Results for 'Zoe Skea'

374 found
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  1.  16
    Strengthening the Ethical Assessment of Placebo-Controlled Surgical Trials: Three Proposals.Wendy Rogers, Katrina Hutchison, Zoë C. Skea & Marion K. Campbell - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):78.
    Placebo-controlled surgical trials can provide important information about the efficacy of surgical interventions. However, they are ethically contentious as placebo surgery entails the risk of harms to recipients, such as pain, scarring or anaesthetic misadventure. This has led to claims that placebo-controlled surgical trials are inherently unethical. On the other hand, without placebo-controlled surgical trials, it may be impossible to know whether an apparent benefit from surgery is due to the intervention itself or to the placebo effect.
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  2.  28
    Reporting of Patient Consent in Healthcare Cluster Randomised Trials is Associated with the Type of Study Interventions and Publication Characteristics.Andrew McRae, Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Carol Bennett, Zoe Skea, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw & Allan Donner - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):119-124.
    Objective Cluster randomised trial (CRT) investigators face challenges in seeking informed consent from individual patients (cluster members). This study examined associations between reporting of patient consent in healthcare CRTs and characteristics of these trials. Study design Consent practices and study characteristics were abstracted from a random sample of 160 CRTs performed in primary or hospital care settings that were published from 2000 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between reporting of patient consent and methodological characteristics, as (...)
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  3. The Epistemic Role of Core Cognition.Zoe Jenkin - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (2):251-298.
    According to a traditional picture, perception and belief have starkly different epistemic roles. Beliefs have epistemic statuses as justified or unjustified, depending on how they are formed and maintained. In contrast, perceptions are “unjustified justifiers.” Core cognition is a set of mental systems that stand at the border of perception and belief, and has been extensively studied in developmental psychology. Core cognition's borderline states do not fit neatly into the traditional epistemic picture. What is the epistemic role of these states? (...)
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  4. Show Me the Argument: Empirically Testing the Armchair Philosophy Picture.Zoe Ashton & Moti Mizrahi - 2018 - Metaphilosophy 49 (1-2):58-70.
    Many philosophers subscribe to the view that philosophy is a priori and in the business of discovering necessary truths from the armchair. This paper sets out to empirically test this picture. If this were the case, we would expect to see this reflected in philosophical practice. In particular, we would expect philosophers to advance mostly deductive, rather than inductive, arguments. The paper shows that the percentage of philosophy articles advancing deductive arguments is higher than those advancing inductive arguments, which is (...)
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  5. The Personal/Subpersonal Distinction.Zoe Drayson - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (5):338-346.
    Daniel Dennett's distinction between personal and subpersonal explanations was fundamental in establishing the philosophical foundations of cognitive science. Since it was first introduced in 1969, the personal/subpersonal distinction has been adapted to fit different approaches to the mind. In one example of this, the ‘Pittsburgh school’ of philosophers attempted to map Dennett's distinction onto their own distinction between the ‘space of reasons’ and the ‘space of causes’. A second example can be found in much contemporary philosophy of psychology, where Dennett's (...)
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  6. The Uses and Abuses of the Personal/Subpersonal Distinction.Zoe Drayson - 2012 - Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, I claim that the personal/subpersonal distinction is first and foremost a distinction between two kinds of psychological theory or explanation: it is only in this form that we can understand why the distinction was first introduced, and how it continues to earn its keep. I go on to examine the different ontological commitments that might lead us from the primary distinction between personal and subpersonal explanations to a derivative distinction between personal and subpersonal states. I argue that (...)
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  7. Integration of Local Features Into Global Shapes: Monkey and Human fMRI Studies.Zoe Kourtzi & Mark Augath - unknown
    was to test the role of both early and higher visual areas in the integration of local features into global shapes. To this end, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Although fMRI lacks the high spatial resolution of intracortical recordings, it allows simultaneous collection of responses to the same stimulus set from multiple visual areas that is not possible with standard recording techniques. We performed these studies in monkeys, where much is known about the properties of neurons in different (...)
     
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  8.  11
    The Origins of Social Categorization.Zoe Liberman, Amanda L. Woodward & Katherine D. Kinzler - 2017 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21 (7):556-568.
  9.  28
    We Can Have Our Buck and Pass It, Too.Zöe Johnson King - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 14.
    Chapter 8 argues against the view that the moral rightness of an act is not a reason to perform it, and our reasons are instead the features that make the act right. Philosophers typically defend this view by noting that it seems redundant to take rightness to be an additional reason, once it has been acknowledged that the right-making features are already reasons. The author shows that this argument dramatically overgeneralizes, ruling out all cases in which two or more reasons (...)
