Freud proposes that in unconscious processing, logical connections are also (heavily) based upon phonological similarities. Repressed concerns, for example, would also be expressed by way of phonologic ambiguity. In order to investigate a possible unconscious influence of phonological similarity, 31 participants were submitted to a tachistoscopic subliminal priming experiment, with prime and target presented at 1ms. In the experimental condition, the prime and one of the 2 targets were phonological reversed forms of each other, though graphemically dissimilar (e.g., “nice” and (...) “sign”); in the control condition the targets were pseudo-randomly attributed to primes to which they don’t belong. The experimental task was to “blindly” pick the choice most similar to the prime. ERPs were measured with a focus on the N320, which is known to react selectively to phonological mismatch in supraliminal visual word presentations. The N320 amplitude-effects at the electrodes on the midline and at the left of the brain significantly predicted the participants’ net behavioral choices more than half a second later, while their subjective experience is one of arbitrariness. Moreover, the social desirability score (SDS) significantly correlates with both the behavioral and the N320 brain responses of the participants. It is proposed that in participants with low SDS the phonological target induces an expected reduction of N320 and this increases their probability to pick this target. In contrast, high defensive participants have a perplexed brain reaction upon the phonological target, with a negatively peaking N320 as compared to control and this leads them to avoid this target more often. Social desirability, which is understood as reflecting defensiveness, might also manifest itself as a defense against the (energy-consuming) ambiguity of language. The specificity of this study is that all of this is happening totally out of awareness and at the level of very elementary linguistic distinctions. (shrink)
Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...) marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual's unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning. (shrink)
This book seeks to critically expound and appraise the thoughts of the foremost British philosopher, J.M.E. McTaggart, with respect to three principal themes of his philosophy: substance, self, and immortality. Sharma draws on all of McTaggart’s major writings to provide a comprehensive exposition of his overall theory of reality.
Lab VIEW is frameworks designing programming for applications that require test, estimation, and control with fast access to equipment and information experiences. Lab VIEW By National Instruments is very good graphical programming tool for Engineers. Lab VIEW can be interface may peripheral devices for getting data from surrounding, different type of sensors and other hardware. In this Paper we are showing interfacing of PLC to Lab VIEW software for our application.
Long‐range correlation is a general class of coordination pattern found to be common to the intrinsic dynamics of complex systems, including human behavior. Balasubramaniam, Hove, and Médé investigate intrinsic dynamics in repeated finger movements, and they find that different measures of movement dynamics yield different long‐range correlations. Results shed light on the way that coordination patterns are expressed as a function of measurement context.
Haluk Ogmen and Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.): The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 61-65 DOI 10.1007/s11023-011-9266-7 Authors Ramesh Kumar Mishra, Centre of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Allahabad University, Allahabad, India Journal Minds and Machines Online ISSN 1572-8641 Print ISSN 0924-6495 Journal Volume Volume 22 Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1.
It is proposed here that Webb's ideas about robots as possible models of animals need some rethinking. In our view, even though widely used biorobotics strategies are fairly successful at reproducing the macroscopic behavior of biological systems, there are still several problems unresolved on the side of robotics as well as biology. Both mathematical and hardware-like robotics models should be feasible physiologically. Control principles elaborated in robotics are not necessarily applied to biological control systems. Although observations of flying birds inspired (...) aerodynamics and thus modern airplanes, little knowledge has been added to the neurophysiological principles underlying flight in birds. Chess playing computers might outperform most chess players, but they cannot be considered as physiologically feasible models of human thinking. (shrink)
