Heaven and Hell

Edited by K. Mitch Hodge (Masaryk University, Queen's University, Belfast)
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Summary

Although the English words “heaven” and “hell” are used to describe similar ideas in numerous religions and various philosophies, in philosophy of religion, they usually refer to eternal post-mortem spiritual realms in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic theological traditions.  Heaven is a permanent, eternal divine reward reserved for those who lived (in their Earthly life) morally upright, whereas Hell is a permanent, eternal divine punishment for those who have committed moral transgressions (commonly called “sins”) and have remained unrepentant.  In Catholic theology, a third spiritual realm is added called Purgatory in which the souls of those who have committed some (perhaps minor) moral transgressions can be purged of sins for some period of time and then allowed to join the blessed in Heaven.  It is often held that a soul with any amount of sin cannot be rewarded with a heavenly existence, since this existence is believed to be in the immediacy of God’s presence.  It is generally believed that any repentant soul can be completely forgiven by God; thus, no matter the moral transgression, if one were to repent prior to their death, she would be rewarded by being allowed to enter Heaven.  Heaven and Hell in these traditions are parts of philosophical/theological theodicies which aid in addressing the problem of evil.

Numerous philosophical problems arise from the doctrines of Heaven and Hell.  First, is it just for a divine being to punish infinitely (i.e., eternally) an individual for a finite sin?  Second, when coupled with the St. Paul’s doctrine of the resurrection of the body, how is the reward or punishment meted out to the actual individual rather than a replica (see the entry on resurrection concerning the replica problem)?  Third, would it really be just for someone who (most would believe) was an “evil” person (e.g., Hitler, Ted Bundy) to go to Heaven simply if they chose to repent immediately prior to their death? Fourth, is it just for a divine being to eternally punish an individual for a sin he was unaware he committed (for instance, a Buddhist who never believed in, or heard of, Jesus, which is required in Christianity)?  Along with these, many other problems concerning the Heaven and Hell have been discussed in theological and philosophical literature.

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  1. Heavenly "Freedom" in Fourteenth-Century Voluntarism.Eric W. Hagedorn - manuscript
    [Work in progress.] According to standard late medieval Christian thought, humans in heaven are unable to sin, having been “confirmed” in their goodness; and, nevertheless, are more free than humans are in the present life. The rise of voluntarist conceptions of the will in the late thirteenth century made it increasingly difficult to hold onto both claims. Peter Olivi suggested that the impeccability of the blessed was dependent upon a special activity of God upon their wills and argued that this (...)
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  2. From hell to polarity: Aggressively Non-D-Linked wh-phrases as polarity items.Anastasia Giannakidou & Marcel den Dikken - manuscript
    Pesetsky’s (1987) ‘‘aggressively non-D-linked’’ wh-phrases (like who the hell; hereinafter, wh-the-hell phrases) exhibit a variety of syntactic and semantic peculiarities, including the fact that they cannot occur in situ and do not support nonecho readings when occurring in root multiple questions. While these are familiar from the literature (albeit less than fully understood), our focus will be on a previously unnoted property of wh-the-hell phrases: the fact that their distribution (in single wh-questions) matches that of polarity items (PIs). We lay (...)
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  3. Election and Human Agency.Taylor Cyr & Leigh Vicens - forthcoming - In Edwin Chr van Driel (ed.), T&T Clark Handbook on Election. pp. 536-558.
    In Section 1, we begin by asking what, exactly, it might mean for God to “elect” people and how this relates to their agency and freedom. After getting clearer on what God is supposed to elect people to or for, we argue against the view that a person’s will is not involved in the process by which God elects her, which we identify in part as the person’s coming to have faith. But, in Section 2, we consider several reasons for (...)
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  4. Reincarnation and Universal Salvation.Akshay Gupta & Alex Gallagher - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    In this paper, we defend universalism, which we understand to be the thesis that all individuals will eventually attain communion with God, in a Vedāntic context. We first outline the specific ontological commitments that our view requires, such as the doctrines of karman and reincarnation, and we note one Vedāntic tradition that holds to all these commitments. We then outline the conceptual merits of our view. We also argue that certain objections to universalism do not undermine our view, as reincarnation (...)
