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  1. THE IDOLS OF THE CAVE AND CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: FROM NARCISSISM BIOPSICOCULTURAL.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2011 - Revista Filosofia Capital 6 (13):77-85.
    Correlating it to contemporary society, the article in question beckons with the reading of the idols of the cave [Bacon], holding specifically that the question involves the nature of the individual, whose trend can prevail only to adapt the framework of your perspective content resulting from the endoculturação, converging, in short, to the borders of dogma, as highlighted by the emergence of materialistic scientism, in the name of progress, establishing the techno-scientific belief in the assumptions, proposing the credibility of the (...)
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  2. From Water to the Stars: A Reinterpretation of Galileo’s Style.Louis Caruana - 2014 - In P. Lo Nostro & B. Ninham (eds.), Aqua Incognita: why ice floats on water and Galileo 400 years on. Ballart-Australia: Connor Court. pp. 1-17.
    The clash between Galileo and the Catholic Inquisition has been discussed, studied, and written about for many decades. The scientific, theological, political, and social implications have all been carefully analysed and appreciated in all their interpretative fruitfulness. The relatively recent trend in this kind of scholarship however seems to have underestimated the fact that Galileo in this debate, as in his earlier debates, showed a particular style marked by overconfidence. If we keep in mind the Lakatosian account of scientific development, (...)
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  3. Chomsky Vis-a-Vis the Methodology of Science.Thomas Johnston - manuscript
    (1) In the first part of this paper, I review Chomsky's meandering journey from the formalism/mentalism of Syntactic Structures, through several methodological positions, to the minimalist theory of his latest work. Infected with mentalism from first to last, each and every position vitiates Chomsky's repeated claims that his theories will provide useful guidance to later theories in such fields as cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. With the guidance of his insights, he claims, psychologists and neuroscientists will be able to avoid (...)
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  4. Global Epistemologies and Philosophies of Science.Inkeri Koskinen, David Ludwig, Zinhle Mncube, Luana Poliseli & Luis Reyes-Galindo (eds.) - 2021 - Routledge.
    In bringing together a global community of philosophers, Global Epistemologies and Philosophies of Science develops novel perspectives on epistemology and philosophy of science by demonstrating how frameworks from academic philosophy (e.g. standpoint theory, social epistemology, feminist philosophy of science) and related fields (e.g. decolonial studies, transdisciplinarity, global history of science) can contribute to critical engagement with global dimensions of knowledge and science. -/- Global challenges such as climate change, food production, and infectious diseases raise complex questions about scientific knowledge production (...)
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  5. (Mis)Understanding Scientific Disagreement: Success Versus Pursuit-Worthiness in Theory Choice.Eli I. Lichtenstein - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 85:166-175.
    Scientists often diverge widely when choosing between research programs. This can seem to be rooted in disagreements about which of several theories, competing to address shared questions or phenomena, is currently the most epistemically or explanatorily valuable—i.e. most successful. But many such cases are actually more directly rooted in differing judgments of pursuit-worthiness, concerning which theory will be best down the line, or which addresses the most significant data or questions. Using case studies from 16th-century astronomy and 20th-century geology and (...)
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  6. Was ist gute Wissenschaft? Philip Kitcher.Marie I. Kaiser - 2020 - In Johannes Müller-Salo (ed.), Analytische Philosophie. Eine Einführung. Paderborn, Deutschland: pp. 111-123.
  7. Theories of Well-Being and Well-Being Policy: A View From Methodology.Roberto Fumagalli - 2021 - Journal of Economic Methodology 28 (1):124-133.
    In the recent well-being literature, various theory-free accounts of well-being have been proposed to ground informative evaluations of policies’ welfare implications without relying on any specifi...
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  8. Heretical Geometry: Christian Wolff on the Impossibility of Dogmatic Conflict.Dino Jakusic - 2020 - Church History and Religious Culture 100 (2-3):287-300.
    This paper presents Christian Wolff’s claim that philosophy, undertaken on the basis of a proper method, cannot contradict revealed religion. The paper first provides a context of Wolff’s banishment from Halle for holding views in conflict with religious doctrines. Next, it proceeds, on the basis of Wolff’s Discursus præliminaris de philosophia in genere prefixed to his 1728 Latin Logic, to explain the principles of Wolff’s method, and to show how his conception of method enables him to disallow the possibility of (...)
