Results for 'Markku Myllykangas'

155 found
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  1.  56
    Opinions on conscientious objection to induced abortion among Finnish medical and nursing students and professionals.Petteri Nieminen, Saara Lappalainen, Pauliina Ristimäki, Markku Myllykangas & Anne-Mari Mustonen - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):17.
    Conscientious objection to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries.
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  2.  16
    Administrative due process when using automated decision-making in public administration: some notes from a Finnish perspective.Markku Suksi - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 29 (1):87-110.
    Various due process provisions designed for use by civil servants in administrative decision-making may become redundant when automated decision-making is taken into use in public administration. Problems with mechanisms of good government, responsibility and liability for automated decisions and the rule of law require attention of the law-maker in adapting legal provisions to this new form of decision-making. Although the general data protection regulation of the European Union is important in acknowledging automated decision-making, most of the legal safeguards within administrative (...)
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  3.  61
    Analyzing the Essence of Stakeholder Relationships: What do we Need in Addition to Power, Legitimacy, and Urgency? [REVIEW]Päivi Myllykangas, Johanna Kujala & Hanna Lehtimäki - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):65-72.
    This article contributes to the body of stakeholder literature by providing an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of stakeholder relationships as a part of change in value creation. The article presents an argument that the stakeholder salience model as a tool for analyzing stakeholder relationships is not sufficient for understanding business value creation. In the recent stakeholder literature, understanding business value creation has become an important theme. Through an analysis of an empirical case, the article shows how the three stakeholder (...)
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  4.  9
    Environmental Human Rights: A Political Theory Perspective.Markku Oksanen, Ashley Dodsworth & Selina O'Doherty (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of table -- Notes on contributors -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction: environmental human rights and political theory -- 1 The rights of humans as ecologically embedded beings -- 2 Defining the natural in the Anthropocene: what does the right to a 'natural' environment mean now? -- 3 Reconciliation of nature and society: how far can rights take us? -- 4 The foundation of rights to nature -- 5 Rights to natural resources and (...)
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  5.  1
    The Cambridge Companion to Bacon.Markku Peltonen & Peltonen Markku (eds.) - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    There are also essays on Bacon's theory of rhetoric and history as well as on his moral and political philosophy and on his legacy. Throughout the contributors aim to place Bacon in his historical context.
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  6. Sustainable development and human capital in the network society: The challenge Europe is facing in the future.Markku Wilenius - 2002 - Communication and Cognition. Monographies 35 (1-2):75-99.
     
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  7. The “Death” of Monads: G. W. Leibniz on Death and Anti-Death.Roinila Markku - 2016 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti Death, vol. 14: Four Decades after Michael Polanyi, Three Centuries after G. W. Leibniz. Ann Arbor: RIA University Press. pp. 243-266.
    According to Leibniz, there is no death in the sense that the human being or animal is destroyed completely. This is due to his metaphysical pluralism which would suffer if the number of substances decreased. While animals transform into other animals after “death”, human beings are rewarded or punished of their behavior in this life. This paper presents a comprehensive account of how Leibniz thought the “death” to take place and discusses his often unclear views on the life after death. (...)
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  8. Leibniz ja Eythyfronin dilemma.Markku Roinila - 2010 - In Kristian Klockars, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Kristina Rolin (eds.), Oikeus. University of Helsinki.
    Julkaisematta jääneessä muistiossaan Mietteitä oikeuden yleiskäsitteestä (1702-1703?) G. W. Leibniz muotoilee uudelleen Platonin Euthyfron-dialogissa esitetyn kuuluisan kysymyksen. Hän kirjoittaa: ”Myönnetään, että kaikki mitä Jumala tahtoo, on hyvää ja oikein. Sen sijaan kysytään, onko se hyvää ja oikein siksi että Jumala niin tahtoo, vai tahtooko Jumala sitä koska se on hyvää ja oikein. Eli kysytään, onko hyvyys tai oikeus jotakin mielivaltaista, vai koostuvatko ne asioiden luonnetta koskevista välttämättömistä ja ikuisista totuuksista, kuten luvut ja suhteet.” Universaaleja, ikuisia totuuksia puolustava filosofi ei voi (...)
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  9.  4
    8. Governmental accountability in autonomies: Åland Islands in comparison with select autonomies in Europe and elsewhere1. [REVIEW]Markku Suksi - 2009 - In Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt (ed.), New Directions in Comparative Law. Edward Elgar. pp. 108.
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  10.  25
    On Thinking the Tragic with Adorno.Markku Nivalainen - 2016 - The European Legacy 21 (7):644-663.
