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Summary Unity of science is, most basically, the idea that all fields of science are in some way united.  The most well-known thesis of the unity of science is that all fields of science will ultimately be reduced to fundamental physics, thereby demonstrating the basis for all scientific laws in the universal laws of physics.  This extreme form of reductionism was prominent in philosophy of science in the mid-twentieth century.  In response, a number of philosophers have since advocated for the disunity of science.  Very different views of the unity of science have also been put forward; these focus instead on the sciences' shared methods, shared language, or shared aims.  A notable example is the Vienna Circle's programmatic unity of science movement.  
Key works A classic formulation of reductive unity of science is Oppenheim & Putnam 1958Fodor 1974 formulates an influential alternative view of the disunity of science based on multiple realization.  Disunity of science is also advocated by Dupré 1993Rosenberg 1994, and Cartwright 1999. Alternative formulations of unity of science include Darden & Maull 1977 and Grantham 2004.  See Morris 1966 and Symons et al 2011 on the logical empiricists', and especially Otto Neurath's, unity of science movement.  
Introductions See Cat 2013 for an overview of the history of the unity of science issue and an overview of the variety of unities that have been posited.  
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  1. Unified science.Felix Kaufmann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  2. Costs and Benefits of Diverse Plurality in Economics.Teemu Lari & Uskali Mäki - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
    The literature on pluralism in economics has focused on the benefits expected from the plurality of theories, methods, and frameworks. This overlooks half of the picture: the costs. Neither have the multifarious costs been systematically analyzed in philosophy of science. We begin rectifying this neglect. We discuss how the benefits of plurality and diversity in science presuppose distinct types of plurality and how various benefit and plurality types are associated with different types of costs. Finally, we ponder how the general (...)
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  3. Carnap on Unity of Science.Bianca Crewe & Alan Richardson - 2024 - In Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    It is no secret that various versions of logical empiricism argued for the importance of unified science. Carnap was a proponent of unity of science views, although he expressed this in different idioms at different times. In the Aufbau (1928) he spoke of the unity of the object domain secured through definability in the constitutional system, in his physicalist period he argued that a physicalist language could serve as the universal language of science, and in his mature philosophical work he (...)
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  4. How research programs come apart: The example of supersymmetry and the disunity of physics.Lucas Gautheron & Elisa Omodei - 2023 - Quantitative Science Studies 4 (3):671–699.
    According to Peter Galison, the coordination of different “subcultures” within a scientific field happens through local exchanges within “trading zones.” In his view, the workability of such trading zones is not guaranteed, and science is not necessarily driven towards further integration. In this paper, we develop and apply quantitative methods (using semantic, authorship, and citation data from scientific literature), inspired by Galison’s framework, to the case of the disunity of high-energy physics. We give prominence to supersymmetry, a concept that has (...)
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  5. Conceptual Roles of Evolvability across Evolutionary Biology: Between Diversity and Unification.Cristina Villegas, Alan C. Love, Laura Nuño de la Rosa, Ingo Brigandt & Günter P. Wagner - 2023 - In Thomas F. Hansen, David Houle, Mihaela Pavlicev & Christophe Pélabon (eds.), Evolvability: A Unifying Concept in Evolutionary Biology? National Geographic Books. pp. 35–54.
    A number of biologists and philosophers have noted the diversity of interpretations of evolvability in contemporary evolutionary research. Different clusters of research defined by co-citation patterns or shared methodological orientation sometimes concentrate on distinct conceptions of evolvability. We examine five different activities where the notion of evolvability plays conceptual roles in evolutionary biological investigation: setting a research agenda, characterization, explanation, prediction, and control. Our analysis of representative examples demonstrates how different conceptual roles of evolvability are quasi-independent and yet exhibit important (...)
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  6. An account of conserved functions and how biologists use them to integrate cell and evolutionary biology.Jeremy G. Wideman, Steve Elliott & Beckett Sterner - 2023 - Biology and Philosophy 38 (5):1-23.
