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  1. Power, Harmony, and Freedom: Debating Causation in 18th Century Germany.Corey Dyck - forthcoming - In Frederick Beiser & Brandon Look (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Eighteenth Century German Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    As far as treatments of causation are concerned, the pre-Kantian 18th century German context has long been dismissed as a period of uniform and unrepentant Leibnizian dogmatism. While there is no question that discussions of issues relating to causation in this period inevitably took Leibniz as their point of departure, it is certainly not the case that the resulting positions were in most cases dogmatically, or in some cases even recognizably, Leibnizian. Instead, German theorists explored a range of positions regarding (...)
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  2. Leibniz’s Moral Psychology of an Evil Person.Evelyn Vargas & Markku Roinila - forthcoming - Dialogue.
    Our focus in this article concerns Leibniz’s views on evil. Our goal is to examine which are the consequences of his conception of moral agency for the moral psychology of the genuinely evil person. For Leibniz, moral failure is an epistemic error since it involves some false practical judgement. Moral maxims may be represented in blind or symbolic cognitions, but then moral agents can misrepresent the evil consequences of their behaviour. Finally, we discuss Leibniz’s view on habits that may help (...)
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  3. Leibniz’s Vectorial Model of Rational Decision-Making and Bounded Rationality.Markku Roinila - 2023 - Rivista di Filosofia 2023 (1):13-34.
    G. W. Leibniz developed a new model for rational decision-making which is suited to complicated decisions, where goods do not rule each other out, but compete with each other. In such cases the deliberator has to consider all of the goods and pick the ones that contribute most to the desired goal which in Leibniz’s system is ultimately the advancement of universal perfection. The inclinations to particular goods can be seen as vectors leading to different directions much like forces in (...)
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  4. Three Moral Themes of Leibniz's Spiritual Machine Between "New System" and "New Essays".Markku Roinila - 2023 - le Present Est Plein de L’Avenir, Et Chargé du Passé : Vorträge des Xi. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, 31. Juli – 4. August 2023.
    The advance of mechanism in science and philosophy in the 17th century created a great interest to machines or automata. Leibniz was no exception - in an early memoir Drôle de pensée he wrote admiringly about a machine that could walk on water, exhibited in Paris. The idea of automatic processing in general had a large role in his thought, as can be seen, for example, in his invention of the binary code and the so-called Calculemus!-model for solving controversies. In (...)
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  5. God Can Do Otherwise: A Defense of Act Contingency in Leibniz's Mature Period.Dylan Flint - 2022 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 39 (3):235-256.
    This paper locates a source of contingency for Leibniz in the fact that God can do otherwise, absolutely speaking. This interpretative line has been previously thought to be a dead-end because it appears inconsistent with Leibniz’s own conception of God, as the ens perfectissimum, or the most perfect being (Adams, 1994). This paper points out that the best argument on offer which seeks to demonstrate this inconsistency fails. The paper then argues that the supposition that God does otherwise implies for (...)
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  6. Leibniz on Agential Contingency and Inclining but not Necessitating Reasons.Juan Garcia - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (2):149-164.
    I argue for a novel interpretation of Leibniz’s conception of the kind of contingency that matters for freedom, which I label ‘agential contingency.’ In brief, an agent is free to the extent that she determines herself to do what she judges to be the best of several considered options that she could have brought about had she concluded that these options were best. I use this novel interpretation to make sense of Leibniz’s doctrine that the reasons that explain free actions (...)
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  7. Moral Necessity, Agent Causation, and the Determination of Free Actions in Clarke and Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2021 - In Marco Haussman & Jorg Nöller (eds.), Free Will: Historical and Analytic Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 165-202.
    On the standard interpretation, Samuel Clarke and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz endorse fundamentally different theories of free will. Clarke is typically interpreted as a libertarian who holds that freedom requires indeterminism. Leibniz, in contrast, is typically interpreted as a compatibilist who holds that free actions can be determined. This chapter challenges the standard interpretation and argues that Clarke and Leibniz agree almost completely about free will. Both require free actions to be instances of agent causation, and both view freedom as compatible (...)
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  8. The guise of the good in Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):48-62.
