Results for 'Science Methodology'

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  1.  67
    Political science methodology: A plea for pluralism.Sharon Crasnow - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78 (C):40-47.
    Case study research was once the primary methodology of research in political science. The shift to other methodologies in recent decades suggests has led to a devaluing of these approaches. This article explores six roles for case studies in the social sciences and argues that an understanding of the multiple aims of research supports a methodological pluralism that includes case study research.
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  2.  35
    The economics of science: methodology and epistemology as if economics really mattered.James R. Wible - 1998 - New York: Routledge.
    This book explores aspects of science from an economic point of view. The author begins with economic models of misconduct in science, moving on to discuss other important issues, including market failure and the market place of ideas.
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  3.  13
    How Standpoint Methodology Informs.Methodology Informs - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 11--291.
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  4.  18
    Feminist science:: Methodologies that challenge inequality.Francesca M. Cancian - 1992 - Gender and Society 6 (4):623-642.
    The feminist goal of challenging inequality requires distinctive methods such as combining social action with research and using participatory approaches. These methods strengthen scientific standards of good evidence and open debate, but they conflict with elitism and careerism in academia and hence are rarely used. Nonhierarchical structures must be created.
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  5. Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework.John Gerring - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    John Gerring's exceptional textbook has been thoroughly revised in this second edition. It offers a one-volume introduction to social science methodology relevant to the disciplines of anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology and sociology. This new edition has been extensively developed with the introduction of new material and a thorough treatment of essential elements such as conceptualization, measurement, causality and research design. It is written for students, long-time practitioners and methodologists and covers both qualitative and quantitative methods. (...)
     
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  6.  8
    The “sciencemethodology” iterative cycle.Dimíter Ginev - 1986 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 17 (1):143-153.
  7. International union of history and philosophy of science uppsala university.Methodology Logic - 1990 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 21:401-403.
  8.  37
    Extensions in human science methodology.Scott Churchill - 1986 - Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 6 (2):132-132.
    This article provides a brief review of Saybrook Review, Vol 6, No. 1, Spring 1986. Special issue: Extensions in Human Science Methodology guest edited by Donald E. Polkinghorne. This issue contains articles written by four of the faculty of the Saybrook Institute, all of which examine "the consequences of extending the criteria of science beyond the traditional objectivism-relativism dichotomy." Polkinghorne's lead article is a compelling and clear historical characterization of the place of human science in today's (...)
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  9.  17
    Analogicity in Computer Science. Methodological Analysis.Paweł Stacewicz - 2020 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 63 (1):69-86.
    Analogicity in computer science is understood in two, not mutually exclusive ways: 1) with regard to the continuity feature (of data or computations), 2) with regard to the analogousness feature (i.e. similarity between certain natural processes and computations). Continuous computations are the subject of three methodological questions considered in the paper: 1a) to what extent do their theoretical models go beyond the model of the universal Turing machine (defining digital computations), 1b) is their computational power greater than that of (...)
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  10.  7
    The economics of science, methodology and epistemology as if economics really matter: Compte rendu de lecture Par Emmanuel Martin.James Wible - 1998 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 8 (4):555-572.
  11.  72
    What is science? Methodological pitfalls underlying the empirical exploration of scientific knowledge.Dominika Yaneva - 2005 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (2):333 - 353.
    The validity of three premises, set as foundational pillars of modern sociological approach to science, is contested, namely: (i) the postulate, stating that science is devoid of whatever generis specifical; (ii) it is liable to the usual empirical study; (iii) the practicing scientist's self-reflexive judgements must be disbelieved and rejected. Contrariwise, the ignored so far quaint nature of knowledge, escaping even from the elementary empirical treating - discernment and observation - is revealed and demonstrated. This peculiar nature requires, (...)
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  12.  30
    What is Science? Methodological Pitfalls Underlying the Empirical Exploration of Scientific Knowledge.Dominika Yaneva - 2006 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (2):333-353.
    The validity of three premises, set as foundational pillars of modern sociological approach to science, is contested, namely: the postulate, stating that science is devoid of whatever generis specifical; it is liable to the usual empirical study; the practicing scientist's self-reflexive judgements must be disbelieved and rejected. Contrariwise, the ignored so far quaint nature of knowledge, escaping even from the elementary empirical treating - discernment and observation - is revealed and demonstrated. This peculiar nature requires, accordingly, a specific (...)
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  13. Social science methodology.Joseph Mayer - 1936 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 1 (4):364.
  14.  20
    Literature, epistemology and social science methodology.Miguel Alvarado - 2015 - Cinta de Moebio 54:250-265.