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  10.  30
    Too Much Medicine: Not Enough Trust?Zoë Fritz & Richard Holton - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):31-35.
    As many studies around the theme of ‘too much medicine’ attest, investigations are being ordered with increasing frequency; similarly the threshold for providing treatment has lowered. Our contention is that trust is a significant factor in influencing this, and that understanding the relationship between trust and investigations and treatments will help clinicians and policymakers ensure ethical decisions are more consistently made. Drawing on the philosophical literature, we investigate the nature of trust in the patient–doctor relationship, arguing that at its core (...)
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  11. Cognitive Disability and Embodied, Extended Minds.Zoe Drayson & Andy Clark - 2020 - In David Wasserman & Adam Cureton (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. Oxford: OUP.
    Many models of cognitive ability and disability rely on the idea of cognition as abstract reasoning processes implemented in the brain. Research in cognitive science, however, emphasizes the way that our cognitive skills are embodied in our more basic capacities for sensing and moving, and the way that tools in the external environment can extend the cognitive abilities of our brains. This chapter addresses the implications of research in embodied cognition and extended cognition for how we think about cognitive impairment (...)
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  12. Cognitive Penetrability: Modularity, Epistemology, and Ethics.Zoe Jenkin & Susanna Siegel - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (4):531-545.
    Introduction to Special Issue of Review of Philosophy and Psychology. Overview of the central issues in cognitive architecture, epistemology, and ethics surrounding cognitive penetrability. Special issue includes papers by philosophers and psychologists: Gary Lupyan, Fiona Macpherson, Reginald Adams, Anya Farennikova, Jona Vance, Francisco Marchi, Robert Cowan.
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  13. Intuition Talk is Not Methodologically Cheap: Empirically Testing the “Received Wisdom” About Armchair Philosophy.Zoe Ashton & Moti Mizrahi - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (3):595-612.
    The “received wisdom” in contemporary analytic philosophy is that intuition talk is a fairly recent phenomenon, dating back to the 1960s. In this paper, we set out to test two interpretations of this “received wisdom.” The first is that intuition talk is just talk, without any methodological significance. The second is that intuition talk is methodologically significant; it shows that analytic philosophers appeal to intuition. We present empirical and contextual evidence, systematically mined from the JSTOR corpus and HathiTrust’s Digital Library, (...)
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  14.  13
    Integrating Philosophy, Policy and Practice to Create a Just and Fair Health Service.Zoe Fritz & Caitríona L. Cox - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):797-802.
    To practise ‘fairly and justly’ a clinician must balance the needs of both the many and the few: the individual patient in front of them, and the many unseen patients in the waiting room, and in the county. They must consider the immediate clinical needs of those in the present, and how their actions will impact on future patients. The good medical practice guidance ‘Make the care of your patient your first concern’ provides no guidance on how doctors should act (...)
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  15. Modularity and the Predictive Mind.Zoe Drayson - 2017 - T. Metzinger and W. Weise, (Eds), Philosophy and Predictive Processing.
    Modular approaches to the architecture of the mind claim that some mental mechanisms, such as sensory input processes, operate in special-purpose subsystems that are functionally independent from the rest of the mind. This assumption of modularity seems to be in tension with recent claims that the mind has a predictive architecture. Predictive approaches propose that both sensory processing and higher-level processing are part of the same Bayesian information-processing hierarchy, with no clear boundary between perception and cognition. Furthermore, it is not (...)
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  16. Naturalism and the Metaphysics of Perception.Zoe Drayson - 2021 - In Heather Logue & Louise Richardson (eds.), Purpose and procedure in philosophy of perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 215-233.
    How does the philosophical debate between naive realism and intentionalism relate to the psychological debate between ecological theories and constructivist theories? The participants in each debate take themselves to be doing something distinctive, but I show that characterizing the distinction is difficult: the theories in both debates use inference to the best explanation to draw contingent conclusions about the constitutive nature of perception. I argue that both debates concern the metaphysics of perception, and that philosophers of perception are wrong to (...)
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  17. Direct Perception and the Predictive Mind.Zoe Drayson - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (12):3145-3164.
    Predictive approaches to the mind claim that perception, cognition, and action can be understood in terms of a single framework: a hierarchy of Bayesian models employing the computational strategy of predictive coding. Proponents of this view disagree, however, over the extent to which perception is direct on the predictive approach. I argue that we can resolve these disagreements by identifying three distinct notions of perceptual directness: psychological, metaphysical, and epistemological. I propose that perception is plausibly construed as psychologically indirect on (...)