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  9. Scientism After its Discontents.Andrés Pereyra Rabanal - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    Scientism has more notoriety than history proper for it has been identified with “positivism”, “reductionism”, “materialism” or “Marxism”, or even held responsible for the enforcement of science at the expense of other human affairs. The idea that scientific research yields the best possible knowledge lies at the very definition of “scientism”. However, even when science has shown a considerable amount of theoretical and practical successes, a rational confidence put on it as a mean for solving any factual problem has been (...)
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  10. Truth Through Nonviolence.Venkata Rayudu Posina - 2016 - GITAM Journal of Gandhian Studies 5 (1):143-150.
    What is reality? How do we know? Answers to these fundamental questions of ontology and epistemology, based on Mahatma Gandhi's "experiments with truth", are: reality is nonviolent (in the sense of not-inconsistent), and nonviolence (in the sense of respecting-meaning) is the only means of knowing (Gandhi, 1940). Be that as it may, science is what we think of when we think of reality and knowing. How does Gandhi's nonviolence, discovered in his spiritual quest for Truth, relate to the scientific pursuit (...)
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  11. EXPERIMENTOS MENTAIS COMO ARGUMENTOS: OBJEÇÕES À ABORDAGEM DE NORTON.Tiegue Vieira Rodrigues & Roberto Schimitz Nitsche - 2020 - Perspectiva Filosófica 46 (1):53-76.
    Entende-se que os experimentos mentais são dispositivos da imaginação que podem nos fornecer crenças que constituem conhecimento. John D. Norton apresentou uma abordagem que se tornou influente para explicar como os experimentos mentais científicos podem produzir novos conhecimentos so- bre o mundo. Ele afirma que não há nada distintivo nos experimentos men- tais, uma vez que sustenta que eles funcionam exatamente como argumen- tos. Neste artigo, contestamos sua abordagem. Examinamos aspectos essen- ciais de sua abordagem, que envolvem as noções de (...)
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  12. A Teoria da Demonstração Científica de Aristóteles em Segundos Analíticos 1.2-9 e 1.13.Davi Bastos - 2020 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 30:e03021.
    I defend an interpretation of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics Book I which distinguishes between two projects in different passages of that work: (i) to explain what a given science is and (ii) to explain what properly scientific knowledge is. I present Aristotle’s theory in answer to ii, with special attention to his definition of scientific knowledge in 71b9-12 and showing how this is developed on chapters I.2-9 and I.13 into a solid Theory of Scientific Demonstration. The main point of this theory (...)
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  13. Scientific Self-Correction: The Bayesian Way.Felipe Romero & Jan Sprenger - 2020 - Synthese (Suppl 23):1-21.
    The enduring replication crisis in many scientific disciplines casts doubt on the ability of science to estimate effect sizes accurately, and in a wider sense, to self-correct its findings and to produce reliable knowledge. We investigate the merits of a particular countermeasure—replacing null hypothesis significance testing with Bayesian inference—in the context of the meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes. In particular, we elaborate on the advantages of this Bayesian reform proposal under conditions of publication bias and other methodological imperfections that are (...)
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  14. Descriptive Psychology: Brentano and Dilthey.Guillaume Fréchette - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):290-307.
  15. Scientificity and The Law of Theory Demarcation.Ameer Sarwar & Patrick Fraser - 2018 - Scientonomy: Journal for the Science of Science 2:55-66.
    The demarcation between science and non-science seems to play an important role in the process of scientific change, as theories regularly transition from being considered scientific to being considered unscientific and vice versa. However, theoretical scientonomy is yet to shed light on this process. The goal of this paper is to tackle the problem of demarcation from the scientonomic perspective. Specifically, we introduce scientificity as a distinct epistemic stance that an agent can take towards a theory. We contend that changes (...)
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  16. Experimentation in Avicenna's Philosophy by Referring to Its Practical Application in His Works on Natural Sciences.Roohollah Fadaei & Reza Akbari - 2019 - Philosophy and Kalam 51 (2):245ß260.
    Avicenna, beside his theoretical discussions about experimentation, practically applied his experimental method to natural sciences studies such as medicine, biology, and meteorology. His theoretical discussions subsume propositions concerning the conditions under which experimental knowledge is attained, the components of this knowledge and its functions. Some of these propositions are as follows: necessity of recurrent observations for acquiring experimental knowledge, certainty plus conditional universality of such knowledge, and its role as demonstrative premises. Investigating the application of his theory in natural sciences (...)