    This article seeks to provide a template for understanding the tragic dimension of Theodor W. Adorno’s philosophy through a reading of his early collaborative work with Max Horkheimer, the Dialectic of Enlightenment. While Adorno’s view has often been considered to be tragic, little has been done to reconstruct the tragic dimension of his thought. I argue that the view of the human condition, presented in the Dialectic of Enlightenment, is founded on metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical convictions that have structural similarities (...)
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  11. Acta Philosophica Fennica.Tim De Mey Markku Keinänen (ed.) - 2008 - The Philosophical Society of Finland.
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  12. Markku Oksanen and Juhani Pietarinen, eds., Philosophy and Biodiversity Reviewed by.Roger Petry - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (5):369-372.
     
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  13.  21
    All History is, More or Less, Intellectual History: R. G. Collingwood's Contribution to the Theory and Methodology of Intellectual History.Markku Hyrkkänen - 2009 - Intellectual History Review 19 (2):251-263.
  14. Quantity Tropes and Internal Relations.Markku Keinänen, Antti Keskinen & Jani Hakkarainen - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (3):519-534.
    In this article, we present a new conception of internal relations between quantity tropes falling under determinates and determinables. We begin by providing a novel characterization of the necessary relations between these tropes as basic internal relations. The core ideas here are that the existence of the relata is sufficient for their being internally related, and that their being related does not require the existence of any specific entities distinct from the relata. We argue that quantity tropes are, as determinate (...)
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  15. Tropes – The Basic Constituents of Powerful Particulars.Markku Keinänen - 2011 - Dialectica 65 (3):419-450.
    This article presents a trope bundle theory of simple substances, the Strong Nuclear Theory[SNT] building on the schematic basis offered by Simons's (1994) Nuclear Theory[NT]. The SNT adopts Ellis's (2001) dispositional essentialist conception of simple substances as powerful particulars: all of their monadic properties are dispositional. Moreover, simple substances necessarily belong to some natural kind with a real essence formed by monadic properties. The SNT develops further the construction of substances the NT proposes to obtain an adequate trope bundle theory (...)
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  16. Bundle Theory with Kinds.Markku Keinänen & Tuomas E. Tahko - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (277):838-857.
    Is it possible to get by with just one ontological category? We evaluate L.A. Paul's attempt to do so: the mereological bundle theory. The upshot is that Paul's attempt to construct a one category ontology may be challenged with some of her own arguments. In the positive part of the paper we outline a two category ontology with property universals and kind universals. We will also examine Paul's arguments against a version of universal bundle theory that takes spatiotemporal co-location instead (...)
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  17.  11
    Deborah J. Neill. Networks in Tropical Medicine: Internationalism, Colonialism, and the Rise of a Medical Specialty, 1890–1930. xiii + 292 pp., illus., bibl., index. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2012. $65. [REVIEW]Markku Hokkanen - 2013 - Isis 104 (1):177-178.
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  18. The Problem of Trope Individuation: A Reply to Lowe.Markku Keinänen & Jani Hakkarainen - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (1):65-79.
    This paper is the first trope-theoretical reply to E. J. Lowe’s serious dilemma against trope nominalism in print. The first horn of this dilemma is that if tropes are identity dependent on substances, a vicious circularity threatens trope theories because they must admit that substances are identity dependent on their constituent tropes. According to the second horn, if the trope theorist claims that tropes are identity independent, she faces two insurmountable difficulties. (1) It is hard to understand the ontological dependence (...)
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  19.  1
    The Transcendental How: Kant's Transcendental Deduction of Objective Cognition.Markku Leppäkoski - 1993 - Almqvist & Wiksell.
  20. Why Realists Need Tropes.Markku Keinänen, Jani Hakkarainen & Antti Keskinen - 2016 - Metaphysica 17 (1):69-85.
    We argue that if one wishes to be a realist, one should adopt a Neo-Aristotelian ontology involving tropes instead of a Russellian ontology of property universals and objects. Either Russellian realists should adopt the relata-specific relational tropes of instantiation instead of facts, or convert to Neo-Aristotelian realism with monadic tropes. Regarding Neo-Aristotelian realism, we have two novel points why it fares better than Russellian realism. Instantiation of property universals by tropes and characterization or inherence between tropes and objects are more (...)
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  21. Lowe’s Eliminativism about Relations and the Analysis of Relational Inherence.Markku Keinänen - 2022 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), E. J. Lowe and Ontology. London: Routledge. pp. 105-122.
