qui le définissent et le distinguent d’autres systèmes économiques. Ensuite, il étudie les principaux arguments éthiques émis en sa faveur et en sa défaveur. -/- Les arguments en faveur du marché font appel à l’efficacité, à l’égalité, au (...)
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  15. Distributive Justice for Democracies: A Needs-Based Sufficientarian Approach.Eleni K. Manis - 2010 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    I argue that members of a democratic society owe one another, as a matter of justice, access to what they need to function as full and equal citizens. My view pairs the measure of citizens’ needs with a sufficientarian principle of distribution: that is, a principle aimed at moving individuals from a position of objective lack to a position of objective satisfaction. I argue that this pairing is fitting because citizens’ needs can be satisfied at an objective, finite level of (...)
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  16. A Use of Nozick’s Notion of Catastrophe: The Distributive Justice Problem of Environmental Refugees.Justin P. Holt - 2021 - Academia Letters 1061 (1061):1-5.
    This paper will focus on the problem of environmental refugees related to environmental decay and resource loss. Robert Nozick’s distributive justice theory will be used as a theoretical framework to analyze the problem of environmental refugees. The restrictive nature of Nozick’s theory of distribution is rather practical since it meets with many of the current mores regarding wealth accumulation, desert, and aspirations for inheritance. Given our current reluctance to redistribute to prevent the effects of environmental decay, and to pay to (...)
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  17. Defensive Liability: A Matter of Rights Enforcement, not Distributive Justice.Susanne Burri - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-15.
    The Moral Responsibility Account of Liability to Defensive Harm states that an agent becomes liable to defensive harm if, and only if, she engages in a foreseeably risk-imposing activity that subsequently threatens objectively unjustified harm. Advocates of the account contend that liability to defensive harm is best understood as an aspect of distributive justice. Individuals who are liable to some harm are not wronged if the harm is imposed on them, and liability to defensive harm thus helps ensure that harm (...)
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  18. Thresholds and Limits in Theories of Distributive Justice.Dick Timmer - 2021 - Dissertation, Utrecht University
    Despite the prominence of thresholds and limits in theories of distributive justice, there is no general account of their role within such theories. This has allowed an ongoing lack of clarity and misunderstanding around threshold views in distributive justice. In this thesis, I develop an account of the conceptual structure of such views. Such an account helps understand and characterize threshold views, can subsume what may seem to be different debates about such views under one conceptual header, and can be (...)
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  19. Luck Egalitarianism and the History of Political Thought.Carl Knight - 2016 - In Camilla Boisen & Matthew C. Murray (eds.), Distributive Justice Debates in Political and Social Thought. Abingdon, UK: pp. 26-38.
    Luck egalitarianism is a family of egalitarian theories of distributive justice that give a special place to luck, choice, and responsibility. These theories can be understood as responding to perceived weaknesses in influential earlier theories of both the left – in particular Rawls’ liberal egalitarianism (1971) – and the right – Nozick’s libertarianism (1974) stands out here. Rawls put great emphasis on the continuity of his theory with the great social contract theories of modern political thought, particularly emphasising its Kantian (...)
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  20. Egalitarianism.Carl Knight & Andreas Albertsen - 2018 - Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science.
    Equality as a bare concept refers to two or more distinct things or people being the same in some dimension. Different forms of equality are distinguished by the dimension that is held to be the same. Within political theory, three main forms of equality can be distinguished: moral equality, political equality, and substantive equality. “Moral equality” refers to each individual having the same inherent dignity as a human being, and therefore being worthy of respect. “Political equality,” by contrast, refers to (...)
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  21. La Giustizia Globale al Tempo della Globalizzazione Convergente.Fausto Corvino - 2019 - Notizie di Politeia (136):185-204.
    Globalisation has come under severe pressure at the exact moment when some of those we used to regard as the winners of the global market have started to lose from it. Or, in other words, globalisation is going through the most serious drawback since the post-war era just when divergent growth between countries has inverted its trend, thus becoming convergent. In this article I argue that convergent globalisation poses a serious theoretical challenge to the idea of global justice. More precisely, (...)
