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  1. The Scope of Inductive Risk.P. D. Magnus - 2022 - Wiley: Metaphilosophy 53 (1):17-24.
    The Argument from Inductive Risk (AIR) is taken to show that values are inevitably involved in making judgements or forming beliefs. After reviewing this conclusion, I pose cases which are prima facie counterexamples: the unreflective application of conventions, use of black-boxed instruments, reliance on opaque algorithms, and unskilled observation reports. These cases are counterexamples to the AIR posed in ethical terms as a matter of personal values. Nevertheless, it need not be understood in those terms. The values which load a (...)
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  2. Neurath's Boat.Zoe Drayson - forthcoming - In Helen De Cruz (ed.), Philosophy Illustrated: Forty-two Thought Experiments to Broaden your Mind.
    Neurath (1932) suggests that in our quest for scientific knowledge “we are like sailors who have to rebuild their ship on the open sea, without ever being able to dismantle it in dry-dock and reconstruct it from its best components”. Neurath's boat features in discussions of various philosophical ideas, including the debate with foundationalism and coherentism about justification, the ethics literature on reflective equilibrium, and naturalistic approaches to metaphilosophy.
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  3. Abstraction and Generalization in the Logic of Science: Cases From Nineteenth-Century Scientific Practice.Claudia Cristalli & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2021 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 11 (1):93-121.
    Abstraction and generalization are two processes of reasoning that have a special role in the construction of scientific theories and models. They have been important parts of the scientific method ever since the nineteenth century. A philosophical and historical analysis of scientific practices shows how abstraction and generalization found their way into the theory of the logic of science of the nineteenth-century philosopher Charles S. Peirce. Our case studies include the scientific practices of Francis Galton and John Herschel, who introduced (...)
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  4. What Did Hooke Want From the Microscope? Magnification, Matter Theory and Mechanism.Ian Lawson - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):640-664.
    This article discusses Hooke’s microscopy in the context of the nature of his explanations of natural phenomena. It illustrates that while Hooke’s particular conception of microscopy certainly cohered with his general framework of mechanical philosophy, he thought of his microscope as an artisanal tool that could help him examine unknown natural machinery. It seems, however, that he never used magnifying lenses with the hope of confirming mechanism by glimpsing fundamental particles. Indeed, through a consideration of sources spanning from his 1665 (...)
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  5. Can Constructive Empiricists Believe in Exoplanets Too?Alessio Gava - 2021 - Dissertatio 51:167-182.
    Bas van Fraassen maintains that the actual function of optical instruments is producing images. Still, the output of a telescope is different from that of a microscope, for in the latter case it is not possible to empirically investigate the geometrical relations between the observer, the image and the detected entity, while in the former it is - at least in principle. In this paper I argue that this is a weak argument to support the belief in the existence of (...)
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  6. Can We Test Inconsistent Empirical Theories?Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    This paper discusses the logical possibility of testing inconsistent empirical theories. The main challenge for answering this affirmatively is to avoid that the inconsistent consequences of a theory both corroborate it and falsify it. I answer affirmatively by showing that we can define a class of empirical sentences whose truth would force us to abandon such inconsistent theory: the class of its potential rejecters. Despite this, I show that the observational contradictions implied by a theory could only be verified (provided (...)
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  7. Visions Visualised? On the Evidential Status of Scientific Visualisations.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Erna Fiorentini (ed.), On Visualization. A Multicentric Critique beyond Infographics. Berlin et al.:
    ‘Visualisations play an important role in science’, this seems to be an uncontroversial statement today. Scientists not only use visual representations as means to communicate their research results in publications or talks, but also often as surrogates for their objects of interest during the process of research. Thus, we can make a distinction between two contexts of usage here, namely the explanatory and the exploratory context. The focus of this paper is on the latter one. Obviously, using visualisations as surrogates (...)
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  8. Observing Primates: Gender, Power, and Knowledge in Primatology.Maria Botero - forthcoming - In K. Intemann & S. Crasnow (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Philosophy of Science. London and New York:
    Using examples of observations of primates in the wild, I will focus in this chapter on the ways in which some of the main feminist critiques are applicable to the observation of non-human animals. In particular, I will focus on the relationship between primatology and various conceptions of human nature and on the fact that primatology has often been described as a “feminist science.” I argue that in primatology there is an openness to a diversity of approaches and to feminist (...)