    Contrary to widely shared opinion in analytic metaphysics, E.J. Lowe argues against the existence of relations in his posthumously published paper There are probably no relations (2016). In this article, I assess Lowe’s eliminativist strategy, which aims to show that all contingent “relational facts” have a monadic foundation in modes characterizing objects. Second, I present two difficult ontological problems supporting eliminativism about relations. Against eliminativism, metaphysicians of science have argued that relations might well be needed in the best a posteriori (...)
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  22. Persistence of Simple Substances.Markku Keinänen & Jani Hakkarainen - 2010 - Metaphysica 11 (2):119-135.
    In this paper, we argue for a novel three-dimensionalist solution to the problem of persistence, i.e. cross-temporal identity. We restrict the discussion of persistence to simple substances, which do not have other substances as their parts. The account of simple substances employed in the paper is a trope-nominalist strong nuclear theory, which develops Peter Simons' trope nominalism. Regarding the distinction between three dimensionalism and four dimensionalism, we follow Michael Della Rocca's formulation, in which 3D explains persistence in virtue of same (...)
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  23. Biopolitical Displacement and the Antinomies of Biopolitical Reason.Markku Koivusalo - 2000 - In Sakari Hänninen & Jussi Vähämäki (eds.), Displacement of Politics. International Specialized Book Services.
     
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  24. Pakolaisen kuolema.Markku Koivusalo - 2004 - In Markku Roinila & Timo Kaitaro (eds.), Filosofin Kuolema. Summa.
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  25.  63
    Random paired scenarios--a method for investigating attitudes to prioritisation in medicine.O. P. Ryynanen, M. Myllykangas, T. Vaskilampi & J. Takala - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):238-242.
    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a method for investigating attitudes towards prioritisation in medicine. SETTING: University of Kuopio, Finland. DESIGN: The method consisted of a set of 24 paired scenarios, which were imaginary patient cases, each containing three different ethical indicators randomly selected from a list of indicators (for example, child, rich patient, severe disease etc.). The scenarios were grouped into 12 random pairs and the procedure was repeated four times, resulting in 12 scenario pairs arranged randomly in five different sets. (...)
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  26. Kinds of Tropes without Kinds.Markku Keinänen, Jani Hakkarainen & Antti Keskinen - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (4):571-596.
    In this article, we propose a new trope nominalist conception of determinate and determinable kinds of quantitative tropes. The conception is developed as follows. First, we formulate a new account of tropes falling under the same determinates and determinables in terms of internal relations of proportion and order. Our account is a considerable improvement on the current standard account (Campbell 1990; Maurin 2002; Simons 2003) because it does not rely on primitive internal relations of exact similarity or quantitative distance. The (...)
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  27.  29
    The Two Steps of the B-Deduction.Markku Leppäkoski - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:107-116.
    Since the publication of Dieter Henrich's classic paper, ‘The proof structure of the transcendental deduction’, in The Review of Metaphysics 22 , the transcendental deduction of the pure concepts of the understanding has been under focus in Kant studies in a very special way. The B-deduction seems to be a proof in two steps. Consequently, the focus has been on questions like, ‘What is the structure of the deduction?’, and ‘Why is the deduction carried out in two steps?’ No doubt (...)
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  28.  11
    The Transcendental Must Kant's Various Notions of Necessity.Markku Leppäkoski - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des Ix. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. Ii: Sektionen I-V. Bd. Iii: Sektionen Vi-X: Bd. Iv: Sektionen Xi-Xiv. Bd. V: Sektionen Xv-Xviii. De Gruyter. pp. 783-790.
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  29. Philosophy and Biodiversity.Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (1):124-127.
     
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  30.  34
    Against Nature - The Question of Mimesis in Heidegger's Philosophy of Art.Markku Lehtinen - 1999 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 11 (19).
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  31. The Ontological Form of Tropes - Refuting Douglas Ehring’s Main Argument against Standard Trope Nominalism.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):647-658.
    According to standard trope nominalism, there are simple tropes that do not have parts or multiply distinct aspects. Douglas Ehring’s reductio ad absurdum against this standard view concludes that there are no simple tropes. In this paper, we provide a response to Ehring defending the standard view. Ehring’s argument may be refuted by (1) distinguishing the ontological form of tropes from their contribution to the ontological content of the world, and (2) construing tropes as having primitive identity. At the same (...)
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  32. Kind Instantiation and Kind Change - A Problem for Four-Category Ontology.Markku Keinänen & Jani Hakkarainen - 2017 - Studia Neoaristotelica 14 (2):139-165.