    We characterize a type of functional explanation that addresses why a homologous trait originating deep in the evolutionary history of a group remains widespread and largely unchanged across the group’s lineages. We argue that biologists regularly provide this type of explanation when they attribute conserved functions to phenotypic and genetic traits. The concept of conserved function applies broadly to many biological domains, and we illustrate its importance using examples of molecular sequence alignments at the intersection of evolution and cell biology. (...)
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  7. Bilim Çarpık Bilim Ayrımı Üzerine Bir İnceleme: Astroloji Örneği.Nesrin Şafak - 2021 - Pegem Akademi.
    Bilim ve çarpık bilim arasına sınır çizebilmek için yapılan girişimler farklı teorilerin gelistirilmesini sağlamıştır. Henüz net bir sınır çizilememiştir ve tartışmalar devam etmektedir. İlk olarak doğrulama ve yanlışlama teorileri daha sonraları ise bilim çalışmalarını bir bütün olarak ele alan, araştırma programları olarak gören teoriler sunulmuştur. Bilimsel çalışmaların, yeni sorunlar üretmesi ve eleştirel bakış açısına sahip olması da bilim olanın sınırlarını çizebilmek için ölçütler arasında sayılmıştır. Bu çabalar ile bilim pratiklerinin irdelenmesi zamanla bilim insanına ve bilim kurumlarına yönelmiştir. Bu konunun önemli (...)
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  8. Unity of Science.Tuomas E. Tahko - 2021 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Unity of science was once a very popular idea among both philosophers and scientists. But it has fallen out of fashion, largely because of its association with reductionism and the challenge from multiple realisation. Pluralism and the disunity of science are the new norm, and higher-level natural kinds and special science laws are considered to have an important role in scientific practice. What kind of reductionism does multiple realisability challenge? What does it take to reduce one phenomenon to another? How (...)
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  9. Philosophy Beyond Spacetime: Implications From Quantum Gravity.Christian Wüthrich, Baptiste Le Bihan & Nick Huggett (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Philosophy Beyond Spacetime assesses the state of play in the philosophy of quantum gravity. Research in this field aims at a unified theory in which quantum matter is related dynamically to relativistic spacetime. This volume highlights the conceptual questions involved, showing how physics and metaphysics can illuminate each other.
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  10. The Universal System Architecture of Nature.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    The universal system architecture of Nature can be summarized as: one zero, one one. This is because zero is, technically (and literally), circumference, and one is, technically (and literally), diameter. This means the algorithm that produces Nature (what humans label 'reality') is: if zero, then one (meaning, if one, then zero). Explaining the tokenzation of space (any matrix) (any lattice) (all vortices and edges) (if circumference, then diameter). Meaning, technically, you cannot use 'words' in any language (including the language of (...)
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  11. What is the Point of Reduction in Science?Karen Crowther - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (6):1437-1460.
    The numerous and diverse roles of theory reduction in science have been insufficiently explored in the philosophy literature on reduction. Part of the reason for this has been a lack of attention paid to reduction2 (successional reduction)—although I here argue that this sense of reduction is closer to reduction1 (explanatory reduction) than is commonly recognised, and I use an account of reduction that is neutral between the two. This paper draws attention to the utility—and incredible versatility—of theory reduction. A non-exhaustive (...)
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  12. Intersectionality as a Regulative Ideal.Katherine Gasdaglis & Alex Madva - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    Appeals to intersectionality serve to remind us that social categories like race and gender cannot be adequately understood independently from each other. But what, exactly, is the intersectional thesis a thesis about? Answers to this question are remarkably diverse. Intersectionality is variously understood as a claim about the nature of social kinds, oppression, or experience ; about the limits of antidiscrimination law or identity politics ; or about the importance of fuzzy sets, multifactor analysis, or causal modeling in social science.