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  9. Compte rendu de L’observation scientifique, aspects philosophiques et pratiques de Vincent Israel-Jost. [REVIEW]Quentin Ruyant - 2018 - Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5:41-43.
    Revue de l'ouvrage "l'observation scientifique" de Vincent Israël-Jost. -/- Review of the book "l'observation scientifique" of Vincent Israël-Jost.
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  10. Primates Are Touched by Your Concern: Touch, Emotion, and Social Cognition in Chimpanzees.Maria Botero - 2018 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London: Routledge. pp. p. 372-380.
    There is something important about the way human primates use touch in social encounters; for example, consider greetings in airports (hugs vs. handshakes) and the way children push each other in a playground (a quick push to warn, a really hard one when it is serious!). Human primates use touch as a way of conveying a wide range of social information. In this chapter I will argue that one of the best ways of understanding social cognition in non-human primates is (...)
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  11. How Primate Mothers and Infants Communicate, Characterizing Interaction in Mother-Infant Studies Across Species.Maria Botero - 2016 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London, UK: pp. pp. 83-100.
    All methodologies used to characterize mother-infant interaction in non-human primates includes mother, infant, and other social factors. The chief difference is their understanding of how this interaction takes place. Using chimpanzees as a model, I will compare the different methodologies used to describe mother-infant interaction and show how implicit notions of communication and social interaction shape descriptions of this kind of interaction. I will examine the limitations and advantages of different approaches used in mother-infant studies and I will sketch an (...)
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  12. É possível ver imagens? (Ou do porquê van Fraassen deveria rever a sua abordagem em relação a elas).Alessio Gava - 2018 - Griot 18 (2):143-160.
    In his last book (2008), Bas van Fraassen, the originator of constructive empiricism, put forward a table containing a categorization of images. His aim, however, was to discuss the reality of what they represent and not addressing the issue of images per se. One of the consequences is that it remained an open question what ‘public hallucinations’ - reflections in the water, rainbows and the like - are. In this paper it will be defended that only images in the relevant (...)
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  13. In Praise of Sorensen’s ‘Blockage Theory’ on Shadows.Alessio Gava - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (2):161-166.
    In his famous book "Seeing Dark Things: The Philosophy of Shadows" (2008), Roy Sorensen put forward a ‘blocking theory of shadows’, a causal view on these entities according to which a shadow is an absence of light caused by blockage. This approach allows him to solve a quite famous riddle on shadows, ‘the Yale puzzle’, that was devised by Robert Fogelin in the late 1960s and that Sorensen presents in the form mentioned by Bas van Fraassen (1989). István Aranyosi has (...)
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  14. De-Eclipsing Common Sense: Why We See Near Rather Than Far in Roy Sorensen’s Eclipse Riddle.Gava Alessio - 2017 - Prolegomena 16 (1):55-72.
    According to Roy Sorensen, when one looks at the Moon, during a solar eclipse, what she sees is its inner part of the farther, reflective one, and not the always-facing-Earth side of our natural satellite. To make his point clearer, he put forward the famous example of a double eclipse involving the fictional planets Far and Near. From the observer’s vantage point, the two planets have the same apparent diameter and overlap. What the agent sees is a dark disk, but (...)
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  15. Pattern as Observation: Darwin’s ‘Great Facts’ of Geographical Distribution.Casey Helgeson - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):337-351.
    Among philosophical analyses of Darwin’s Origin, a standard view says the theory presented there had no concrete observational consequences against which it might be checked. I challenge this idea with a new analysis of Darwin’s principal geographical distribution observations and how they connect to his common ancestry hypothesis.
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  16. The Microscope in Early Modern Science and Philosophy.Dale Jacquette - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (2):377-386.
  17. Facts, Artifacts, and Mesosomes: Practicing Epistemology with the Electron Microscope.Nicolas Rasmussen - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (2):227-265.
  18. The Theory-Ladenness of Observations.John Weckert - 1985 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (1):115.
  19. How Do Scientists Reach Agreement About Novel Observations?David Gooding - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (2):205.