    This article discusses the cultural understanding of the fantastic from Julio Cortazar’s work, expressed particularly in their metalinguistic texts, as a Latin American way of assuming "the real", which can project the fundamentals of Cortazar's work to the humanities and especially to ethnology. En este artículo se reflexiona sobre la comprensión transcultural y el tema de lo fantástico, ello desde el examen de la obra de Julio Cortázar, expresada particularmente en sus textos metalingüísticos, como un modo latinoamericano y de la (...)
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  15.  28
    Value, valuation, and natural-science methodology.Clark L. Hull - 1944 - Philosophy of Science 11 (3):125-141.
    One of the initial obstacles to the study of the theory of value is the fact that practically every author whom the student consults on the subject characterizes value and valuation differently, and seems to trace them ultimately to a different source. For example, one writer will formulate a theory of value in terms of pain and pleasure ; another, in terms of feeling ; another, in terms of desires or wants ; still others, in terms of “requiredness”, of interest, (...)
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  16. Metaphysics, Problematic or Science: Methodology vs. Method.William E. Carlo - 1967 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 41:134.
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  17.  11
    The Significance of Natural Science Methodology Research.Ch'en Ch'ang-shu - 1974 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (3):69-90.
    Investigating the methods of natural science research is one of the important topics of the dialectics of nature.
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  18.  41
    Cyborg Encounters: Three Art-Science Interactions.Ayşe Melis Okay, Burak Taşdizen, Charles John McKinnon Bell, Beyza Dilem Topdal & Melike Şahinol - 2022 - NanoEthics 16 (2):223-238.
    This contribution includes three selected works from an exhibition on _Cyborg Encounters_. These works deal with hybrid connections of human and non-human species that (might) emerge as a result of enhancement technologies and bio-technological developments. They offer not only an artistic exploration of contemporary but also futuristic aspects of the subject. Followed by an introduction by Melike Şahinol, _Critically Endangered Artwork_ (by Ayşe Melis Okay) highlights Turkey’s ongoing problems of food poverty and the amount of decreasing agricultural lands. It displays (...)
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  19.  67
    Carnap, Kuhn, and the Philosophy of Science Methodology.J. Earman - 1993 - In Paul Horwich (ed.), World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. MIT Press. pp. 9--36.
  20.  34
    Science, Metaphysics and Method.Jac Ladyman - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5).
    While there are many examples of metaphysical theorising being heuristically and intellectually important in the progress of scientific knowledge, many people wonder how metaphysics not closely informed and inspired by empirical science could lead to rival or even supplementary knowledge about the world. This paper assesses the merits of a popular defence of the a priori methodology of metaphysics that goes as follows. The first task of the metaphysician, like the scientist, is to construct a hypothesis that accounts (...)
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  21.  40
    Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look.Douglas W. Hands - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):83-99.
    Discussions of Karl Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science appear regularly in the recent literature on economic methodology. In this literature, there seem to be two fundamental points of agreement about Popper. First, most economists take Popper's falsificationist method of bold conjecture and severe test to be the correct characterization of scientific conduct in the physical sciences. Second, most economists admit that economic theory fails miserably when judged by these same falsificationist standards. As Latsis states, “the development of economic (...)
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  22. Logic is Not Science.Ulf Hlobil - forthcoming - In Sanderson Molick (ed.), Demarcating logic and science: exploring new frontiers. Springer.
    I argue that logic is unlike science in its methodology, thus rejecting anti-exceptionalism about logic. Logic has a mathematical and a philosophical part. In its mathematical part, the methodology of logic is like that of mathematics, and no need to choose between theories arises in that part. In its philosophical part, the methodology of logic is like that of philosophy. Philosophy and mathematics are both unlike the empirical sciences in their methodology. So logic is unlike (...)
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  23.  9
    Relational methodologies and epistemology in economics and management sciences.Lucio Biggiero (ed.) - 2016 - Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, An Imprint of IGI Global.
    This book identifies and presents the four main network-based methodologies including network analysis, Boolean network simulation modeling, artificial neural network simulation modeling, and agent-based simulation modeling in addition to their conceptual-epistemological implications and concrete applications within the social and natural sciences.
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  24. The Methodology of Economics.M. Blaug - 1983 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (3):289-295.
  25. The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 1999 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave (...)
  26.  31
    The Methodology of Economics: Or, How Economists Explain.Mark Blaug - 1992 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is an examination of the nature of economic explanation. The opening chapters introduce current thinking in the philosophy of science and review the literature on methodology. Professor Blaug then turns to the troublesome question of the logical status of welfare economics, giving the reader an understanding of the outstanding issues in the methodology of economics. This is followed by a series of case studies of leading economic controversies, which shows how controversies in economics may be (...)