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  17. The Postwar American Scientific Instrument Industry.Sean F. Johnston - 2007 - In Workshop on postwar American high tech industry, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, 21-22 June 2007.
    The production of scientific instruments in America was neither a postwar phenomenon nor dramatically different from that of several other developed countries. It did, however, undergo a step-change in direction, size and style during and after the war. The American scientific instrument industry after 1945 was intimately dependent on, and shaped by, prior American and European experience. This was true of the specific genres of instrument produced commercially; to links between industry and science; and, just as importantly, to manufacturing practices (...)
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  18. Computer Simulation Validation - Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives.Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam - 2019 - Springer.
    This unique volume introduces and discusses the methods of validating computer simulations in scientific research. The core concepts, strategies, and techniques of validation are explained by an international team of pre-eminent authorities, drawing on expertise from various fields ranging from engineering and the physical sciences to the social sciences and history. The work also offers new and original philosophical perspectives on the validation of simulations. Topics and features: introduces the fundamental concepts and principles related to the validation of computer simulations, (...)
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  19. Randomized Controlled Trials for Diagnostic Imaging: Conceptual and Pratical Problems.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):395-400.
    We raise a problem of applicability of RCTs to validate nuclear diagnostic imaging tests. In spite of the wide application of PET and other similar techniques that use radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes, RCT-based evidence on their validity is sparse. We claim that this is due to a general conceptual problem that we call Prevalence of Treatment, which arises in connection with designing RCTs for testing any diagnostic procedure in the present context of medical research, and is particularly apparent in this (...)
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  20. Philosophy of Science: A Short Introduction.Domenic Marbaniang - 2009 - Lulu Press.
    INTRODUCTION Philosophy of science is a study of the general nature of scientific practice, explanations, theories, and the relation of scientific knowledge ...
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  21. La ricerca scientifica sugli effetti placebo e nocebo: criticità metodologiche, rilevanza filosofica e prospettive sull’elaborazione predittiva.Alessio Bucci - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (3):280-285.
    ENG: In this brief commentary on Sara Palermo’s article, I highlight several methodological criticisms of the data analysis and hypotheses proposed by the author. I then focus on the relevance of nocebo/placebo studies for the contemporary debate on the mind/body problem. In particular, I show how these phenomena raise questions for dualistic and neurocentric approaches that are still prevalent in philosophy. Finally, I stress the role of expectations in nocebo/placebo models, with reference to a promising theoretical framework: the predictive brain. (...)
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  22. 1. A Conceptual Vocabulary of Interdisciplinary Science.Julie Thompson Klein - 2000 - In Peter Weingart & Nico Stehr (eds.), Practising Interdisciplinarity. University of Toronto Press. pp. 3-24.
  23. Summa und System: Historie und Systematik vollendeter bottom-up- und top-down-Theorien.Jens Lemanski - 2013 - Münster, Deutschland: mentis.
    ›Bottom-up‹ und ›top-down‹ sind heutzutage gängige Methodenbezeichnungen in allen Bereichen der Wissenschaft. Dennoch sind beide Methoden keine Entdeckung der Moderne, sondern wurden unter Begriffen wie beispielsweise ›Auf-‹ und ›Abstieg‹, ›Induktion‹ und ›Deduktion‹ in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte häufig verwendet, um komplexe Wissensbestände vollständig aufzuarbeiten und zu strukturieren. Paradigmatisch für eine derartige Aufarbeitung stehen die mittelalterliche Summa und das neuzeitliche System. Aktuellen Studien zufolge hat aber bereits Dionysius Areopagita in der Spätantike eine derartige Summe verfasst, während in der Neuzeit erst J. G. Fichtes (...)
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  24. Théorie, Réalité, Modèle.Franck Varenne - 2012 - Paris, France: Editions Matériologiques.
    Dans cet ouvrage, Franck Varenne pose la question du réalisme scientifique, essentiellement dans sa forme contemporaine, et ce jusqu’aux années 1980. Il s’est donné pour cela la contrainte de focaliser l’attention sur ce que devenaient sa formulation et les réponses diverses qu’on a pu lui apporter en réaction spécifique à l’évolution parallèle qu’ont subie les notions de théories et surtout de modèles dans les sciences, à la même époque. Même si, bien sûr, on ne peut pas attribuer le considérable essor (...)
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  25. Multiple Regression Is Not Multiple Regressions: The Meaning of Multiple Regression and the Non-Problem of Collinearity.Michael B. Morrissey & Graeme D. Ruxton - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (3).