    I outline a pragmatic view of scientists' use of observation which draws attention to non-discursive, instrumental and social contexts of observation, in order to explain scientists' agreement about the appearance and significance of new phenomena. I argue that: observation is embedded in a network of activities, techniques, and interests; that experimentalists make construals of new phenomena which enable them communicate exploratory techniques and their outcomes, and that empirical enquiry consists of communicative, exploratory and predictive strategies whose interdependence ensures that, notwithstanding (...)
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  20. Histories of Scientific Observation. [REVIEW]Bradford Bouley - 2013 - Annals of Science 70 (4):582-585.
  21. Appendix: Theory and Observation.Nenad Miscevic - 2000 - In Rationality and Cognition: Against Relativism-Pragmatism. University of Toronto Press. pp. 233-276.
  22. Feyerabend and Galileo: The Interaction of Theories, and the Reinterpretation of Experience.Peter K. Machamer - 1973 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (1):1-46.
  23. Wissenschaftslogik: The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman - 2008 - Synthese 164 (3):385-400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  24. Is Observation Mathematically-Laden?Thomas Mueller Thomas Mueller - 2013 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 17 (1):165.
  25. A Teleologist's Reactions To "on Private Events And Theoretical Terms".Joseph Rychlak - 1992 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (4):347-358.
    This paper examines the theoretical differences obtaining between a mechanist like Moore and a teleologist like Rychlak. It is shown that mechanistic formulations invariably reduce the account to material and efficient causation, whereas teleologists want to bring in formal-final cause descriptions as well. Mechanists frame their explanations in third-person terms whereas teleologists often seek a first-person formulation of behavior. Moore's references to "private events" are shown to be extraspectively understood. A major theme of this paper is that Skinner actually capitalized (...)
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  26. A Theory of Experimentation and Observation: An Application of Inductive Logic and Information Theory.Eckehart Adolf Kohler - 1976 - Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  27. Why is Observation Important to Science?Robert G. Hudson - 1991 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    I believe observation is valued by scientists because it is an objective source of information. Objective here can mean two things. First, observation could be objective in that it is an assured source of truths about the world, truths whose meaning is the same for everyone regardless of their personal theoretical vantage points. I criticize this construal of observational objectivity in chapter one. The guilty doctrine, which I entitle 'empiricistic epistemological foundationalism', is shown to be untenable on, in part, historical (...)
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  28. Matthias Adam: Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
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  29. Observation and Explanation a Guide to Philosophy of Science. Pref. By Stephen Toulmin. --.Norwood Russell Hanson - 1971 - Harper & Row.
  30. Photogenic Venus.Jimena Canales - 2002 - Isis 93:585-613.
    During the late nineteenth century, scientists around the world disagreed as to the types of instruments and methods that should be used for determining the most important constant of celestial mechanics: the solar parallax. Venus’s 1874 transit across the sun was seen as the best opportunity for ending decades of debate. However, a mysterious “black drop” that appeared between Venus and the sun and individual differences in observations of the phenomenon brought traditional methods into disrepute. To combat these difficulties, the (...)
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  31. On Scientific Observation.Lorraine Daston - 2008 - Isis 99:97-110.
    For much of the last forty years, certain shared epistemological concerns have guided research in both the history and the philosophy of science: the testing of theory , the assessment of evidence, the bearing of theoretical and metaphysical assumptions on the reality of scientific objects, and, above all, the interaction of subjective and objective factors in scientific inquiry. This essay proposes a turn toward ontology—more specifically, toward the ontologies created and sustained by scientific observation. Such a shift in focus would (...)
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  32. Technological Innovation in Science: The Adoption of Infrared Spectroscopy by Chemists.Yakov Rabkin - 1987 - Isis 78:31-54.
  33. Empiricism in Practice: Teleology, Economy, and Observation in Faraday's Physics.David Gooding - 1982 - Isis 73:46-67.
  34. “An Expedition To Heal The Wounds Of War”: The 1919 Eclipse and Eddington as Quaker Adventurer.Matthew Stanley - 2003 - Isis 94 (1):57-89.
    The 1919 eclipse expedition’s confirmation of general relativity is often celebrated as a triumph of scientific internationalism. However, British scientific opinion during World War I leaned toward the permanent severance of intellectual ties with Germany. That the expedition came to be remembered as a progressive moment of internationalism was largely the result of the efforts of A. S. Eddington. A devout Quaker, Eddington imported into the scientific community the strategies being used by his coreligionists in the national dialogue: humanize the (...)