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  22. Enough Is Too Much: The Excessiveness Objection to Sufficientarianism.Carl Knight - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    The standard version of sufficientarianism maintains that providing people with enough, or as close to enough as is possible, is lexically prior to other distributive goals. This article argues that this is excessive - more than distributive justice allows - in four distinct ways. These concern the magnitude of advantage, the number of beneficiaries, responsibility and desert, and above-threshold distribution. Sufficientarians can respond by accepting that providing enough unconditionally is more than distributive justice allows, instead balancing sufficiency against other considerations.
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  23. Distributive Justice as a Means of Combating Systemic Racism in Healthcare.Derek Soled - 2021 - Voices in Bioethics 7.
  24. Incorporating Health Equity Into COVID-19 Reopening Plans: Policy Experimentation in California.Emily A. Largent, Govind Persad, Michelle M. Mello, Danielle M. Wenner, Daniel B. Kramer, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds & Monica Peek - 2021 - American Journal of Public Health 1 (1):e1-e8.
    California has focused on health equity in the state’s COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California’s 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier’s test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 residents must (...)
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  25. Introducing Climate Ethics and a New Climate Principle.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2021 - American Philosophical Association Blog.
    [Blog Post] This blog post (1) introduces a fundamental debate in climate ethics (polluter pays v beneficiary pays v ability to pay principles) while (2) arguing for a new principle (polluter pays, then receives, or PPTR/"Peter", principle).
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  26. A Relational Theory of Justice.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    The core idea of A Relational Theory of Justice (RTJ) is that normative political and legal philosophy should be grounded on people’s relational features, roughly their ability to commune with others and be communed with by them. Usually, philosophers of justice in the West have based their views on people’s intrinsic features, ones that make no essential reference to others, such as their autonomy, self-ownership, or well-being. In addition, often critics of basing politics and law on justice, whether in the (...)
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  27. Recent Work in African Political and Legal Philosophy.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (9):1-10.
    In this article I critically survey non-edited books on political and legal philosophy that have been composed by those working in the sub-Saharan African tradition and have appeared in print since 2016. These monographs principally address political, distributive, and criminal justice at the domestic level, with this article recounting the essentials of these texts as well as noting prima facie weaknesses in their positions and gaps in current research agendas. My aims are to enable readers to obtain a bird’s-eye picture (...)
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  28. Strategic Justice, Conventions, and Game Theory: Themes in the Philosophy of Peter Vanderschraaf.John Thrasher & Michael Moehler (eds.) - forthcoming - London/Berlin/New York: Springer.
    For more than twenty years, Peter Vanderschraaf’s work has combined rigorous game-theoretic analysis, innovative use of (social) scientific method, and normative analysis in the context of the social contract. Vanderschraaf’s work has influenced a significant interdisciplinary field of study and culminated in the publication of his book, Strategic Justice: Convention and Problems of Balancing Divergent Interests (OUP, 2019). Building upon his previous work, Vanderschraaf developed a new theory of justice (justice-as-convention) that, despite a mutual advantage approach, considers the most vulnerable (...)
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  29. Strategic Justice, Conventionalism, and Bargaining Theory.Michael Moehler - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):8317-8334.
    Conventionalism as a distinct approach to the social contract received significant attention in the game-theoretic literature on social contract theory. Peter Vanderschraaf’s sophisticated and innovative theory of conventional justice represents the most recent contribution to this tradition and, in many ways, can be viewed as a culmination of this tradition. In this article, I focus primarily on Vanderschraaf’s defense of the egalitarian bargaining solution as a principle of justice. I argue that one particular formal feature of this bargaining solution, the (...)
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  30. Distributive Epistemic Justice in Science.Gürol Irzik & Faik Kurtulmus - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    This article develops an account of distributive epistemic justice in the production of scientific knowledge. We identify four requirements: (a) science should produce the knowledge citizens need in order to reason about the common good, their individual good and pursuit thereof; (b) science should produce the knowledge those serving the public need to pursue justice effectively; (c) science should be organized in such a way that it does not aid the wilful manufacturing of ignorance; and (d) when making decisions about (...)