Deep and universal spirituality is evident in the life and teachings of all the founders of great world faiths. Over time, however, it gets clouded under the institutional and doctrinal structure of the religion that surrounds it. This book, Interfaith Spirituality: Toward Universal Faith beyond Dogmas, by Ramesh N. Patel, stands out by emphasizing and articulating the noble and inspirational spirituality of world faiths, Eastern and Western. The faiths chosen for narration are Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and (...) Hinduism. -/- The book goes farther than bringing out the spirituality of Eastern and Western faiths. For, it offers intellectually sound thinking toward relieving the age-old tensions between faiths, such as the numinous and the mystical, monotheism and non-dualism, privileging of believers against open-ended tolerance of differences and so on. -/- A further standout feature of the book is its diving deep to pick out pearls of spiritual wisdom from the world faiths and weaving them into thoughtful necklaces which it calls thought experiments in world spirituality. To top it all is offered an optimal universal spirituality that is comprehensive in scope and universal in application. It manifests a flower with spiritual outlines in four petals of work, faith, concept and contemplation. Spiritual seekers from diverse dimensions of life will find this useful and supportive. -/- The book, Interfaith Spirituality, thus is not just innovative. It offers a message of healing and calming moderation for a world that is torn by polarizing conflicts of various sorts. (shrink)
Mahatma Gandhi is regarded as an apostle of nonviolence. But his own thought prioritized truth as the final goal and nonviolence only as the preferred means to achieve the goal. Hence, it is of utmost importance to understand clearly what Gandhi meant by “truth.” Gandhi himself did not offer great help in communicating his concept of truth. He claimed, though, that it was easier for him to grasp truth as he conceived it and that he struggled to grasp nonviolence. Kishorlal (...) Mashruwala, an intellectually inclined close associate and follower of Gandhi wrote a book called Gandhi Vichar Dohan or Quintessence of Gandhi’s Thought in Gujarati. Mashruwala was a clear and systematic thinker and Gandhi approved of the book as accurate depiction of his own, Gandhi’s, thinking. The book has never been translated in English. The present work, Mahatma Gandhi’s Thought: Philosophy of Truth and Nonviolence, by Professor Ramesh N. Patel, is first in publishing relevant parts of that book. It clarifies the dual concept of truth that Gandhi developed and worked with. The concept sports highly original and innovative thinking that, at the same time, reflects an ethic that would challenge anyone to the extreme. Greatness of Gandhi is made obvious when it is realized that he lived this original concept of extremely challenging truth ethic fully through his life. The present work goes ahead to show how Gandhi’s concept of truth logically works as the prime source from which nonviolence and other Gandhian concepts are derived. It also presents Gandhi’s overall thought in a philosophically systematized manner. This is its unique feature compared to the enormous literature available on Gandhi which keeps painting him just as an apostle of nonviolence, focusing on his politically dramatic years. (shrink)
Adi Shankara is regarded as the greatest philosopher and spiritual leader in the very long history of India and one of the most influential thought leaders in world history. Estimates vary as to when he lived, with scholars placing it at 788-820 C.E. According to Shankara, there is only One Being, which is beyond language and thought because it is ultimate, infinite and all-pervasive. Being spiritual, this One Being is pure consciousness, unlike our normal consciousness which always requires subject-object duality. (...) The One Being is non-dual, being one without a second. Shankara’s concept of One Being strikes intuitively true to many, though it sounds narcissistic to a few. Shankara presents a strong rationale in its support and outlines a whole life path to reach the One Being in actual experience. As a concept One Being is a rational alternative to the traditional idea of God viewed as a divine person. Its spirituality is a constructive alternative to the atheist’s mere denial of God. This book, One Being, by Ramesh N. Patel, describes and explores Adi Shankara’s spiritual path and its supporting philosophy in an accessible and intelligible way for the serious modern reader interested in this challenging but highly rewarding subject. The reader is taken step by step through Shankara’s life, work, nature of knowledge, reality, life ethics, karma and details of the spiritual path of knowledge. In today's strife torn and bipolarized times, One Being is all the more relevant for its obvious potential as a spiritual healer bringing a harmonious message of unity in diversity. Ramesh N. Patel was Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Antioch College where he taught for twenty-five years, retiring in 2002. Since then he has been teaching voluntary classes in Bhagavad-gita, Upanishads, Vedic philosophy and Spiritual Studies. He is the author of Philosophy of the Gita and of Hinduism for Today. (shrink)
The book called "Philosophy of the Gita," by Prof. Ramesh N. Patel, is a striking philosophical study of the celebrated Sanskrit text called the Bhagavad-gita which is known simply as the Gita. Patel's book proposes and develops a new hermeneutic called archaic coherentism and applies it to the Gita to distill and decode a comprehensive metaphysic and philosophy of action embedded in the text. A new conceptual translation of the Sanskrit text brings out this philosophy in clear detail. Philosophical (...) essays preceding the translation include analysis of the often-neglected background of war and morality, discussion of action, freedom and self-identity, delineation of a new synoptic philosophy of Hinduism, and unearthing of a strikingly original and innovative metaphysics of existence, energy and triple individuation. The