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  13. Einheit und Vielfalt in den Wissenschaften.Michael Klasen & Markus Seidel (eds.) - 2019 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Universitäten weisen als institutioneller Inbegriff von Wissenschaft eine immense Fächervielfalt auf. Doch was hält diese Vielfalt der Wissenschaften zusammen, und was sind deren jeweiligen Besonderheiten? Ist es überhaupt sinnvoll, solch unterschiedliche Forschungsbereiche wie zum Beispiel die Koptologie und die Materialphysik nach ähnlichen Standards zu bewerten und zu vergleichen? Ist solch eine Vielfalt notwendig für den Erkenntnisfortschritt oder eher ein Hemmnis, das es zu überwinden gilt? Wie hängen die Theorien, Methoden und Gegenstandsbereiche der verschiedenen Disziplinen miteinander zusammen – haben die Disziplinen (...)
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  14. Compte rendu de Scientific Pluralism Reconsidered: A New Approach to the (Dis)Unity of Science de Stéphanie Ruphy. [REVIEW]Pierre-Yves Rochefort - 2018 - Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5 (2):44-49.
    Cet ouvrage est la version anglaise d’un ouvrage paru initialement en français en 2013 sous le titre Pluralisme scientifique. Enjeux épistémiques et métaphysiques, qui a reçu jusqu’ici un accueil assez favorable. L’auteure y explore le thème de la pluralité dans trois grands registres de la philosophie des sciences : d’abord celui de la méthodologie scientifique (chapitre 1), ensuite celui des relations interthéoriques ou du réductionnisme (chapitre 2), et, enfin, celui de la représentation (chapitre 3). La grande diversité des sujets qui (...)
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  15. Charles T. Wolfe. Materialism: A Historico-Philosophical Introduction. Dordrecht: Springer, 2016. Pp. ix+134. $54.99.Noga Arikha - 2017 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 7 (2):386-391.
  16. Interdisciplinary success without integration.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):343-360.
    Some scholars see interdisciplinarity as a special case of a broader unificationist program. They accept the unification of the sciences as a regulative ideal, and derive from this the normative justification of interdisciplinary research practices. The crucial link for this position is the notion of integration: integration increases the cohesion of concepts and practices, and more specifically of explanations, ontologies, methods and data. Interdisciplinary success then consists in the integration of fields or disciplines, and this constitutes success in the sense (...)
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  17. Carnap on unified science.Ansten Klev - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 59:53-67.
    Unified science is a recurring theme in Carnap's work from the time of the Aufbau until the end of the 1930's. The theme is not constant, but knows several variations. I shall extract three quite precise formulations of the thesis of unified science from Carnap's work during this period: from the Aufbau, from Carnap's so-called syntactic period, and from "Testability and Meaning" and related papers. My main objective is to explain these formulations and to discuss their relation, both to each (...)
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  18. Special-Science Autonomy and the Division of Labor.Michael Strevens - 2016 - In Mark Couch & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.), The Philosophy of Philip Kitcher. New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.
    Philip Kitcher has advocated and advanced an influential antireductionist picture of science on which the higher-level sciences pursue their aims largely independently of the lower-level sciences -- a view of the sciences as autonomous. Explanatory autonomy as Kitcher understands it is incompatible with explanatory reductionism, the view that a high-level explanation is inevitably improved by providing a lower-level explanation of its parts. This paper explores an alternative conception of autonomy based on another major theme of Kitcher's philosophy of science: the (...)
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  19. خصخصة التعليم العالي في ضوء الليبرالية الجديدة: مستقبل الجامعة المغربية والمغاربية في ضوء الأنموذج الإندونيسي.محمد الإدريسي - 2016 - Revue Brochures Educatives مجلة كراسات تربوية 1 (2):103-116.