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  27.  5
    Science and ideology in the Soviet capital discourse of religious studies: dichotomous analysis.Irina A. Savchenko & Olga K. Shimanskaya - forthcoming - Studies in East European Thought:1-13.
    Dichotomous analysis is used as a method to identify the contradictory nature and ways of adaption demonstrated by representatives of the Moscow School of Religious Studies (MSRS) in the combination of science and ideology specific to the Soviet period. This study proves that scholars can rarely be completely autonomous since their socio-political environment invariably affects their academic stance. In the late 1950s, Soviet religious studies were characterized by historicism. By the 1960s, Soviet authorities realized that the destruction of churches (...)
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  28.  31
    Science and Hypothesis: Historical Essays on Scientific Methodology.Larry Laudan & R. Laudan - 1981 - Springer.
    This book consists of a collection of essays written between 1965 and 1981. Some have been published elsewhere; others appear here for the first time. Although dealing with different figures and different periods, they have a common theme: all are concerned with examining how the method of hy pothesis came to be the ruling orthodoxy in the philosophy of science and the quasi-official methodology of the scientific community. It might have been otherwise. Barely three centuries ago, hypothetico deduction (...)
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  29.  81
    Models and Analogies in Science.Mary B. Hesse - 1963 - [Notre Dame, Ind.]: University of Notre Dame Press.
  30. Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation.Christian List & Kai Spiekermann - 2013 - American Political Science Review 107 (4):629-643.
    Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and (...)
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  31.  97
    Is Social Ontology Prior to Social Scientific Methodology?Richard Lauer - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (3):171-189.
    In this article I examine “Ontology Matters!” (OM!) arguments. OM! arguments conclude that ontology can contribute to empirical success in social science. First, I capture the common form between different OM! arguments. Second, I describe quantifier variance as discussed in metaontology. Third, I apply quantifier variance to the common form of OM! arguments. I then present two ways in which ontology is prior to social science methodology, one realist and one pragmatic. I argue that a pragmatic interpretation (...)
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  32.  15
    The SAGE Handbook of Social Science Methodology.William Outhwaite & Stephen Turner - 2007 - Sage Publications.
    This is a jewel among methods handbooks, bringing together a formidable collection of international contributors to comment on every aspect of the various central issues, complications, and controversies in the core methodological traditions. It is designed to meet the needs of those disciplinary and nondisciplinary problem-oriented social inquirers for a comprehensive overview of the methodological literature.
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  33.  55
    Symbiotic empirical ethics: A practical methodology.Lucy Frith - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):198-206.
    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This ‘empirical turn’ has provoked extensive debate over how such ‘descriptive’ research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be (...)
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  34. Methodology in Biological Game Theory.Simon M. Huttegger & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):637-658.
    Game theory has a prominent role in evolutionary biology, in particular in the ecological study of various phenomena ranging from conflict behaviour to altruism to signalling and beyond. The two central methodological tools in biological game theory are the concepts of Nash equilibrium and evolutionarily stable strategy. While both were inspired by a dynamic conception of evolution, these concepts are essentially static—they only show that a population is uninvadable, but not that a population is likely to evolve. In this article, (...)
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  35.  23
    Methodology and the birth of modern cosmological inquiry.George Gale & Niall Shanks - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (3):279-296.
  36. Methodological problems of science: the iteration cycle: science--methodology of science.Azari︠a︡ Prizenti Polikarov - 1983 - Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
     
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  37.  32
    The manufacture of knowledge: an essay on the constructivist and contextual nature of science.Karin Knorr-Cetina - 1981 - New York: Pergamon Press.
    The anthropological approach is the central focus of this study. Laboratories are looked upon with the innocent eye of the traveller in exotic lands, and the societies found in these places are observed with the objective yet compassionate eye of the visitor from a quite other cultural milieu. There are many surprises that await us if we enter a laboratory in this frame of mind... This study is a realistic enterprise, an attempt to truly represent the social order of life (...)
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  38.  25
    Philosophy and Economic Methodology.Daniel M. Hausman - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:231 - 249.
    This paper is concerned with the puzzling divorce that exists between writing on economic methodology and work by philosophers of science. After documenting the extent and nature of the separation and making some disparaging comments about the quality of much of the literature on economic methodology, this essay argues that the divorce results from the differences between the aims of philosophers of science, who are concerned to learn about knowledge acquisition in disciplines such as economics, and (...)
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  39.  28
    A pragmatic methodology for studying international practices.Sasikumar S. Sundaram & Vineet Thakur - forthcoming - Sage Publications: Journal of International Political Theory.