translation of the Gita is followed by two critical essays called "Emerging Philosophy" and "Coherence and Exegesis." Patel's translation focuses on the conceptual rendering of every term, with no Sanskrit word left untranslated, even including the tough ones like guna and Brahman. The essay called "Emerging Philosophy" does away with all Sanskrit terms, to facilitate the understanding of the newly decoded Gita's philosophy as a whole. The essay called "Coherence and Exegesis" critically examines several scholarly standpoints on the Gita with Patel's sound philosophical reasoning. The innovative philosophy of the Gita that emerges through the book's analysis includes an original theory of individuation revealing a Platonic-type Form of individuation evolving at three levels: essential, actional and physical. The book is written for professional philosophers and Sanskritist Indologists. It generally assumes familiarity with logical problems of philosophy and with Sanskrit terms in Indian philosophy. The author has a rare dual training in Sanskrit and philosophy. He skillfully exploits both in this book to achieve an unusual outcome that should be of great interest and challenge to both professional philosophers as well as scholars of Indology. (shrink)
Who am I? What is my true identity? What is the nature of self? Deepest self? What is the nature of the world? How are self and world related? What is the highest goal of life? These are the questions that Indian philosophy has wrestled with for millennia. Many of the answers it has produced are intimately involved with spirituality, both mystical and theistic. This work, called Self and World: Major Aspects of Indian Philosophy, by Ramesh N. Patel, explores (...) these time-tested answers that are deeply interesting, engrossing and enlightening. Yoga and Vedanta are two of the well-known philosophies of India that have attempted answers to the above questions about self and world. The classical Indian philosophy’s answers to questions about self and world span no less than three distinct religions and their spiritualities: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Besides yoga and vedanta, Hinduism has four other answers that have conversed with yoga and vedanta for centuries. Buddhism has four distinct answers that too have conversed with these philosophical and spiritual answers. These conversations have led to very productive exchanges by enriching the resulting development and evolution of each system’s answers. The exchange has made the philosophies stronger and diverse. The present work explores and describes these systems in their mature form which preserves their accumulated wisdom.Another feature of this work is its treatment of the philosophy of the ancient texts called the Vedas. Pandit Madhusudan Ojha has unearthed the lost philosophy contained in the Vedas. This Vedic philosophy sports a highly comprehensive yet coherent and relevant system of thought that is also important for its tremendous influence on all later Indian systems including yoga, vedanta and Buddhist systems. This book articulates Vedic philosophy and its historic influence on the thought on self and world in Indian philosophy. The deeply spiritual embedding of Indian philosophy’s thought about self and world is particularly relevant to today’s strife-torn and polarized world. We need themes of unity in diversity for healing current maladies. The spiritual thought systems of Indian philosophy narrated in the present work provide an array of choices which have great potential for this healing. For example, Buddhism is celebrated for its universal compassion, Jainism for its legendary non-violence and Hinduism for its tolerance of differences and respect for other faiths. This book shows how these positions are intellectually strengthened and secured by the Buddhist, Jain and Hindu thinkers. (shrink)
This substantive and important book, Seeing One in Many, by Professor Ramesh N. Patel, serves many needs and purposes. It also stands out in several ways. -/- First, seeing one spiritual being in our manifold universe is a hallmark of all spirituality. Highlighting this spirituality as a main feature of the world’s oldest living religion has obvious healing potential for the world’s polarizing conflicts of sundry nature that we have been witnessing with concern for a while. -/- This religion (...) happens to be one of the largest in the world. As such, it carries relevance for a significant section of humanity. Hinduism, called Sanatana Dharma, or eternal religion by many of its practitioners, has a lot to offer to the world community of spiritual seekers. However, this positive and constructive aspect of Hinduism has been overshadowed by negative image created by unsympathetic forces over the last couple of centuries. This work makes this manifest in an accessible dialog style. -/- The author puts his expertise in Sanskrit to skillful use in bringing out major features of spirituality embedded in the original Sanskrit literature which is the home of Hindu scriptures. As a trained Sanskritist he guides the reader beyond the daunting complexity and diversity of Hindu beliefs and practices toward a gentle but deep understanding of the defining themes of the Hindu spirituality. -/- Further, Ramesh utilizes his five decades of teaching experience in world religions for an effective and fruitful comparison of Hinduism with both other Eastern as well as Western religions of the world. The