    Simple regression (regression analysis with a single explanatory variable), and multiple regression (regression models with multiple explanatory variables), typically correspond to very different biological questions. The former use regression lines to describe univariate associations. The latter describe the partial, or direct, effects of multiple variables, conditioned on one another. We suspect that the superficial similarity of simple and multiple regression leads to confusion in their interpretation. A clear understanding of these methods is essential, as they underlie a large range of (...)
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  26. Putting the Pieces Back Together Again: Reading Newton’s Principia Through Newton’s MethodSteffen Ducheyne. “The Main Business of Natural Philosophy”: Isaac Newton’s Natural-Philosophical Methodology. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012. Pp. Xxv+352. $189.00 .William L. Harper. Isaac Newton’s Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xviii+424. $75.00. [REVIEW]Mary Domski - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (2):318-333.
  27. Knowing and Guessing.Gerard Radnitzky - 1982 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 13 (1):110-121.
    Summary Popper's methodology does not entail any playing down of the various indispensible distinctions such as the distinction between knowing and guessing, the distinction between myth and science, the distinction between the observational and the theoretical, and between the vernacular and technical sublanguages or technical vocabulary. By avoiding both the totalization that led to the foundationalist position and the scepticist reactions to these frustrated foundationalist hopes, Popper's methodology makes it possible to combine fallibilism with a realist view of theories. It (...)
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  28. Second Order Science: Examining Hidden Presuppositions in the Practice of Science.Michael Lissack - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (3):557-573.
    The traditional sciences have always had trouble with ambiguity. To overcome this barrier, ‘science’ has imposed “enabling constraints”—hidden assumptions which are given the status of ceteris paribus. Such assumptions allow ambiguity to be bracketed away at the expense of transparency. These enabling constraints take the form of uncritically examined presuppositions, which we refer to throughout the article as “uceps.” The meanings of the various uceps are shown via their applicability to the science of climate change. Second order science examines variations (...)
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  29. The Epistemic Superiority of Experiment to Simulation.Sherrilyn Roush - 2018 - Synthese 195 (11):4883-4906.
    This paper defends the naïve thesis that the method of experiment has per se an epistemic superiority over the method of computer simulation, a view that has been rejected by some philosophers writing about simulation, and whose grounds have been hard to pin down by its defenders. I further argue that this superiority does not come from the experiment’s object being materially similar to the target in the world that the investigator is trying to learn about, as both sides of (...)
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  30. Why Creationists Should Learn About Evolution: A. Laats and H. Siegel: Teaching Evolution in a Creation Nation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016, Viii+128, Cloth: $60.00, $20.00 PB. [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2017 - Metascience 26 (1):149-151.
    Positive review of Laats and Siegel (2016) *Teaching Evolution in a Creation Nation* (University of Chicago Press).
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  31. The Objectives of Science.David Miller - 2007 - Philosophia Scientiae 11 (1):21-43.
    Contesting the common opinion that, unlike the problem of induction, the problem of demarcation is of little significance, the paper maintains that Popper’s criterion of falsifiability gives an irresistible answer to the question of what can be learnt from an empirical investigation. Everything follows from the rejection of inductive logic, together with the recognition that, before it can be empirically investigated, a hypothesis has to be formulated and accepted. Scientific hypotheses emerge neither a posteriori, as inductivists hold, nor from some (...)
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  32. Decisions and Revisions: Philosophical Essays on Knowledge and Value.Peter Gärdenfors - 1987 - Journal of Philosophy 84 (12):747-752.
  33. A Consideration Of Babylonian Astronomy Within The Historiography Of Science.Francesca Rochberg - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (4):661-684.
    This paper traces the reception of Babylonian astronomy into the history of science, beginning in early to mid twentieth century when cuneiform astronomical sources became available to the scholarly public. The dominant positivism in philosophy of science of this time influenced criteria employed in defining and demarcating science by historians, resulting in a persistently negative assessment of the nature of knowledge evidenced in cuneiform sources. Ancient Near Eastern astronomy was deemed pre- or non-scientific, and even taken to reflect a stage (...)
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  34. The Asymmetric Carbon Atom: A Case Study of Independent Discovery: An Inductivist Model for Scientific Method.Hannah Gay - 1978 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (3):207.