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  5. An Epistemic Version of Pascal's Wager.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association:1-17.
    Epistemic consequentialism is the view that epistemic goodness is more fundamental than epistemic rightness. This paper examines the relationship between epistemic consequentialism and theistic belief. I argue that, in an epistemic consequentialist framework, there is an epistemic reason to believe in God. Imagine having an unlimited amount of time to ask an omniscient being anything you wanted. The potential epistemic benefits would be enormous. Considerations like these point to an epistemic version of Pascal’s wager. I compare and contrast the epistemic (...)
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  6. The Strange Implications for Bioethics of Taking Christianity Seriously.Stephen Kershnar - forthcoming - Sophia:1-21.
    In this paper, I argue for two theses. First, if Christianity is true, then morality should depend on the metaphysics of the afterlife. Second, if Christianity is true, then contemporary moral theory is mistaken. The argument for the first thesis rests on two premises. If rightness depends on an act’s effects on an individual, then—at least in part—it depends on the long-term effects on him. If rightness depends—at least in part—on the long-term effects on an individual, then it depends on (...)
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  7. Kvanvig, Jonathan, „Heaven and Hell “.Heaven Kvanvig - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8. Reading Scripture Philosophically: Augustine on 'God made heaven and earth'.Scott MacDonald - forthcoming - In WIlliam E. Mann Gareth B. Matthews (ed.), God and Mind in Augustine's Confessions. Oxford University Press.
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  9. Recension "Between Death and Resurrection A Critical Response to Recent Catholic Debate Concerning the Intermediate State". [REVIEW]Alejandro Pérez - forthcoming - Revue Théologique de Louvain 50.
  10. Not a Hope in Hell.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Beijing: Routledge.
    [The following is a draft abstract:] -/- This book aims to diagnose and tackle a problem concerning God's action. If God has good reasons for everything He does, then it does not seem as if God could do otherwise than He does. If God were to do otherwise than what He has good reason to do (we might think) God would act arbitrarily. While this general problem has been dealt with in various ways by philosophers, I propose that a specific (...)
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  11. William Arrowsmith in Heaven: A Sketch.Mark Rudman - forthcoming - Arion.
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  12. ‘Draw me after you’: Toward an erotic theosis.Aaron Brian Davis - 2023 - Scottish Journal of Theology 76 (2):139-152.
    In this article I propose an erotic theosis as a fruitful possibility for conceptualising our final participation in union with God in the beatific vision and for imaging said participation on earth. Particularly, I propose a synthesis of recent work from Oliver Crisp on theosis with that of Sarah Coakley on sexual desire as an especially helpful way in which to conceive of our ever-deepening participation in God's love. Further, this synthesis uses contributions from Erin Dufault-Hunter on the intersections of (...)
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  13. Free Will and the Moral Vice Explanation of Hell's Finality.Robert J. Hartman - 2023 - Religious Studies 59 (4):714-728.
    According to the Free Will Explanation of a traditional view of hell, human freedom explains why some people are in hell. It also explains hell’s punishment and finality: persons in hell have freely developed moral vices that are their own punishment and that make repentance psychologically impossible. So, even though God continues to desire reconciliation with persons in hell, damned persons do not want reconciliation with God. But this moral vice explanation of hell’s finality is implausible. I argue that God (...)
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  14. Il dolore dell’anima separata. Giovanni di Napoli e il consolidamento dell’escatologia tomista.Maria Evelina Malgieri - 2023 - Noctua 10 (1):106-134.
    q. 16 of John of Naples’ Quodlibet III – Utrum dolor vel passio damnatae animae separatae sit, sicut in subiecto immediato, in eius essentia vel potentia – evokes one of the most delicate debates, both from a theological and philosophical point of view, of scholastic eschatology between the end of the 13th century and the first decades of the 14th: that relating to the action of hellfire (considered, due to the auctoritas of Gregory the Great, corporeal and identical in essence (...)
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  15. Perfecting agents.Luke Henderson - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 93 (2):83-105.