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz endorses a version of the guise of the good thesis: he holds that whenever we do something intentionally, we do it because it seems good to us. This paper explores Leibniz...
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  9. The modern guise of the good.Francesco Orsi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):1-4.
    The guise of the good is the claim that whatever I desire or intentionally do is seen by me as good in some respect. Historical scholarship has so far predominantly focused on ancient and medieval...
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  10. Leibniz on Freedom and Determinism in Relation to Aquinas and Molina.Didier Njirayamanda Kaphagawani - 2019 - Routledge.
    First published in 1999, this volume considers the 17th century philosopher Leibniz and his views on Freedom and Determinism, aiming to show that his solution is in many respects superior to those of Aquinias and Molina. The author thoroughly explores Leibniz in the light of Aquinas and Molina, first examining their positions on freedom and determinism, followed by Leibniz on freedom, contingency and determinism, the denial of freedom of pure indifference, freedom and divine foreknowledge and major interpretations of his philosophy.
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  11. Leibniz’s Kehre: From Ultradeterminism to the Philosophy of Freedom.Jürgen Lawrenz - 2018 - The European Legacy 23 (5):479-489.
    This article examines the rift in Leibniz’s conception of determinism after being rebuffed by the Parisian theologian Antoine Arnauld in their correspondence of 1686. As, in addition, his study of surds infracted his confidence in the “complete concept,” Leibniz embarked on a new, dynamic doctrine of substance or “law of the series.” In the literature, this strategy has been widely understood as “tweaking” the system to allow some self-assertion of free will. But as this article will show, it amounts to (...)
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  12. Una aproximación a la teoría leibniziana de la acción intencional desde su noción de máquina natural y su monadología.Roberto Casales García - 2017 - Dianoia 62 (78):99-117.
    Resumen: El presente trabajo pretende analizar algunos de los postulados principales de la ontología vitalista de Leibniz, en especial su noción de máquina natural y su propuesta monadológica, con la finalidad de demostrar la viabilidad en su pensamiento de una teoría de la acción. Se divide en tres partes: la primera examina la estructura compleja de las máquinas naturales, a partir de la cual se puede observar una composición dual de la acción; a partir de esto, la segunda parte distingue (...)
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  13. Reply to Donald Rutherford.Julia Jorati - 2017 - The Leibniz Review 27:199-208.
    This is a response to Donald Rutherford's review of Jorati, Leibniz on Causation and Agency. The review is published in Leibniz Review 27 (2017), 183-197.
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  14. Gottfried Leibniz [on Free Will].Julia Jorati - 2017 - In Kevin Timpe, Meghan Griffith & Neil Levy (eds.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. New York: Routledge. pp. 293–302.
    Leibniz was obsessed with freedom. He turns to this topic again and again throughout his long career. And what he has to say about freedom is much more resourceful and inventive than typically acknowledged. While building on medieval theories—for instance by describing freedom in terms of the relation between the agent’s will and intellect—he also adds radically new elements and even anticipates some views that are popular today. The combination of theses about free will that Leibniz endorses in his mature (...)
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  15. Leibniz on Causation and Agency.Julia Jorati - 2017 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a comprehensive examination of Gottfried Leibniz's views on the nature of agents and their actions. Julia Jorati offers a fresh look at controversial topics including Leibniz's doctrines of teleology, the causation of spontaneous changes within substances, divine concurrence, freedom, and contingency, and also discusses widely neglected issues such as his theories of moral responsibility, control, attributability, and compulsion. Rather than focusing exclusively on human agency, she explores the activities of non-rational substances and the differences between distinctive types (...)
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  16. Leibnizian Deliberation.Samuel Murray - 2017 - Quaestiones Disputatae 7 (2):120-138.
    Leibniz is an eclectic and ecumenical philosopher. He often worked out philosophical positions that reconciled seemingly opposed theoretical systems and chastised people for rejecting certain views too quickly. In this paper, I describe one episode of Leibnizian reconciliation. My target is the phenomenon of deliberation. Traditionally, philosophers have offered two different accounts of deliberation based on two different accounts of the compatibility of freedom and determinism. Leibniz, I argue, cannot accept either account because of his broader theoretical commitments. This leads (...)