    Journal of International Political Theory, Ahead of Print. Practice turn marks an important advancement in International Relations theorizing. In challenging abstract meta-theoretical debates, practice theorizing in International Relations aims to get close to the lifeworld of the actual practitioners of politics. Scholars from different positions such as constructivism, critical theory, and post-structuralism have critically interrogated the analytical framework of practices in international politics. Building upon these works, we are concerned with a question of how to examine the context of international (...)
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  40. Three dogmas of metaphysical methodology.Jessica M. Wilson - 2013 - In Matthew C. Haug (ed.), Philosophical Methodology: The Armchair or the Laboratory? New York: Routledge. pp. 145-165.
    In what does philosophical progress consist? 'Vertical' progress corresponds to development within a specific paradigm/framework for theorizing (of the sort associated, revolutions aside, with science); 'horizontal' progress corresponds to the identification and cultivation of diverse paradigms (of the sort associated, conservativism aside, with art and pure mathematics). Philosophical progress seems to involve both horizontal and vertical dimensions, in a way that is somewhat puzzling: philosophers work in a number of competing frameworks (like artists or mathematicians), while typically maintaining that (...)
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  41. Discovering Reality. Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science.Sandra Harding & Merril B. Hintikka - 1986 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 48 (2):344-345.
  42. Theory change in science: strategies from Mendelian genetics.Lindley Darden - 1991 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This innovative book focuses on the development of the gene theory as a case study in scientific creativity.
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  43.  25
    Testing, Rationality, and Progress: Essays on the Popperian Tradition in Economic Methodology.D. Wade Hands - 1993 - Roman & Littlefield.
    This book brings together ten previously published essays on the philosophy of economics and economic methodology. The general theme is the application of Karl Popper's philosophy of science to economics -- not only by Popper himself but also by other members of the "Popperian school." There are three major issues that surface repeatedly: the applicability of Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science; the applicability of I. Lakatos's "methodology of scientific research programs" to economics; and the question of (...)
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  44.  21
    Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research.John Huss - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):1-11.
    Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units—the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype—have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the primary drivers of this new ontology. By reducing the dimensionality of variation (...)
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  45.  25
    Research Methodology in the Social Sciences: Perspectives on Sierra Leone.Emerson Abraham Jackson - 2020 - Mauritius: Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP).
    The thought about this book has been developed with the view of adding value to the teaching of Research Methodology for undergraduate and graduate students in developing economies like Sierra Leone. At the same time, it is a very useful tool for professionals engaged in research as part of their work life and for which their understanding of the dichotomy between Research Methods and Research Methodology needs to be addressed. It is divided into distinct sections, which makes it (...)
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  46.  6
    Wittgenstein and political philosophy: a reexamination of the foundations of social science.John W. Danford - 1978 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  47.  56
    Insights in How Computer Science can be a Science.Robert W. P. Luk - 2020 - Science and Philosophy 8 (2):17-46.
    Recently, information retrieval is shown to be a science by mapping information retrieval scientific study to scientific study abstracted from physics. The exercise was rather tedious and lengthy. Instead of dealing with the nitty gritty, this paper looks at the insights into how computer science can be made into a science by using that methodology. That is by mapping computer science scientific study to the scientific study abstracted from physics. To show the mapping between computer (...)
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  48. Methodology and epistemology for social science: selected papers.Donald Thomas Campbell - 1988 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by E. Samuel Overman.
    Since the 1950s, Donald T. Campbell has been one of the most influential contributors to the methodology of the social sciences. A distinguished psychologist, he has published scores of widely cited journal articles, and two awards, in social psychology and in public policy, have been named in his honor. This book is the first to collect his most significant papers, and it demonstrates the breadth and originality of his work.
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  49.  66
    Is scientific methodology interestingly atemporal?James T. Cushing - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):177-194.
    Any division between scientific practice and a metalevel of the methods and goals of science is largely a false dichotomy. Since a priori, foundationist or logicist approaches to normative principles have proven unequal to the task of representing actual scientific practice, methodologies of science must be abstracted from episodes in the history of science. Of course, it is possible that such characteristics could prove universal and constant across various eras. But, case studies show that they are not (...)
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  50.  39
    Science, Values, and the New Demarcation Problem.David B. Resnik & Kevin C. Elliott - 2023 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 54 (2):259-286.
    In recent years, many philosophers of science have rejected the “value-free ideal” for science, arguing that non-epistemic values have a legitimate role to play in scientific inquiry. However, this philosophical position raises the question of how to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate influences of values in science. In this paper, we argue that those seeking to address this “new” demarcation problem can benefit by drawing lessons from the “old” demarcation problem, in which philosophers tried to find a (...)
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