    The focus of this paper is the process of perfecting agents. There are two views that attempt to explain what perfecting an agent looks like, specifically in the context of temporal requirements. One view claims that it is part of Christian orthodoxy that those destined for heaven will be instantaneously changed upon death from imperfect agents to perfect ones. The other view says that it’s impossible to perform an instantaneous change if the agent wants to maintain their personal identity; an (...)
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  16. Self-Defense for Theists.Blake Hereth - 2022 - Journal of Analytic Theology 10:246-276.
    According to Theistic Defensive Incompatibilism, common theistic commitments limit the scope or explanation of permissible self-defense. In this essay, I offer six original arguments for Theistic Defensive Incompatibilism. The first four arguments concern narrow proportionality: the requirement that the defensive harm inflicted on unjust threateners not exceed the harm they threaten. Hellism, Annihilationism, and Danteanism each imply that narrow proportionality is rarely satisfied, whereas Universalism implies that killing never harms. The final two arguments concern wide proportionality, or the requirement that (...)
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  17. Tres manuscritos inéditos de Báñez sobre la gracia y la libertad.David Torrijos Castrillejo - 2022 - Espíritu 71:11-39.
    This article transcribes three unpublished manuscripts by Domingo Báñez. The first is a review on the opuscule by Chrysostom Javelli on predestination. Báñez believes that this writing is Pelagian and advances several arguments which he will later use against Luis de Molina and the Molinists. The second is the last preserved writing by Báñez: a letter to the Master General of the Dominicans where he mentions his hope of seeing an end to the dispute on grace and free will. The (...)
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  18. An Embodied Existence in Heaven and the Non-Cartesian Substance Dualism (Revisited).Pérez Alejandro - 2021 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 2 (5).
  19. Compassionate Exclusivism: Relational Atonement and Post-Mortem Salvation.Aaron Brian Davis - 2021 - Journal of Analytic Theology 9:158-179.
    Faithful persons tend to relate to their religious beliefs as truth claims, particularly inasmuch as their beliefs have soteriological implications for those of different religions. For Christians the particular claims which matter most in this regard are those made by Jesus of Nazareth and his claims are primarily relational in nature. I propose a model in which we understand divine grace from Jesus as being mediated through relational knowledge of him on a compassionately exclusivist basis, including post-mortem. Supporting this model, (...)
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  20. Heavenly Freedom and Two Models of Character Perfection.Robert J. Hartman - 2021 - Faith and Philosophy 38 (1):45-64.
    Human persons can act with libertarian freedom in heaven according to one prominent view, because they have freely acquired perfect virtue in their pre-heavenly lives such that acting rightly in heaven is volitionally necessary. But since the character of human persons is not perfect at death, how is their character perfected? On the unilateral model, God alone completes the perfection of their character, and, on the cooperative model, God continues to work with them in purgatory to perfect their own character. (...)
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  21. Inaugurated Hyperspace.Ben Page - 2021 - Theologica 1 (5):1-22.
    Several philosophers of religion have used contemporary work on the metaphysics of space to dismantle objections to Christian doctrine. In this paper I shall also make use of work in the metaphysics of space to explore a topic in Christian thought that has received little attention by philosophers, namely inaugurated eschatology. My aim will be to take the conclusions of some biblical scholars who have written on this topic, and then begin to provide some metaphysical models of this doctrine, so (...)
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  22. Will there be races in heaven?Nathan Placencia - 2021 - In T. Ryan Byerly (ed.), Death, Immortality, and Eternal Life. Routledge. pp. 192-206.
    Drawing on work in the Philosophy of Race, this chapter argues that the existence of races in heaven is either incompatible or only questionably compatible with the mainstream Christian view of the afterlife. However, it also argues that there is a phenomenon adjacent and related to race that can exist in the afterlife, namely racial identity. If one thinks of racial identity as a kind of practical identity, it turns out that racial identity is primarily psychological. Thus, its existence in (...)
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  23. Exorcism.Andrej Poleev - 2021 - Enzymes.
    εἰ δὲ ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ ἐγὼ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, ἄρα ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ. Если же Я перстом Божиим изгоняю бесов, то, конечно, достигло до вас Царствие Божие. But if I drive out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
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  24. Review of "Hell and Divine Goodness" by James S. Spiegel. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2021 - Reading Religion 2021.