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  17. Leibniz on Causation and Agency. [REVIEW]Donald Rutherford - 2017 - The Leibniz Review 27:183-197.
  18. Striving Possibles and Leibniz’s Cognitivist Theory of Volition.Andreas Blank - 2016 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 5 (2):29-52.
    Leibniz’s claim that possibles strive towards existence has led to diverging interpretations. According to the metaphorical interpretation, only the divine will is causally efficacious in bringing possibles into exisence. According to the literal interpretation, God endows possibles with causal powers of their own. The present article suggests a solution to this interpretative impass by suggesting that the doctrine of the striving possibles can be understood as a consequence of Leibniz’s early cognitivist theory of volition. According to this theory, thinking the (...)
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  19. Book Review - Leibniz – De Volder. Correspondance. Traduzido, anotado e procedido de uma introdução “L’ambivalence de l’action” por Anne-Lise Rey. Paris: Vrin, 2016. [REVIEW]Marta de Mendonça - 2016 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 72 (4):1325-1328.
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  20. Spontaneity in philosophical system of Kant and Leibniz.Amrolah Moein - 2016 - Metaphysics (University of Isfahan) 8 (22):1-18.
    spontaneity is a key concept of freedom in Kant and Leibniz philosophy. Leibniz defends spontaneity as a necessary condition for freedom, and defines it generally in terms of the absence of constraint. According to Leibniz, every substance is sole cause of all of its own states thus every change that occurs in it occurs spontaneously. Two type of spontaneity in Leibniz is determined by his commentators monadic spontaneity and agent spontaneity. Kant, from the Leibnizian tradition took the idea that spontaneity (...)
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  21. L’argument du « miracle perpétuel » et ses conséquences. Dispositions naturelles et action de la créature dans les derniers écrits de Leibniz.Francesco Piro - 2016 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 163 (3):407.
  22. Locke and Leibniz on Freedom and Necessity.Idan Shimony & Yekutiel Shoham - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Für Unser Glück Oder Das Glück Anderer, X. Internationaler Leibniz-Kongress. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. pp. Vol. 1, 573-588.
    Locke and Leibniz are often classified as proponents of compatibilist theories of human freedom, since both maintain that freedom is consistent with determinism and that the difference between being and not being free turns on how one is determined. However, we will argue in this paper that their versions of compatibilism are essentially different and that they have significantly distinct commitments to compatibilism. To this end, we will first analyze the definitions and examples for freedom and necessity that Locke and (...)
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  23. Presumption and Leibniz’s Metaphysics of Action.Andreas Blank - 2015 - In Adrian Nita (ed.), Leibniz’s Metaphysics and Adoption of Substantial Forms: Between Continuity and Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 89-106.
  24. Three Types of Spontaneity and Teleology in Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (4):669-698.
    it is one of the central commitments of Leibniz’s mature metaphysics that all substances or monads possess perfect spontaneity, that is, that all states of a given monad originate within it.1 Created monads do not truly interact with each other, for Leibniz. Instead, each one produces all of its states single-handedly, requiring only God’s ordinary concurrence. Several commentators have pointed out that implicit in Leibniz’s view is a distinction between different types of spontaneity: a general type of spontaneity that all (...)
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  25. Leibnizin vastaväitteitä molinistiselle voluntarismille (in Finnish) [Leibniz's Objections to Molinist Voluntarism].Ari Maunu - 2015 - Ajatus 72:53-69.
    The purpose of this paper is to explain and discuss Leibniz’s main objections to the Molinist-Suárezian voluntarist (libertarian) conception of freedom, i.e., the conception involving the supposition of “freedom of indifference” of the will to make contrary choices in exactly the same circumstances. Leibniz’s main objections to the voluntarist conception are the following: (i) it violates the Principle of Sufficient Reason; (ii) it is based on a mistaken picture of the nature of the will.
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  26. Affects and Activity in Leibniz's De Affectibus.Markku Roinila - 2015 - In Adrian Nita (ed.), Leibniz’s Metaphysics and Adoption of Substantial Forms: Between Continuity and Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 73-88.