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  18.  15
    Medical Oath: Use and Relevance of the Declaration of Geneva. A Survey of Member Organizations of the World Medical Association.Zoé Rheinsberg, Ramin Parsa-Parsi, Otmar Kloiber & Urban Wiesing - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (2):189-196.
    The Declaration of Geneva is one of the core documents of medical ethics. A revision process was started by the World Medical Association in 2016. The WMA has also used this occasion to examine how the Declaration of Geneva is used in countries throughout the world by conducting a survey of all WMA constituent members. The findings are highly important and raise urgent questions for the World Medical Association and its National Medical Associations : The Declaration of Geneva is only (...)
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  19.  22
    The Problem of New Evidence: P-Hacking and Pre-Analysis Plans.Zoe Hitzig & Jacob Stegenga - 2020 - Diametros 17 (66):1-24.
    We provide a novel articulation of the epistemic peril of p-hacking using three resources from philosophy: predictivism, Bayesian confirmation theory, and model selection theory. We defend a nuanced position on p-hacking: p-hacking is sometimes, but not always, epistemically pernicious. Our argument requires a novel understanding of Bayesianism, since a standard criticism of Bayesian confirmation theory is that it cannot represent the influence of biased methods. We then turn to pre-analysis plans, a methodological device used to mitigate p-hacking. Some say that (...)
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  20. The Relationship Between Verb Meaning and Argument Realization: What We Learn From the Processing of Agent-Implying Intransitive Verbs in Japanese.Zoe Pei-sui Luk - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    This study investigated whether some Japanese intransitive verbs, called agent-implying intransitive verbs, are processed differently from other ordinary intransitive verbs. These verbs are special in that they denote agentive events, but they are intransitive verbs, which only allow the patient/theme to be the only nominatively marked argument. The priming experiment was designed based on the situation model theory, assuming that verbs with an agentive semantic structure has a shorter causal inferential distance than those with a non-agentive semantic structure. In the (...)
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  21.  16
    Conflicting Demands on a Modern Healthcare Service: Can Rawlsian Justice Provide a Guiding Philosophy for the NHS and Other Socialized Health Services?Zoë Fritz & Caitríona Cox - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):609-616.
    We explore whether a Rawlsian approach might provide a guiding philosophy for the development of a healthcare system, in particular with regard to resolving tensions between different groups within it. We argue that an approach developed from some of Rawls’ principles – using his ‘veil of ignorance’ and both the ‘difference’ and ‘just savings’ principles which it generates – provides a compelling basis for policy making around certain areas of conflict. We ask what policies might be made if those making (...)
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  22. Accidentally Doing the Right Thing.Zoe Johnson King - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 100 (1):186-206.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  23.  56
    Transferring Moral Responsibility for Technological Hazards: The Case of GMOs in Agriculture.Zoë Robaey - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (5):767-786.
    The use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture makes great promises of better seeds, but also raises many controversies about ownership of seeds and about potential hazards. I suggest that owners of these seeds bear the responsibility to do no harm in using these seeds. After defining the nature of this responsibility, this paper asks, if ownership entails moral responsibility, and ownership can be transferred, then how is moral responsibility transferred? Building on the literature on use plans, I suggest five (...)
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  24.  14
    Bioethics and Environmental Ethics: The Story of the Human Body as a Natural Ecosystem.Zoe-Athena Papalois & Kyriaki-Barbara Papalois - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (2):91-97.
    Is there a parallel between climate change and our body’s temperature or non-compliance and failure to act on global warming? This paper proposes a model which describes the human body as part of N...
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  25.  81
    Linking Form and Motion in the Primate Brain.Zoe Kourtzi, Bart Krekelberg & Richard J. A. van Wezel - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (6):230-236.
  26.  6
    Preverbal Infants Infer Third‐Party Social Relationships Based on Language.Zoe Liberman, Amanda L. Woodward & Katherine D. Kinzler - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    Language provides rich social information about its speakers. For instance, adults and children make inferences about a speaker's social identity, geographic origins, and group membership based on her language and accent. Although infants prefer speakers of familiar languages, little is known about the developmental origins of humans’ sensitivity to language as marker of social identity. We investigated whether 9-month-olds use the language a person speaks as an indicator of that person's likely social relationships. Infants were familiarized with videos of two (...)
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  27.  2
    A Systematic Review of Patient Access to Medical Records in the Acute Setting: Practicalities, Perspectives and Ethical Consequences.Zoë Fritz, Isla L. Kuhn & Stephanie N. D’Costa - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-19.