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  25. What Does the Happy Life Require? Augustine on What the Summum Bonum Includes.Caleb Cohoe - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 8:1-41.
    Many critics of religion insist that believing in a future life makes us less able to value our present activities and distracts us from accomplishing good in this world. In Augustine's case, this gets things backwards. It is while Augustine seeks to achieve happiness in this life that he is detached from suffering and dismissive of the body. Once Augustine comes to believe happiness is only attainable once the whole city of God is triumphant, he is able to compassionately engage (...)
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  26. Eleonore Stump. Atonement[REVIEW]Aaron Brian Davis - 2020 - Mcmaster Journal of Theology and Ministry 21:R31-R36.
  27. Is Heaven a Zoopolis?A. G. Holdier - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (4):475–499.
    The concept of service found in Christian theism and related religious perspectives offers robust support for a political defense of nonhuman animal rights, both in the eschaton and in the present state. By adapting the political theory defended by Donaldson and Kymlicka to contemporary theological models of the afterlife and of human agency, I defend a picture of heaven as a harmoniously structured society where humans are the functional leaders of a multifaceted, interspecies citizenry. Consequently, orthodox religious believers (concerned with (...)
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  28. Heavenly freedom, derivative freedom, and the value of free choices.Simon Kittle - 2020 - Religious Studies 56 (4):455-472.
    Sennett (1999) and Pawl & Timpe (2009; 2013) attempt to show how we can praise heavenly agents for things they inevitably do in heaven by appealing to the notion of derivative freedom. Matheson (2017) has criticized this use of derivative freedom. In this essay I show why Matheson's argument is inconclusive but also how the basic point may be strengthened to undermine the use Sennett and Pawl & Timpe make of derivative freedom. I then show why Matheson is mistaken to (...)
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  29. Desire Satisfactionism and Not-So-Satisfying Deserts.Toby Eugene Bollig - 2019 - Southwest Philosophy Review 35 (1):217-227.
    This paper appeals to certain popular doctrines about human welfare and morality to offer a new response to the problem of hell. In particular, I contend that the combination of desire satisfactionism, a subjective theory about welfare, with an objective theory of morality leads to a surprisingly intuitive and compelling argument for the consistency of the post-mortem punishment of people in hell with the existence of an omniperfect God. In fact, under these conditions, the existence of such a divine being (...)
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  30. The Free Will Defense Revisited: The Instrumental Value of Significant Free Will.Frederick Choo & Esther Goh - 2019 - International Journal of Theology, Philosophy and Science 4:32-45.
    Alvin Plantinga has famously responded to the logical problem of evil by appealing to the intrinsic value of significant free will. A problem, however, arises because traditional theists believe that both God and the redeemed who go to heaven cannot do wrong acts. This entails that both God and the redeemed in heaven lack significant freedom. If significant freedom is indeed valuable, then God and the redeemed in heaven would lack something intrinsically valuable. However, if significant freedom is not intrinsically (...)
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  31. Свети Августин: admirabile commercium и обожење (St. Augustine: Admirabile commercium and Deification).Aleksandar Djakovac - 2019 - Bogoslovlje 78 (2):64-85.
    The teaching of deification has long been emphasized as a peculiarity of Eastern Orthodox theology, which is unmatched by Latin fathers. Protestanttheologians reduced this teaching to the influence of paganism and explained it asone of the indicators of the unhealthy Hellenization of Gospel science. Accordingto the general agreement of contemporary scholars, St. Augustine not only speaksof deification but deification occupies a significant place in his theological system.We will try to analyze the most significant aspects of Augustine’s teaching on dei-fication in (...)
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  32. The Resurrection of the Minority Body: Physical Disability in the Life of Heaven.David Efird - 2019 - In Blake Hereth & Kevin Timpe (eds.), Lost Sheep in the Philosophy of Religion: New Perspectives on Disability, Gender, Race, and Animals. New York: Routledge.
    This chapter argues that there is no reason that there won’t be physical disabilities in the life of heaven. To argue for this conclusion, the chapter considers what bodies will be good for in the life of heaven. On the one hand, if the life of heaven is physically dynamic, that is, where our bodies change and we can do things with them, like play rugby and climb mountains, physical disabilities can be part of the limitations that allow the physical (...)