    In this paper I will discuss the doctrine of substance which emerges from Leibniz’s unpublished early memoir De affectibus of 1679. The memoir marks a new stage in Leibniz’s views of the mind. The motivation for this change can be found in Leibniz’s rejection of the Cartesian theory of passion and action in the 1670s. His early Aristotelianism and some features of Cartesianism persisted to which Leibniz added influences from Hobbes and Spinoza. His nascent dynamical concept of substance is seemingly (...)
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  27. Not So Innocent - An Akratic Reading of Leibnizian “Judgment”.Oda Storbråten Davanger - 2013 - Stance 6:79-86.
    Leibniz seeks to establish the tenability of faith and reason in his moral philosophy through a tripod of thought, consisting of 1) fundamental human goodness; 2) human error in judgment; and 3) that God is just. A difficulty arises concerning how God can justly punish human beings if they always will what is Good. By considering akrasia, which occurs when error is committed despite its clear nonconformity with the Good, and examining the Leibnizian concept of “judgment,” Leibniz’s tripod can be (...)
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  28. Monadic Teleology without Goodness and without God.Julia Jorati - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:43-72.
    Most interpreters think that for Leibniz, teleology is goodness-directedness. Explaining a monadic action teleologically, according to them, simply means explaining it in terms of the goodness of the state at which the agent aims. On some interpretations, the goodness at issue is always apparent goodness: an action is end-directed iff it aims at what appears good to the agent. On other interpretations, the goodness at issue is only sometimes apparent goodness and at other times merely objective goodness: some actions do (...)
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  29. Leibniz: Ação Racional e Fraqueza da Vontade.André Chagas Ferreira de Souza - 2011 - Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 18:7-21.
    This article is an attempt to investigate a classic problem associated with the human action that can be extracted from the Leibnizian texts about the weakness of will, an issue emblematically briefed by Ovide: “I see clearly which [way] is better, and I know it is right, yet I follow the way that is worse”. The author of the Theodicy seems to suggest a way to understand the phenomenon of akrasia. A good source for this research is his work New (...)
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  30. La doctrine de la spontanéité dans la Théodicée.Enrico Pasini - 2011 - In Paul Rateau (ed.), Lectures Et Interprétations des Essais de Théodicée de G.W. Leibniz. F. Steiner. pp. 155-173.
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  31. Uneasiness and Passions in Leibniz's Nouveaux essais II, xx.Markku Roinila - 2011 - In Breger Herbert, Herbst Jürgen & Erdner Sven (eds.), Natur und Subjekt. IX. Internationaler Leibniz-Kongress Vorträge 3. Teil. Leibniz Geschellschaft.
    Chapter 20 of book II of John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, titled ‘Of Modes of Pleasure and Pain’ is the most extensive discussion of emotions available in Locke’s corpus. Likewise, Nouveaux essais sur l’entedement humain, II, xx, together with the following chapter xxi remains the chief source of Leibniz’s views of emotions. They offer a very interesting and captivating discussion of moral philosophy and good life. The chapter provides also a great platform to study Leibniz’s argumentative techniques and (...)
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  32. Leibniz on Concurrence, Spontaneity, and Authorship.Julia von Bodelschwingh - 2011 - Modern Schoolman 88 (3/4):267-297.
    Leibniz holds that creatures require divine concurrence for all their actions, and that this concurrence is 'special,' that is, directed at the particular qualities of each action. This gives rise to two potential problems. The first is the problem of explaining why special concurrence does not make God a co-author of creaturely actions. Second, divine concurrence may seem incompatible with the central Leibnizian doctrine that substances must act spontaneously, or independently of other substances. Concurrence, in other words, may appear to (...)
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  33. Possibility, Agency, and Individuality in Leibniz's Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Christian Leduc - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (4):865-868.
  34. L’ambivalence de la notion d’action dans la Dynamique de Leibniz. La correspondance entre Leibniz et De Volder (Iere Partie).Anne-Lise Rey - 2009 - Studia Leibnitiana 41 (1):47-66.