    BackgroundInternationally, patient access to notes is increasing. This has been driven by respect for patient autonomy, often recognised as a primary tenet of medical ethics: patients should be able to access their records to be fully engaged with their care. While research has been conducted on the impact of patient access to outpatient and primary care records and to patient portals, there is no such review looking at access to hospital medical records in real time, nor an ethical analysis of (...)
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  28. Origins of Homophily: Infants Expect People with Shared Preferences to Affiliate.Zoe Liberman, Katherine D. Kinzler & Amanda L. Woodward - 2021 - Cognition 212:104695.
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  29.  7
    Domain-Specific Experience and Dual-Process Thinking.Zoë A. Purcell, Colin A. Wastell & Naomi Sweller - 2020 - Thinking and Reasoning 27 (2):239-267.
    Prominent dual process models assert that reasoning processes can transition from effortful to intuitive with increases in domain-specific experience. In two studies we directly e...
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  30.  3
    Friends or Foes: Infants Use Shared Evaluations to Infer Others’ Social Relationships.Zoe Liberman, Katherine D. Kinzler & Amanda L. Woodward - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (3):966-971.
  31. Embodied Cognitive Science and its Implications for Psychopathology.Zoe Drayson - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (4):329-340.
    The past twenty years have seen an increase in the importance of the body in psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind. This 'embodied' trend challenges the orthodox view in cognitive science in several ways: it downplays the traditional 'mind-as-computer' approach and emphasizes the role of interactions between the brain, body, and environment. In this article, I review recent work in the area of embodied cognitive science and explore the approaches each takes to the ideas of consciousness, computation and representation. Finally, (...)
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  32. The Realizers and Vehicles of Mental Representation.Zoe Drayson - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 68:80-87.
    The neural vehicles of mental representation play an explanatory role in cognitive psychology that their realizers do not. In this paper, I argue that the individuation of realizers as vehicles of representation restricts the sorts of explanations in which they can participate. I illustrate this with reference to Rupert’s (2011) claim that representational vehicles can play an explanatory role in psychology in virtue of their quantity or proportion. I propose that such quantity-based explanatory claims can apply only to realizers and (...)
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  33.  13
    The Early Social Significance of Shared Ritual Actions.Zoe Liberman, Katherine D. Kinzler & Amanda L. Woodward - 2018 - Cognition 171:42-51.
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  34.  16
    Safe-by-Design: From Safety to Responsibility.Zoë Robaey & Ibo Poel - 2017 - NanoEthics 11 (3):297-306.
    Safe-by-design aims at addressing safety issues already during the R&D and design phases of new technologies. SbD has increasingly become popular in the last few years for addressing the risks of emerging technologies like nanotechnology and synthetic biology. We ask to what extent SbD approaches can deal with uncertainty, in particular with indeterminacy, i.e., the fact that the actual safety of a technology depends on the behavior of actors in the value chain like users and operators. We argue that while (...)
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  35. Therapeutic Alliance as Active Inference: The Role of Therapeutic Touch and Synchrony.Zoe McParlin, Francesco Cerritelli, Karl J. Friston & Jorge E. Esteves - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Recognizing and aligning individuals’ unique adaptive beliefs or “priors” through cooperative communication is critical to establishing a therapeutic relationship and alliance. Using active inference, we present an empirical integrative account of the biobehavioral mechanisms that underwrite therapeutic relationships. A significant mode of establishing cooperative alliances—and potential synchrony relationships—is through ostensive cues generated by repetitive coupling during dynamic touch. Established models speak to the unique role of affectionate touch in developing communication, interpersonal interactions, and a wide variety of therapeutic benefits for (...)
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  36. Praiseworthy Motivations.Zoë A. Johnson King - 2020 - Noûs 54 (2):408-430.
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  37. Eikones Zōēs: Philosophēmata.Antreas Papadopoulos - 2005 - Ekdoseis K. Epiphaniou.
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  38.  25
    Audience Role in Mathematical Proof Development.Zoe Ashton - 2020 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 26):6251-6275.
    The role of audiences in mathematical proof has largely been neglected, in part due to misconceptions like those in Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca which bar mathematical proofs from bearing reflections of audience consideration. In this paper, I argue that mathematical proof is typically argumentation and that a mathematician develops a proof with his universal audience in mind. In so doing, he creates a proof which reflects the standards of reasonableness embodied in his universal audience. Given this framework, we can better understand (...)
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  39. Extended Cognition and the Metaphysics of Mind.Zoe Drayson - 2010 - Cognitive Systems Research 11 (4):367-377.
    This paper explores the relationship between several ideas about the mind and cognition. The hypothesis of extended cognition claims that cognitive processes can and do extend outside the head, that elements of the world around us can actually become parts of our cognitive systems. It has recently been suggested that the hypothesis of extended cognition is entailed by one of the foremost philosophical positions on the nature of the mind: functionalism, the thesis that mental states are defined by their functional (...)