    منذ أن تبنت الحكومة الإندونيسية الجديدة سنة 2003 ما يسمى في الإنجليزية (corporatization) [والفرنسية (l’entrepreneurisation)] "الخصخصة"، دار نقاش فكري أكاديمي وسياسي موسع ضمن مجموعة من الدول الإسلامية والعربية حول طبيعة الشروط الموضوعية لخصخصة التعليم في علاقته بالليبرالية الجديدة. وأثار النقاش العام نفسه ردود فعل متباينة داخل هذه الدول وفق تيارين مركزيين: تيار الخصخصة اللبرالية للتعليم (كخيار استراتيجي لإصلاح منظومة التعليم العربي) وتيار الحق الجماهيري في التعليم الرسمي (حق الأفراد في مجانية التعليم)، ولم تسلم الجامعة والمعاهد العليا نفسها من هذا النقاش (...)
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  20. Peter Vickers: Understanding Inconsistent Science. [REVIEW]Bryson Brown - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):413-418.
  21. A discussion about the unity of science: Neurath and the utopia of unified science.Ivan Ferreira da Cunha - 2015 - Scientiae Studia 13 (1):97-122.
    Neste artigo apresentamos as propostas de Otto Neurath para o problema da unidade da ciência. Conhecido integrante do Círculo de Viena, Neurath defende que a ciência deve ser unificada por meio da chamada concepção de mundo científica, uma orientação ou atitude em relação ao mundo e aos problemas que é característica da ciência. Neste artigo apresentamos o caráter social dos projetos de Neurath, como o da Enciclopédia Internacional da Ciência Unificada. Contrastamos a proposta de Neurath com a crítica pós-modernista da (...)
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  22. The Special Science Dilemma and How Culture Solves It.Marion Godman - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):1-18.
    I argue that there is a tension between the claim that at least some kinds in the special sciences are multiply realized and the claim that the reason why kinds are prized by science is that they enter into a variety of different empirical generalizations. Nevertheless, I show that this tension ceases in the case of ‘cultural homologues’—such as specific ideologies, religions, and folk wisdom. I argue that the instances of such special science kinds do have several projectable properties in (...)
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  23. Communicative Rationality of the Maxwellian Revolution.Rinat M. Nugayev - 2015 - Foundations of Science 20 (4):447-478.
    It is demonstrated that Maxwellian electrodynamics was created as a result of the old pre-Maxwellian programmes’s reconciliation: the electrodynamics of Ampère–Weber, the wave theory of Young–Fresnel and Faraday’s programme. Maxwell’s programme finally superseded the Ampère–Weber one because it assimilated the ideas of the Ampère–Weber programme, as well as the presuppositions of the programmes of Young–Fresnel and Faraday. Maxwell’s victory became possible because the core of Maxwell’s unification strategy was formed by Kantian epistemology. Maxwell put forward as a basic synthetic principle (...)
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  24. Natural Kinds, Causes and Domains: Khalidi on how science classifies things.Vincenzo Politi - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:132-137.
    Natural Categories and Human Kinds is a recent and timely contribution to current debate on natural kinds. Because of the growing sophistication of this debate, it is necessary to make careful distinctions in order to appreciate the originality of Khalidi’s position. Khalidi’s view on natural kinds is naturalistic: if we want to know what Nature’s joints really are, we should look at the actual carving job carried out by our best scientific practices. Like LaPorte, Khalidi is a fallibilist: our best (...)
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  25. Evo-Devo as a Trading Zone.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2015 - In Alan C. Love (ed.), Conceptual Change in Biology: Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives on Evolution and Development. Berlin: Springer Verlag, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
    Evo-Devo exhibits a plurality of scientific “cultures” of practice and theory. When are the cultures acting—individually or collectively—in ways that actually move research forward, empirically, theoretically, and ethically? When do they become imperialistic, in the sense of excluding and subordinating other cultures? This chapter identifies six cultures – three /styles/ (mathematical modeling, mechanism, and history) and three /paradigms/ (adaptationism, structuralism, and cladism). The key assumptions standing behind, under, or within each of these cultures are explored. Characterizing the internal structure of (...)