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  31. Basic Needs in Normative Contexts.Thomas Pölzler - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (5):e12732.
    In answering normative questions, researchers sometimes appeal to the concept of basic needs. Their guiding idea is that our first priority should be to ensure that everybody is able to meet these needs—to have enough in terms of food, water, shelter, and so on. This article provides an opinionated overview of basic needs in normative contexts. Any basic needs theory must answer three questions: (1) What are basic needs? (2) To what extent do basic needs generate reasons for action and (...)
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  32. Teaching & Learning Guide For: Basic Needs in Normative Contexts.Thomas Pölzler - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (5):e12732.
    From the day on which humans are born they need things. Some of these needs seem “basic,” such as our needs for food, water or shelter. Everybody has these needs. We cannot escape them. We also cannot escape the serious harm that arises when these needs remain unsatisfied. It is thus no wonder that in thinking about what we ought to do some researchers have suggested to first and foremost focus on people's basic needs. Such need‐based theories must answer three (...)
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  33. Market Harms and Market Benefits.Hayden Wilkinson - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Affairs.
    Our actions in the marketplace often harm others. For instance, buying and consuming petroleum contributes to climate change and thereby does harm. But there is another kind of harm we do in almost every market interaction: market harms. These are harms inflicted via changes to the goods and/or prices available to the victim in that market. (Similarly, market benefits are those conferred in the same way.) Such harms and benefits may seem morally unimportant, as Judith Jarvis Thomson and Ronald Dworkin (...)
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  34. Abstraction and Closure: A Methodological Discussion of Distribution-Led Growth.Michalis Nikiforos - 2020 - Journal of Economic Methodology 28 (2):207-230.
    This paper presents a methodological discussion of two recent ‘endogeneity critiques’ of the Kaleckian model and the concept of distribution-led growth. From a neo-Keynesian perspective, it is crit...
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  35. Price Gouging and the Duty of Easy Rescue.Elizabeth Brake - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-24.
    What, if anything, is wrong with price gouging? Its defenders argue that it increases supply of scarce necessities; critics argue that it is exploitative, inequitable and vicious. In this paper, I argue for its moral wrongness and legal prohibition, without relying on charges of exploitation, inequity or poor character. What is fundamentally wrong with price gouging is that it violates a duty of easy rescue. While legal enforcement of such duties is controversial, a special case can be made for their (...)
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  36. Pandemic Planning and Distributive Justice in Health Care.L. Francis, M. Battin, J. A. Jacobson & C. Smith - 2008 - In Michael Freeman (ed.), Law and Bioethics: Current Legal Issues Volume 11. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Climate Change, Distributive Justice, and “Pre‐Institutional” Limits on Resource Appropriation.Colin Hickey - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):215-235.
    In this paper I argue that individuals are, prior to the existence of just institutions requiring that they do so, bound as a matter of global distributive justice to restrict their use, or share the benefits fairly of any use beyond their entitlements, of the Earth’s capacity to absorb greenhouse gases (EAC) to within a specified justifiable range. As part of the search for an adequate account of climate morality, I approach the task by revisiting, and drawing inspiration from, two (...)
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  38. What Should We Do About Future Generations? Impossibility of Parfit’s Theory X.Yew-Kwang Ng - 1989 - Economics and Philosophy 5 (2):235--253.
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  39. But Anyone Can Mix Their Labor: A Reply to Cheneval.Jakob Thrane Mainz - 2021 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 24 (2):276-285.
  40. Effective Altruism and Extreme Poverty.Fırat Akova - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Warwick
    Effective altruism is a movement which aims to maximise good. Effective altruists are concerned with extreme poverty and many of them think that individuals have an obligation to donate to effective charities to alleviate extreme poverty. Their reasoning, which I will scrutinise, is as follows: -/- Premise 1. Extreme poverty is very bad. -/- Premise 2. If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything else morally significant, we ought, morally, to do (...)
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  41. An African Theory of Economic Justice (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Austin Okigbo & Paul Nnodim (eds.), Ubuntu: A Comparative Study of an African Concept of Justice. Leuven University Press.
    Shortened and mildly revised reprint of an article first appearing in Ethical Perspectives (2020).