    In Lowe’s Four-Category Ontology, instantiation is a basic formal ontological relation between particulars (objects, modes) and their kinds (kinds, attributes). Therefore, instantiation must be considered as a metaphysically necessary relation, which also rules out the metaphysical possibility of kind change. Nevertheless, according to Lowe, objects obtain their identity conditions in a more general level than specific natural kinds, which allows for kind change. There also seems to be actual examples of kind change. The advocate of Four-Category Ontology is obliged to (...)
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  33. Trope theories and the problem of universals.Markku Keinänen - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    This PhD thesis presents some of my earlier attempts to develop a trope bundle theory. It contains a fairly comprehensive discussion of Simons' (1994, 1998) views and Denkel's (1995, 1996) Saturation Theory, which might still be useful.
     
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  34.  56
    Philosophy and Biodiversity.Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This important collection focuses on the nature and importance of biodiversity. The concept is clarified and its intrinsic and instrumental value are discussed. Even though the term biodiversity was invented in the 1980s to promote the cause of species conservation, discussions on biological diversity go back to Plato. There are many controversies surrounding biodiversity and a few of them are examined here: What is worthy of protection or restoration and what is the acceptable level of costs? Is it permissible to (...)
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  35. A Trope Theoretical Analysis of Relational Inherence.Markku Keinänen - 2018 - In Jaakko Kuorikoski & Teemu Toppinen (eds.), Action, Value and Metaphysics - Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Finland Colloquium 2018, Acta Philosophica Fennica 94. Helsinki: Societas Philosophica Fennica. pp. 161-189.
    The trope bundle theories of objects are capable of analyzing monadic inherence (objects having tropes), which is one of their main advantage. However, the best current trope theoretical account of relational tropes, namely, the relata specific view leaves relational inherence (a relational trope relating two or more entities) primitive. This article presents the first trope theoretical analysis of relational inherence by generalizing the trope theoretical analysis of inherence to relational tropes. The analysis reduces the holding of relational inherence to the (...)
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  36. Instantiation and Characterization: Problems in Lowe's Four-Category Ontology.Markku Keinänen - 2018 - In Timothy Tambassi (ed.), Studies in the Ontology of E.J. Lowe. Neunkirchen-Seelscheid: Editiones Scholasticae. pp. 109-124.
    According to Lowe’s Four-Category Ontology, the general nature of the entities belonging to the four fundamental categories is determined by the basic formal ontological relations (instantiation and characterization) that they bear to other entities. I argue that, in closer analysis, instead of one formal relation of characterization, this category system introduces two, one connecting particulars and another universals. With regard to the characterization relation connecting particulars, it remains an open issue whether it would need further analysis. By contrast, the status (...)
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  37.  17
    Factors affecting the choice of cooking fuel, cooking place and respiratory health in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.Kwasi Owusu Boadi & Markku Kuitunen - 2006 - Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (3):403.
    Indoor air pollution resulting from the combustion of solid fuels has been identified as a major health threat in the developing world. This study examines how the choice of cooking fuel, place of cooking and behavioural risk factors affect respiratory health infections in Accra, Ghana. About 65·3% of respondents use charcoal and 4·2% use unprocessed wood. A total of 241 (25·4%) respondents who cook had had respiratory health symptoms in the two weeks preceding the study. Household socioeconomic status and educational (...)
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  38.  42
    Seppo Albert Kivinen universaalien identiteetti- ja eksistenssiehdoista.Markku Keinänen - 2022 - Ajatus 79: 53-71.
    This article (in Finnish) discusses Seppo Albert Kivinen's (1933-2021) views on identity and existence conditions of universals. Moreover, the article puts the views to larger context.
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  39.  21
    Species Conservation and Minority Rights: The Case of Spring Time Bird Hunting.Elisa Aaltola & Markku Oksanen - 2002 - Environmental Values 11 (4):443-460.
    The article examines the case of springtime bird hunting in Åland from a moral point of view. In Åland springtime hunting has been a cultural practice for centuries but is now under investigation due to the EU Directive on the protection of birds. The main question of the article is whether restrictions on bird hunting have a sound basis. We approach this question by analysing three principles: The animal rights principle states that if hunting is not necessary for survival, it (...)
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  40. Tahko metafysiikan ja tieteen suhteesta.Markku Keinänen - 2016 - Ajatus 73:255-267.