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  26. Paradigm of Unity as a Prospect for Research and Treatment in Psychology.Adam Biela - 2014 - Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration 19 (1-2):207-227.
    The purpose of this paper is to show the methodological power and potentiality of the concept paradigm of unity introduced originally in the ceremony on the occasion of honoring Chiara Lubich with the doctor honoris causa title by the Catholic University of Lublin in 1996. Originally this conception was used to suggest the societal activity of Chiara Lubich in building, via the Focolari movement, psychosocial infrastructures for unity in various social domains,, in public media, in ecumenism and inter-religious contacts This (...)
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  27. Science in Two Minds: Reflections on the Missional Disunity Within Contemporary Medicine.P. C. Burcham - 2014 - Christian Bioethics 20 (3):359-375.
  28. Does the Unity of Science have a Future?Jan Faye - 2014 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:263-275.
    The program of logical positivism gave inspiration to the unity of science movement. The movement carried the belief that all sciences, including the social sciences and the humanities, ought to share some common language if these disciplines were to be considered genuine sciences.
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  29. A framework for inter-level explanations: Outlines for a new explanatory pluralism.Raoul Gervais - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:1-9.
  30. Review: Hoyningen-Huene, Paul: Systematicity. The Nature of Science. New York: Oxford University Press 2013. [REVIEW]Markus Seidel - 2014 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Literatur 2 (4):33-38.
  31. Explanatory Strategies beyond The Individualism/Holism Debate.Jeroen Van Bouwel - 2014 - In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Cham: Springer. pp. 105-119.
    Starting from the plurality of explanatory strategies in the actual practice of socialscientists, I introduce a framework for explanatory pluralism – a normative endorsement of the plurality of forms and levels of explanation used by social scientists. Equipped with thisframework, central issues in the individualism/holism debate are revisited, namely emergence,reduction and the idea of microfoundations. Discussing these issues, we notice that in recentcontributions the focus has been shifting towards relationism, pluralism and interaction, awayfrom dichotomous individualism/holism thinking and a winner-takes-all approach. (...)
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  32. Scientific Reduction.Raphael van Riel & Robert Van Gulick - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  33. The Unity of Science.Jordi Cat - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  34. A Deep Unity between Scientific Disciplines.Cédric Gaucherel - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):413-421.
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  35. Olga Pombo, Juan Manuel Torres, John Symons, and Shadid Rahman, eds. , Special Sciences and the Unity of Science . Reviewed by.Hinne Hettema - 2013 - Philosophy in Review 33 (4):315-317.
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  36. Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2013 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of 'natural kinds' has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the natural and social sciences, (...)
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  37. Scientific Unity.Jordi Cat - 2012 - In Ed Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  38. Unity of Science and Pluralism: Cognitive Neurosciences of Racial Prejudice as a Case Study.Luc Faucher - 2012 - In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer. pp. 177--204.
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  39. The Unity of Chemistry and Physics: Absolute Reaction Rate Theory.Hinne Hettema - 2012 - Hyle 18 (2):145 - 173.
    Henry Eyring's absolute rate theory explains the size of chemical reaction rate constants in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum chemistry. In addition it uses a number of unique concepts such as the 'transition state'. A key feature of the theory is that the explanation it provides relies on the comparison of reaction rate constant expressions derived from these individual theories. In this paper, the example is used to develop a naturalized notion of reduction and the unity of science. (...)
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  40. Special sciences and the Unity of Science.Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.) - 2012 - Springer.
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  41. Unity without myths.Daniel Andler - 2011 - In John Symons, Juan Manuel Torres & Olga Plomb (eds.), New approaches to the Unity of Science, vol. 1: Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science. Springer. pp. 129-140.