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  33. Comments on Toby Eugene Bollig’s “Desire Satisfactionism and Not-So-Satisfying Deserts: The Problem of Hell”.Liz Goodnick - 2019 - Southwest Philosophy Review 35 (2):57-59.
  34. Salvaging Pascal’s Wager.Elizabeth Jackson & Andrew Rogers - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):59-84.
    Many think that Pascal’s Wager is a hopeless failure. A primary reason for this is because a number of challenging objections have been raised to the wager, including the “many gods” objection and the “mixed strategy” objection. We argue that both objections are formal, but not substantive, problems for the wager, and that they both fail for the same reason. We then respond to additional objections to the wager. We show how a version of Pascalian reasoning succeeds, giving us a (...)
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  35. Review of "Paradise Understood: New Philosophical Essays About Heaven". [REVIEW]Elliot Knuths - 2019 - Religious Studies Review 45 (2):195.
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  36. Sinners in the Presence of a Loving God: An Essay on the Problem of Hell.R. Zachary Manis - 2019 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    In Sinners in the Presence of a Loving God, R. Zachary Manis examines in detail the several facets of the problem of hell, considers the reasons why the usual responses to the problem are unsatisfying, and suggests how an adequate solution to the problem can be constructed.
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  37. Annihilationism and the Eradication of All Sin.Alberto Oya - 2019 - Cauriensia 14 (1):551-556.
    Annihilationism claims that earthly death is followed by a divine judgment after which the wicked are condemned to a second death, while those who have lived their earthly life according to God's commands are blessed with a heavenly eternal existence. The aim of this essay is to show that, contrary to what defenders of annihilationism argue, the claim that God's victory over evil requires the complete eradication of all sin does not suffice alone to justify annihilationism.
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  38. Cartesian Dualism and the Intermediate State: A Reply to Turner Jr.Alejandro Pérez - 2019 - Forum: Supplement to Acta Philosophica 5 (1):269-281.
    In this paper, I propose to analyse two objections raised by Turner Jr in his paper “On Two Reasons Christian Theologians Should Reject The Intermediate State” in order to show that the intermediate state is an incoherent theory. As we shall see, the two untoward consequences that he mentions do not imply a metaphysical or logical contradiction. Consequently, I shall defend an Intermediate State and I shall propose briefly one metaphysical conception of the human being able to reply to Turner (...)
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  39. Infinite Value and the Best of All Possible Worlds.Nevin Climenhaga - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 97 (2):367-392.
    A common argument for atheism runs as follows: God would not create a world worse than other worlds he could have created instead. However, if God exists, he could have created a better world than this one. Therefore, God does not exist. In this paper I challenge the second premise of this argument. I argue that if God exists, our world will continue without end, with God continuing to create value-bearers, and sustaining and perfecting the value-bearers he has already created. (...)
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  40. Love and Death.Helen Daly - 2018 - In Simon Cushing (ed.), Heaven and Philosophy. Lexington Books. pp. 137-52.
    Imagine you find yourself in heaven after death, only to discover that the soul of your dearest love is suffering in hell. Would your bliss be marred by the suffering of your loved one? The “argument from love” challenges the traditional Christian conception of heaven and hell as places of perfect bliss and terrible suffering, respectively, on the grounds that no lover in heaven could be very happy if she were aware that her beloved was suffering in hell. Love requires (...)
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  41. The Agony of the Infinite: The Presence of God as Phenomenological Hell.A. G. Holdier - 2018 - In Simon Cushing (ed.), Heaven and Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 119-135.
    Much recent academic literature on the afterlife has been focused on the justice of eternity and whether a good God could allow a person to experience eternal suffering in Hell. Two primary escapes are typically suggested to justify never-ending punishment for sinners: the traditional view focuses the blame for an individual’s condemnation away from God onto the sinner’s freely chosen actions; the universalist position denies the eternality of the punishment on the grounds that God’s inescapable love and eventual victory over (...)
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  42. Some Problems of Heavenly Freedom.Simon Kittle - 2018 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 2 (2):97-115.