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  40.  15
    Container Technologies.Zoë Sofia - 2000 - Hypatia 15 (2):181-201.
    This paper goes beyond critiques of western philosophical notions of space as passive, feminine, and unintelligent by reconfiguring containment as an active process. The author draws on work in the history of technology, on a cybernetic epistemology that emphasizes the interdependence of organism and environment, and on intersubjectivist psychoanalytic theories of the maternal provision. A more unexpected ally is found in Heidegger, whose writings on holding and supply are read in ways that contribute to the development of an urgently required (...)
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  41. Container Technologies.Zoë Sofia - 2000 - Hypatia 15 (2):181-201.
    : This paper goes beyond critiques of western philosophical notions of space as passive, feminine, and unintelligent by reconfiguring containment as an (inter-)active process. The author draws on work in the history of technology, on a cybernetic epistemology that emphasizes the interdependence of organism and environment, and on intersubjectivist psychoanalytic theories of the maternal provision. A more unexpected ally is found in Heidegger, whose writings on holding and supply are read in ways that contribute to the development of an urgently (...)
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  42.  22
    Looking for Moral Responsibility in Ownership: A Way to Deal with Hazards of GMOs.Zoë Robaey - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (1):43-56.
    Until now, the debates around genetically modified seeds in agriculture have converged towards two main issues. The first is about hazards that this new technology brings about, and the second is about the ownership of seeds and the distribution of their economic benefits. In this paper, I explore an underdeveloped topic by linking these two issues: how ownership shapes the distribution of moral responsibility for the potential hazards of genetically modified seeds. Indeed, while ownership is debated in terms of economic (...)
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  43.  20
    Gone with the Wind: Conceiving of Moral Responsibility in the Case of GMO Contamination.Zoë Robaey - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):889-906.
    Genetically modified organisms are a technology now used with increasing frequency in agriculture. Genetically modified seeds have the special characteristic of being living artefacts that can reproduce and spread; thus it is difficult to control where they end up. In addition, genetically modified seeds may also bring about uncertainties for environmental and human health. Where they will go and what effect they will have is therefore very hard to predict: this creates a puzzle for regulators. In this paper, I use (...)
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  44.  19
    A Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks.Zoé Christoff & Jens Ulrik Hansen - 2015 - Journal of Applied Logic 13 (1):48-77.
    This paper introduces a general logical framework for reasoning about diffusion processes within social networks. The new “Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks” is a dynamic extension of standard hybrid logic, allowing to model complex phenomena involving several properties of agents. We provide a complete axiomatization and a terminating and complete tableau system for this logic and show how to apply the framework to diffusion phenomena documented in social networks analysis.
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  45.  67
    Narrative Fiction and Epistemic Injustice.Zoë Cunliffe - 2019 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 77 (2):169-180.
  46.  4
    Even His Friend Said He's Bad: Children Think Personal Alliances Bias Gossip.Zoe Liberman & Alex Shaw - 2020 - Cognition 204:104376.
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  47. Why I Am Not a Literalist.Zoe Drayson - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (5):661-670.
    Carrie Figdor argues for literalism, a semantic claim about psychological predicates, on the basis of a scientific claim about the nature of psychological properties. I argue that her scientific claim is based on controversial interpretations of scientific modelling, and that even if it were correct it would not justify her claims that psychological predicates are undergoing radical conceptual change.
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  48.  8
    Characterizing and Measuring Maliciousness for Cybersecurity Risk Assessment.Zoe M. King, Diane S. Henshel, Liberty Flora, Mariana G. Cains, Blaine Hoffman & Char Sample - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  49.  7
    Can ‘Best Interests’ Derail the Trolley? Examining Withdrawal of Clinically Assisted Nutrition and Hydration in Patients in the Permanent Vegetative State.Zoe Fritz - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (7):450-454.
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  50. Fair Agricultural Innovation for a Changing Climate.Zoë Robaey & Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - In Erinn Gilson & Sarah Kenehan (eds.), Food, Environment and Climate Change. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield International. pp. 213-230.
    Agricultural innovation happens at different scales and through different streams. In the absence of a common global research agenda, decisions on which innovations are brought to existence, and through which methods, are taken with insufficient view on how innovation affects social relations, the environment, and future food production. Mostly, innovations are considered from the standpoint of economic efficiency, particularly in relationship to creating jobs for technology-exporting countries. Increasingly, however, the realization that innovations cannot be successful on their technical prowess alone (...)
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