    The object of the first part of this paper is to establish the relationships which Leibniz establishes between metaphysical action and dynamic action, in the light of how he elaborates the concept of dynamic action in the texts from the years 1689-90 and in particular of Dynamica de potentia. Once the interdependence of these two notions is revealed, the ambivalence of action can be seen as a means to a new understanding, based on the Dynamics, of the relationships between substance (...)
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  35. Leibnizin rationaalisen päätöksenteon mallit.Markku Roinila - 2009 - Ajatus 66:39-60.
    Artikkelissaan ”The Balance of Reason” Marcelo Dascal on osoittanut, että metafora syiden punnitsemisesta järjen vaa’assa on yleinen Leibnizin kirjoituksissa ja sitä on pidettävä hänen yleisenä järkeilyn metodinaan tilanteissa, joissa ei voida suorittaa täydellistä loogista analyysiä. Keskustelen tässä esitelmässä tuosta metaforasta ja ehdotan Jaakko Hintikan ja Simo Knuuttilan aiempien esityksien pohjalle rakentaen, että käsityksissään ihmisen praktisesta rationaalisuudesta Leibniz sovelsi myös toista melko tuntemattomaksi jäänyttä heuristista päätöksentekomallia, joka liittyy hänen työhönsä luonnonfilosofiassa ja mielenfilosofiassa, ja jota hän sovelsi tapauksissa joissa päätökseen vaikuttavat arvot (...)
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  36. Moral necessity in Leibniz's account of human freedom.R. C. Sleigh - 2009 - In Samuel Newlands & Larry M. Jorgensen (eds.), Metaphysics and the good: themes from the philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams. New York: Oxford University Press.
    In numerous texts Leibniz claimed that while metaphysical necessity is inconsistent with free choice, moral necessity is not. A question naturally arises concerning what Leibniz took moral necessity to be. In a series of recent articles Michael Murray has argued that the concept of moral necessity Leibniz utilized is one developed and deployed by a group of 17th century Spanish Jesuits. This chapter argues that Leibniz's commitment to certain deep metaphysical principles suggests otherwise.
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  37. Possibility, Agency, and Individuality in Leibniz’s Metaphysics.Stefano Di Bella - 2008 - The Leibniz Review 18:139-149.
  38. Ohard Nachtomy: Possibility, Agency, and Individuality in Leibniz’s Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Tobias Fox - 2008 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 61 (2).
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  39. Leibniz on King: Freedom and the Project of the "Theodicy".Sean Greenberg - 2008 - Studia Leibnitiana 40 (2):205 - 222.
    Bien que Leibniz maintienne que l'examination de l'œuvre de William King, De l'origine du mal, « auroit fourni une bonne occasion d'eclaircir plusieurs difficultés » (GP VI, 400) traitées dans la Théodicée, aucun commentateur n'a encore considéré l'appendice de la Théodicée qui traite du livre de King. Dans cet éssai, je cherche à combler cette lacune. Je commence par présenter le problème de la liberté exploité par Bayle dans le Dictionnaire historique et critique afin de monter l'irrationalité de la foi, (...)
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  40. Possibility, Agency and Individuality in Leibniz's MetaphysicsOhad Nachtomy Collection «The New Synthese Historical Library» Dordrecht, Springer, 2007, 268 p. [REVIEW]Mogens Lærke - 2008 - Dialogue 47 (2):395-397.
  41. Leibniz's Models of Rational Decision.Markku Roinila - 2008 - In Marcelo Dascal (ed.), Leibniz: What Kind of Rationalist? Springer. pp. 357-370.
    Leibniz frequently argued that reasons are to be weighed against each other as in a pair of scales, as Professor Marcelo Dascal has shown in his article "The Balance of Reason." In this kind of weighing it is not necessary to reach demonstrative certainty – one need only judge whether the reasons weigh more on behalf of one or the other option However, a different kind of account about rational decision-making can be found in some of Leibniz's writings. In his (...)
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  42. Leibniz: Creation and Conservation and Concurrence.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2007 - The Leibniz Review 17:31-60.