book is filled with thoughtful insights that bring the rich diversity of spiritual outlooks in world history to show how Hindu spirituality stands in relation to them. -/- Then, Ramesh exploits his training and specialization in Western philosophy to draw contrasts and comparisons of Western ethical theories with the Hindu value philosophy. He clearly shows how the Hindu philosophy comes out as a remarkably coherent integration of many theories of Western ethics. Ramesh also uses the Western logical notions of stipulative and descriptive definition to blend them with the classical indigenous ideas of external or tatastha and internal or svarupa lakshana or definition. The result is a salient four-point definition of Hinduism. -/- Like all mature traditions, Hinduism has its spectrum of outlooks ranging from radical left to radical right. Ramesh presents three major points of the spectrum of conservative, reform and moderate Hinduism. A productive dialog is depicted where a balanced moderate Hinduism emerges. -/- Toward the end of the book’s dialog, Ramesh applies his teaching experience in philosophy of science, history and social sciences to build further on the unique definition of Hinduism thus achieved. In all, this book is a solid comprehensive enunciation of Hindu thought and spirituality which should reward anyone with more than casual interest in the subject plentifully. -/- Ramesh N. Patel was Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Antioch College. He retired in 2002 after teaching for twenty-five years. He continues to teach voluntary courses in Bhagavad-gita, Upanishads, Hinduism and Spirituality Studies. (shrink)
Day-to-day lives are affected globally by the epidemic coronavirus 2019. With an increasing number of positive cases, India has now become a highly affected country. Chronic diseases affect individuals with no time identification and impose a huge disease burden on society. In this article, an Efficient Recurrent Neural Network with Ensemble Classifier is built using VGG-16 and Alexnet with weighted model to predict disease and its level. The dataset is partitioned randomly into small subsets by utilizing mean-based splitting method. Various (...) models of classifier create a homogeneous ensemble by utilizing an accuracy-based weighted aging classifier ensemble, which is a weighted model’s modification. Two state of art methods such as Graph Sequence Recurrent Neural Network and Hybrid Rough-Block-Based Neural Network are used for comparison with respect to some parameters such as accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, and relative absolute error. As a result, it is found that the proposed ERNN-EC method accomplishes accuracy of 95.2%, precision of 91%, recall of 85%, F1-score of 83.4%, and RAE of 41.6%. (shrink)
Grush has proposed a fairly comprehensive version of the idea of internal models within the framework of the emulation theory of representation. However, the formulation suffers from assumptions that render such models biologically infeasible. Here I present some problems from physiological principles of human movement production to illustrate why. Some alternative views to emulation are presented.
The paper entitled ‘Anthropocentric teleological environmental ethics’ is quite suggestive. I have tried to pinpoint that environmental ethics is both anthropocentric and teleological. I contend that man is the sole bearer of values. Environment serves human purpose. Man gives values to environment or Mother Earth. Indians with their reverence for sacred rivers have always been close to nature. I propose integral teleological environmental ethical theory which integrates man and nature, deontological and teleological theories. It reconciles between anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric views (...) of environment. (shrink)
Current EEG research emphasizes gamma band coherence as a signature of functional integration, that is, the solution to the binding problem. We note that spatial patterns of coherent neural activity are also observed at other EEG frequencies. If these oscillations reflect Nunez's resonant modes, they offer a solution to the binding problem that emerges naturally from the architecture of cortical connections.
Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a (...) tertiary care teaching hospital) during April and May 2003. Results The paper analyses 159 responses from doctors and nurses comprising junior doctors, consultants, staff nurses and sisters-in-charge. The frequency with which the respondents encountered ethical or legal problems varied widely from 'daily' to 'yearly'. 52% of senior medical staff and 20% of senior nursing staff knew little of the law pertinent to their work. 11% of the doctors did not know the contents of the Hippocratic Oath whilst a quarter of nurses did not know the Nurses Code. Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Code were known only to a few individuals. 29% of doctors and 37% of nurses had no knowledge of an existing hospital ethics committee. Physicians had a stronger opinion than nurses regarding practice of ethics such as adherence to patients' wishes, confidentiality, paternalism, consent for procedures and treating violent/non-compliant patients (p = 0.01) Conclusion The study highlights the need to identify professionals in the workforce who appear to be indifferent to ethical and legal issues, to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them. (shrink)