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  35. Observation Observed: Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck : Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 460pp, $81.00 HB, $27.50 PB.Sachiko Kusukawa - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):347-352.
    This is an important volume of seventeen essays that historicizes observation as a practice, concept and ideal. It belongs to the historiographical tradition of scrutinizing central aspects of the scientific enterprise such as experiments and objectivity that once appeared too self-evident to be probed. The challenge of historicizing such a significant idea is that it has to be a collective enterprise.The volume starts with three essays that provide a chronological survey of the period from 500 to 1800. Katherine Park, covering (...)
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  36. The Externalization of Observation: An Example From Modern Physics in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.Trevor J. Pinch - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:225-244.
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  37. Circles Without Circularity, Testing Theories by Theory-Laden Observations in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.M. Carrier - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:405-428.
  38. Interactions Between Theory, Models, and Observation.Erica Jen - forthcoming - Complexity.
  39. Introduction: Lay Participation in the History of Scientific Observation.Jeremy Vetter - 2011 - Science in Context 24 (2):127-141.
  40. Science and Hypotheses on Unobservable Domains of Nature.Ervin Laszlo - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (S1):177-186.
  41. Search for a Naturalistic Worldview, Volume 2: Natural Science and Metaphysics.Abner Shimony - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    Table of Contents: Acknowledgements; Preface; 1. Integral epistemology; 2. Reality, causality and closing the circle; 3. Search for a world view that can accommodate our knowledge of microphysics; 4. Perception from an evolutionary point of view; 5. Is observation theory-laden? A problem in naturalistic epistemology; 6. Coherence and the axioms of confirmation; 7. An adamite derivation of the principles of the calculus of probability; 8. The status of the principle of maximum entropy; 9. Scientific inference; 10. Reconsiderations on inductive logic; (...)
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  42. Science: Observation and Belief.Michael Polanyi - forthcoming - Humanitas.
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  43. The Coming of Precision to Scientific Observation.P. Costabel - 1975 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 29 (114):447-452.
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  44. A Concept of Observation Statements.Stephen P. Norris - 1981 - Philosophy of Education 37:132-142.
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  45. On Observation.N. R. Hanson - 2009 - In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 432.
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  46. Observations, Explanatory Power, and Simplicity: Toward a Non-Humean Account.Richard Boyd - 1991 - In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. MIT Press. pp. 349--377.
  47. Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation.Robert Hudson - 2013 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Seeing Things, Robert Hudson assesses a common way of arguing about observation reports called "robustness reasoning." Robustness reasoning claims that an observation report is more likely to be true if the report is produced by multiple, independent sources. Seeing Things argues that robustness reasoning lacks the special value it is often claimed to have. Hudson exposes key flaws in various popular philosophical defenses of robustness reasoning. This philosophical critique of robustness is extended by recounting five episodes in the history (...)
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  48. La Observación, Una Palabra Para Desbaratar y Re-Significar: Hacia Una Epistemología de la Observación.Rafael Avila - 2004 - Cinta de Moebio 21.
    This text and the seminar referred to, intend to open a window to observe observation, with a double purpose: firstly, to contribute to inquire the naïve concept and practice of observation which disregard its internal complexity; and secondly, identify and put under examination the assumptions ..
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  49. The Observer in the Quantum Experiment.Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1273-1293.
    A goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. Such intrusion is usually seen to arise because observation somehow selects a single actuality from among the many possibilities represented by the wavefunction. The issue is typically treated in terms of the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory. We attempt to address a different manifestation of the quantum measurement problem in a theory-neutral manner. With a version of the two-slit (...)
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  50. The Confirmational Significance of Agreeing Measurements.Casey Helgeson - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):721-732.
    Agreement between "independent" measurements of a theoretically posited quantity is intuitively compelling evidence that a theory is, loosely speaking, on the right track. But exactly what conclusion is warranted by such agreement? I propose a new account of the phenomenon's epistemic significance within the framework of Bayesian epistemology. I contrast my proposal with the standard Bayesian treatment, which lumps the phenomenon under the heading of "evidential diversity".
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