  35. Theory and Evidence. [REVIEW]A. F. M. - 1980 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (1):135-137.
    After a chapter which is an introduction to and summary of the rest of the book, chapter 2 begins by criticizing various attempts to do away with theories, such as the Reichenbach-Salmon conception of theoretical truth in terms of observational consequences, and the Ramsey strategy of replacing first-order theoretical sentences by second-order nontheoretical ones; it then argues against hypothetico-deductivist theories of confirmation on the grounds that they are unable to handle the relevance of evidence to theory, whether or not other (...)
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  36. Conservatism and the Scientific State of Nature.Erich Kummerfeld & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (4):1057-1076.
    Those who comment on modern scientific institutions are often quick to praise institutional structures that leave scientists to their own devices. These comments reveal an underlying presumption that scientists do best when left alone—when they operate in what we call the ‘scientific state of nature’. Through computer simulation, we challenge this presumption by illustrating an inefficiency that arises in the scientific state of nature. This inefficiency suggests that one cannot simply presume that science is most efficient when institutional control is (...)
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  37. The Rationality of Science. [REVIEW]David Christensen & W. H. Newton-Smith - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (3):471.
  38. The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science. [REVIEW]Sherrilyn Roush & Nicholas Maxwell - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):85.
    Relatively few philosophers of science today could do all of what Nicholas Maxwell does without hesitating: treat theoretical physics as indicative of all science because it is deemed fundamental, observe and expect science to exhibit a cumulative history of more and more unified knowledge, claim to solve the problem of induction, and insist that philosophy, particularly metaphysics, is crucially relevant to ongoing progress in science. Maxwell is distinctly out of fashion—this is no dappled world—but in hewing to a line he (...)
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  39. VIII.—On the Structure of Scientific Inquiry.Dorothy Wrinch - 1921 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 21 (1):181-210.
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  40. XII.—Objectivity in Science.A. E. Heath - 1926 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 26 (1):211-224.
  41. II.—Philosophy and Scientific Method.J. A. Passmore - 1949 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 49 (1):17-32.
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  42. VII.—The Scope of the Scientific Method.A. E. Heath - 1919 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 19 (1):179-207.
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  43. Great Scientists of Old as Heretics in "The Scientific Method". C. Truesdell. [REVIEW]Alan E. Shapiro - 1989 - Isis 80 (3):500-501.
  44. Defending Limited Non-Deference to Science Experts.Lawrence Lengbeyer - unknown
    Scientists and their supporters often portray as exasperatingly irrational all those laypersons who refuse to accede to practical recommendations issued by expert scientists and 'science appliers'. After first considering the latter groups’ standard explanations for such non-deference, which focus upon irrationalities besetting the laity, I will propose that a better explanation for at least some of the non-deference is that many laypersons are rationally electing to substitute their own judgments for those urged upon them by the scientific community. Science-based recommendations, (...)
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  45. Hypothesis and Perception: The Roots of Scientific Method.Errol E. Harris - 1970 - Routledge.
    First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  46. Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine.Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:45-48.
  47. Turning Refracting Into a Science: F. C. Donders' ‘Scientific Reform’ of Lens Prescription.Bert Theunissen - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (4):557-578.
  48. Connecting Information with Scientific Method: Darwin’s Significance for Epistemology.Matthias Kuhle & Sabine Kuhle - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (2):333-357.
    Theories of epistemology make reference—via the perspective of an observer—to the structure of information transfer, which generates reality, of which the observer himself forms a part. It can be shown that any epistemological approach which implies the participation of tautological structural elements in the information transfer necessarily leads to an antinomy. Nevertheless, since the time of Aristotle the paradigm of mathematics—and thus tautological structure—has always been a hidden ingredient in the various concepts of knowledge acquisition or general theories of information (...)
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  49. The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science: Opening Conference of the ESF-Research Networking Programme “The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective”.Friedrich Stadler, Donata Romizi & Miles MacLeod - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):129-136.
  50. The Complementarity of Science and Metaphysics.Cláudia Ribeiro - 2015 - Philosophica 90.
    A renewed interest in the old problem of the relationship between science and metaphysics has been fuelled by the ongoing debate between naturalistic metaphysicians and non-naturalistic metaphysicians. However, I maintain that this debate is missing the mark because it is focused on the problem of the credibility of a metaphysics that is not ‘scientific’, instead of focusing on the presence of metaphysics in science. In order to show that metaphysics pervades all stages of scientific inquiry, and after analysing the distinction (...)
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