    [A comment paper on Tuomas Tahko's book An Introduction to Metametaphysics (CUP, 2016).] Pyrin tässä artikkelissa selvittämään, missä määrin Tuomas Tahkon kirjan An Introduction to Metametaphysics luvussa 9 esittämä käsitys tieteen ja metafysiikan suhteesta tuo selvyyttä metafysiikan luonteeseen itsenäisenä tutkimusalana. Analyyttinen metafysiikka on joutunut viimeisten viidentoista vuoden aikana kasvavan kritiikin kohteeksi. James Ladymanin (2012) mukaan viime aikoina suosittu käsitys metafyysisen teorian valinnasta teoreettisten hyveiden perusteella kohtaa niin sanotun vahvan globaalin alimääräytyneisyyden ongelman. Tahko pyrkii vastaamaan näihin huoliin esittämällä synteesiin E.J. Lowen (...)
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  41. Taxonomy of Relations: Internal and External.Jani Hakkarainen, Markku Keinänen & Antti Keskinen - 2018 - In Daniele Bertini & Damiano Migliorini (eds.), Relations. Ontology and Philosophy of Religion. Verona. Italy: Mimesis International. pp. 93-121.
    In this paper, we discern different types of possible relations. We focus on the distinction between internal and external relations and their various possible sub-types. In the first section, we present what is nowadays more or less the standard distinction between internal and external relations. In the second section, we make two contributions to the literature of internal relations: a new taxonomy of internal relations and a novel distinction between formal and material ontological relations. In the third section, we discuss (...)
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  42. Trooppiteoriat ja relaatiossa olemisen analyysi.Markku Keinänen - 2018 - Ajatus 75 (1):121-150.
    Trope theories aim to eschew the primitive dichotomy between characterising (properties, relations) and characterized entities (objects). This article (in Finnish) presents a new trope theoretical analysis of relational inherence as the best way out of the impasse created by the alleged necessity to choose between an eliminativist and a primitivist ("relata-specific") view about relations in trope theory.
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  43. Revisionaarinen metafysiikka.Markku Keinänen - 2008 - Ajatus 65:59-90.
    This article defends strong formal ontological conception of ontological categories against Lewis's "deflanationary" conception. Here, it sides with E.J. Lowe (1998) among others. However, the paper argues against Lowe's conception of metaphysics as an a priori science. Different category systems are compared and the best system is selected on the basis of its ability to accommodate our the best a posteriori conceptions of reality.
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  44.  14
    What's So Good About Biodiversity? A Call for Better Reasoning About Nature's Value.Markku Oksanen - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):109-112.
    Though the term ‘biodiversity’ is a neologism, the many ideas behind it are timeless. Classifications of place, species, and landraces occur across cultures and have facilitated human survival. The...
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  45.  12
    Andy Lamey, Duty and the Beast: Should We Eat Meat in the Name of Animal Rights?Markku Oksanen - 2021 - Environmental Values 30 (4):530-532.
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  46. Victory Day in History Politics.Markku Kangaspuro - 2011 - In Kahla Elina (ed.), Between Utopia and Apocalypse: Essays on Social Theory and Russia. Aleksanteri Institute. pp. 1--2924304.
     
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  47.  64
    Geometry, pregeometry and beyond.Diego Meschini, Markku Lehto & Johanna Piilonen - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (3):435-464.
  48. Biodiversity considered philosophically: an introduction.Markku Oksanen - 2004 - In Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.), Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  49. Filosofisen feminismin ytimessä. [REVIEW]Markku Oksanen - 2018 - Ajatus 75 (1):411-422.
    Feministisessä filosofiassa on paljon pohdittu sitä, mitä sukupuolella tarkoitetaan ja miten sukupuoli on olemassa, ja ratkaisut näihin määrittävät sitä, keiden intressejä tai kenen emansipaatiota feministisen filosofian on tarkoitus edistää. Näitä kysymyksiä tarkastelee myös Mari Mikkola kirjassaan The Wrong of Injustice. Mikkola lähestyy aihepiiriä feministisestä filosofiasta käsin analyyttisellä otteella. Hän hyödyntää enimmäkseen feministisen filosofian kirjallisuutta, arvostellen siinä vallitsevia peruskäsityksiä naisesta ja ylipäänsä sukupuolesta, puolustaen niiden sijaan humanistista feminismiä. Siten vaikka ei olisi kiinnostunut feministisen filosofian keskusteluista vaan pikemminkin epäoikeudenmukaisuudesta, vääryydestä sekä ihmisyyden (...)
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  50. Morality's Progress: Essays on Humans, Other Animals and the Rest of Nature.Markku Oksanen - 2004 - Environmental Values 13:261-263.
     
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