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  42. Measuring Poverty Around the World, Anthony B. Atkinson. Princeton University Press, 2019, Xxvii + 464 Pages. [REVIEW]Lucio Esposito & Blanca Zuluaga - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):156-161.
  43. Ordeals, Women and Gender Justice.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):8-22.
    Rationing health care by ordeals is likely to have different effects on women and men, and on distinct groups of women. I show how such putative effects of ordeals are relevant to achieving gender justice. I explain why some ordeals may disproportionately set back women’s interest in discretionary time, health and access to health care, and may undermine equality of opportunity for positions of advantage. Some ordeals protect the interests of the worse-off women yet set back the interests of better-off (...)
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  44. Capital and Ideology, Thomas Piketty. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Harvard University Press, 2020, Pp. Ix + 1093.Elizabeth Anderson - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):150-156.
  45. Rationing with Time: Time-Cost Ordeals’ Burdens and Distributive Effects.Julie L. Rose - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):50-63.
    Individuals often face administrative hurdles in attempting to access health care, public programmes, and other legal statuses and entitlements. These ordeals are the products, directly or indirectly, of institutional and policy design choices. I argue that evaluating whether such ordeals are justifiable or desirable instruments of social policy depends on assessing, beyond their targeting effects, the process-related burdens they impose on those attempting to navigate them and these burdens’ distributive effects. I here examine specifically how ordeals that levy time costs (...)
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  46. Ordeals, Inequalities, Moral Hazard and Non-Monetary Incentives in Health Care.Daniel M. Hausman - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):23-36.
    This essay begins by summarizing the reasons why unregulated health-care markets are inefficient. The inefficiencies stem from the asymmetries of information among providers, patients and payers, which give rise to moral hazard and adverse selection. Attempts to ameliorate these inefficiencies by means of risk-adjusted insurance and monetary incentives such as co-pays and deductibles lessen the inefficiencies at the cost of increasing inequalities. Another possibility is to rely on non-monetary incentives, including ordeals. While not a magic bullet, these are feasible methods (...)
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  47. Putting Costs and Benefits of Ordeals Together.Anders Herlitz - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):37-49.
    This paper addresses how to think about the permissibility of introducing deadweight costs on candidate recipients of goods in order to attain better outcomes. The paper introduces some distinctions between different kinds of value dimensions that should be taken into account when such judgements are made and draws from the literature on comparisons across different value dimensions in order to canvas what sort of situations one might arguably face when evaluating ordeals. In light of the distinctions drawn and the possibilities (...)
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  48. Rationality, Uncertainty, and Unanimity: An Epistemic Critique of Contractarianism.Alexander Schaefer - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):82-117.
    This paper considers contractarianism as a method of justification. The analysis accepts the key tenets of contractarianism: expected utility maximization, unanimity as the criteria of acceptance, and social-scientific uncertainty of modelled agents. In addition to these three features, however, the analysis introduces a fourth feature: a criteria of rational belief formation, viz. Bayesian belief updating. Using a formal model, this paper identifies a decisive objection to contractarian justification. Insofar as contractarian projects approximate the Agreement Model, therefore, they fail to justify (...)
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  49. Sated but Thirsty – A Prolegomenon to Multidimensional Measures of Need-Based Justice.Alexander Max Bauer - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-10.
    In attempts to compare different distributions with regards to need, so-called “measures of need-based distributive justice” have emerged in recent years. Each of the proposed measures relies on a single dimension of need that is taken into account. This is shown to be problematic since humans experience different kinds of need that appear to be incommensurable. A strategy to deal with this problem is introduced by using multidimensional measures.
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  50. Aggregation, Balancing, and Respect for the Claims of Individuals.Bastian Steuwer - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (1):17-34.
    Most non-consequentialists “let the numbers count” when one can save either a lesser or greater number from equal or similar harm. But they are wary of doing so when one can save either a small number from grave harm or instead a very large number from minor harm. Limited aggregation is an approach that reconciles these two commitments. It is motivated by a powerful idea: our decision whom to save should respect each person who has a claim to our help, (...)
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1 — 50 / 2671