    We seem to suffer from a case of cognitive dissonance. On the one hand, we seem to have almost unanimously rejected as hopeless or incoherent the aim of a unified science. On the other, we passionately debate about the prospects of research programs which, if successful, would considerably enhance the prospects of unification: from particle physics to cognitive neuroscience, from evolutionary theory to logical modeling or dynamic systems, a common motivation seems to be the quest for unity1. The purpose of (...)
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  42. Physics met biology, and the consequence was….Tom McLeish - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):190-192.
    We summarise the contributions to the discussion and the links between them. The complex relationship between the physical and biological sciences demonstrates three “axes of tension”: the role of simulation, the interplay between levels of explanation, and the generality of “laws”. We identify examples of true synergy between approaches that genuinely explore new research territory, and underscore the contemporary value of the type of discussions contained in this volume.
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  43. The Unity of Science: Essays in Honour of Otto Neurath.Olga Pombo (ed.) - 2011 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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  44. A Neurathian Conception of the Unity of Science.Angela Potochnik - 2011 - Erkenntnis 74 (3):305-319.
    An historically important conception of the unity of science is explanatory reductionism, according to which the unity of science is achieved by explaining all laws of science in terms of their connection to microphysical law. There is, however, a separate tradition that advocates the unity of science. According to that tradition, the unity of science consists of the coordination of diverse fields of science, none of which is taken to have privileged epistemic status. This alternate conception has roots in Otto (...)
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  45. From Hacking's Plurality of Styles of Scientific Reasoning to “Foliated” Pluralism: A Philosophically Robust Form of Ontologico-Methodological Pluralism.Stéphanie Ruphy - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1212-1222.
    This essay develops a form of scientific pluralism that captures essential features of contemporary scientific practice largely ignored by the various forms of scientific pluralism currently discussed by philosophers. My starting point is Hacking's concept of style of scientific reasoning. I extend Hacking's thesis by proposing the process of “ontological enrichment” to grasp how the objects created by a style articulate with the common objects of scientific inquiry. The result is “foliated pluralism,” which puts to the fore the transdisciplinary and (...)
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  46. An Epoch-Making Change in the Development of Science? A Critique of the “Epochal-Break-Thesis”.Gregor Schiemann - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 431--453.
    In recent decades, several authors have claimed that an epoch-making change in the development of science is taking place. A closer examination of this claim shows that these authors take different – and problematic – concepts of an epochal break as their points of departure. In order to facilitate an evaluation of the current development of science, I would like to propose a concept of an epochal change according to which it is not necessarily a discontinuous process that typically begins (...)
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  47. New approaches to the Unity of Science, vol. 1: Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science.John Symons, Juan Manuel Torres & Olga Plomb (eds.) - 2011 - Springer.
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  48. Evolutionary Novelty and the Evo-Devo Synthesis: Field Notes.Ingo Brigandt & Alan C. Love - 2010 - Evolutionary Biology 37:93-99.
    Accounting for the evolutionary origins of morphological novelty is one of the core challenges of contemporary evolutionary biology. A successful explanatory framework requires the integration of different biological disciplines, but the relationships between developmental biology and standard evolutionary biology remain contested. There is also disagreement about how to define the concept of evolutionary novelty. These issues were the subjects of a workshop held in November 2009 at the University of Alberta. We report on the discussion and results of this workshop, (...)
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  49. On Unity and Disunity in the Sciences: Variations of Ancient Themata.Gerald Holton - 2010 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 14:245-262.
    I feel honored to be asked to speak at this university where so many ground-breaking scientists and philosophers were students or teaching, spreading their message world wide and I am especially glad to have been asked to come by the Institut Wiener Kreis, of which I am proud to be a member, and whose splendid work for two decades and to this day is being carried out vigorously under Professor Stadler and his colleagues. Through that, a bright flame is being (...)
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  50. Cracks on the mosaic unity of science: Carl F. Craver: Explaining the brain: mechanisms and the mosaic unity of science. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, xx + 308 pp, Pbk £16.99.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):293-296.
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