    In this essay I identify four different problems of heavenly freedom; i.e., problems that arise for those who hold that the redeemed in heaven have free will. They are: the problem arising from God's own freedom, the problem of needing to praise the redeemed for not sinning in heaven, the problem of needing to affirm that the redeemed freely refrain from sinning, and the problem arising from a commitment to the free will defence. I explore how some of these problems (...)
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  43. There could be a light that never goes out. The metaphysical possibility of disembodied existence.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2018 - Argumenta 3 (2):353-366.
    According to many philosophers, even if it is metaphysically possible that I exist without my present body or without my present brain, it is not metaphysically possible that I exist without any physical support. Thus, it is not metaphysically possible that I exist in some afterlife world, where I do not have any physical support. I shall argue against such a thesis by distinguishing two different notions of physical and by examining two strategies used by those who defend the thesis. (...)
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  44. ADN ou 'me? L’identité et la résurrection.Alejandro Pérez - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 61:183-193.
    Comment un homme pourrait-il changer qualitativement (voire perdre tous ses composants) et demeurer numériquement identique après la résurrection ? L’ADN étant l’identité de l’homme, serait-ce la solution ? Nous essayons d’y apporter une réponse à partir de l’essentialisme sérieux d’E. J. Lowe et l’hylémorphisme de Thomas d’Aquin. On propose d’établir la résurrection corporelle et le principe d’Inwagen comme deux étapes fondamentales pour la réflexion d’une ontologie de la résurrection. Cela nous conduit à penser une ontologie de l’âme, la thèse la (...)
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  45. Recension: “Chalamet C., Dettwiler A., Mazzocco M., Waterlot G., (Eds.), Game Over? Reconsidering Eschatology, coll. Theologische Bibliothek Töpelmann, Belin/Boston, De Gruyter, 2017.”. [REVIEW]Alejandro Pérez - 2018 - Nouvelle Revue Théologique 140:688.
  46. Purgatory, Hypertime, and Temporal Experience.Jonathan Curtis Rutledge - 2018 - Journal of Analytic Theology 6:151-161.
    Recently, JT Turner has argued that proponents of temporally-extended models of purgatory are committed to denying the doctrine of the parousia. Such persons typically argue that temporally-extended models of purgatory are needed to prevent the possibility that a morally imperfect human might become morally perfect too abruptly. In this article, I argue that Turner is mistaken and that by invoking hypertime and a clarification of the sort of abruptness at issue, temps can affirm both purgatory and the doctrine of the (...)
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  47. The Morally Difficult Notion of Heaven.Amir Saemi - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):429-444.
    I will argue that Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s faith-based virtue ethics are crucially different from Aristotle’s virtue ethics, in that their ethics hinges on the theological notion of heaven, which is constitutively independent of the ethical life of the agent. As a result, their faith-based virtue ethics is objectionable. Moreover, I will also argue that the notion of heaven that Avicenna and Aquinas deploy in their moral philosophy is problematic; for it can rationally permit believers to commit morally horrendous actions. Finally, (...)
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  48. Will we be free (to sin) in heaven?Michaël Bauwens - 2017 - In Simon Cushing (ed.), Heaven and philosophy. pp. 231-254.
    Since heaven is the most perfect state or position possible – namely of loving God perfectly – and sinning is failing to love God, it will not be possible to sin in heaven. However, if freedom is a mark of perfection, and loving God is only possible when one freely loves God, will we be loving God at all if we are not free not to love him? Three cumulative arguments for an affirmative answer are developed. The first is to (...)
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  49. Paradise Understood: New Philosophical Essays about Heaven.T. Ryan Byerly & Eric J. Silverman (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    A collection of seventeen philosophical essays that systematically investigate heaven, or paradise, as conceived within theistic religious traditions.
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  50. Heaven and Philosophy.Simon Cushing (ed.) - 2017 - Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    This volume is a collection of essays analyzing different issues concerning the nature, possibility, and desirability of heaven as understood by the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity. and Islam. Topics include whether or not it is possible that a mortal could, upon bodily death, become an inhabitant of heaven without loss of identity, where exactly heaven might be located, whether or not everyone should be saved, or if there might be alternative destinations (including some less fiery versions of Hell). Chapter (...)
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