    In this paper I argue that the hoary theological doctrine of divine concurrence poses no deep threat to Leibniz’s views on theodicy and creaturely activity even as those views have been traditionally understood. The first three sections examine respectively Leibniz’s views on creation, conservation and concurrence, with an eye towards showing their sys­tematic compatibility with Leibniz’s theodicy and metaphysics. The fourth section takes up remaining worries arising from the bridging principle that conservation is a continued or continuous creation, and argues (...)
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  43. Leibniz: Creation and Conservation and Concurrence.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2007 - The Leibniz Review 17:31-60.
    In this paper I argue that the hoary theological doctrine of divine concurrence poses no deep threat to Leibniz’s views on theodicy and creaturely activity even as those views have been traditionally understood. The first three sections examine respectively Leibniz’s views on creation, conservation and concurrence, with an eye towards showing their sys­tematic compatibility with Leibniz’s theodicy and metaphysics. The fourth section takes up remaining worries arising from the bridging principle that conservation is a continued or continuous creation, and argues (...)
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  44. Leibniz on Rational Decision-Making.Markku Roinila - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    In this study I discuss G. W. Leibniz's (1646-1716) views on rational decision-making from the standpoint of both God and man. The Divine decision takes place within creation, as God freely chooses the best from an infinite number of possible worlds. While God's choice is based on absolutely certain knowledge, human decisions on practical matters are mostly based on uncertain knowledge. However, in many respects they could be regarded as analogous in more complicated situations. In addition to giving an overview (...)
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  45. Über Freiheiten ohne vernünftigen Widerspruch Platons, Augustinus’ und Leibnizens ethischer Intellektualismus.Tobias Blanke - 2006 - In Das Böse in der Politischen Theorie: Die Furcht Vor der Freiheit Bei Kant, Hegel Und Vielen Anderen. Transcript Verlag. pp. 45-66.
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  46. Leibniz on final causes.Laurence Carlin - 2006 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (2):217-233.
    : In this paper, I investigate Leibniz's conception of final causation. I focus especially on the role that Leibnizian final causes play in intentional action, and I argue that for Leibniz, final causes are a species of efficient causation. It is the intentional nature of final causation that distinguishes it from mechanical efficient causation. I conclude by highlighting some of the implications of Leibniz's conception of final causation for his views on human freedom, and on the unconscious activity of substances.
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  47. Possible Worlds and the Nature of Choice in Leibniz.Henrik Lagerlund & Peter Myrdal - 2006 - Studia Leibnitiana 38 (2):156 - 176.
    La notion de mondes possibles chez Leibniz est souvent considérée comme un précurseur des théories contemporaines de la sémantique des mondes possibles. Or, cet article vise à montrer que cette lecture de Leibniz est fondamentalement erronée. Leibniz n'a jamais utilisé la notion de mondes possibles pour établir des conditions de vérité pour des phrases modales, mais le rôle de cette notion est strictement théologique, dans le sens où Leibniz l'emploie uniquement pour rendre compte du choix de Dieu dans la création. (...)
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  48. Freiheit und Prädetermination unter dem Auspiz der prästabilierten Harmonie: Leibniz und Fichte in der Perspektive.Katja Vera Taver (ed.) - 2006 - BRILL.
    Dieses Werk stellt das Denken zweier Geistesgrößen, Leibnizens und Fichtes sich gegenüber und vergleicht es. Fichte sieht in Leibniz einen Vorläufer und erwähnt ihn mit liebevoller Bewunderung. Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre von 1801/02 wird Leibnizens „Monadologie“ aufgreifen und Leibnizens Gedanken einer prästabilierten Harmonie. Beide Philosophen verstehen sich als Freiheitsapostel, wobei bei Leibniz Gott eine genaue Notion jedes Individuums hat, die Freiheit ein mentaler Akt ist, bei Fichte jedes Individuum ein je bestimmtes Soll hat, das es, Freiheit verwirklichend, im Leben zu erfüllen gilt. (...)
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  49. Divine Omniscience and Human Evil.Jill Graper Hernandez - 2005 - Philosophy and Theology 17 (1-2):107-120.
    The ‘middle knowledge’ doctrine salvages free will and divine omniscience by contending that God knows what agents will freely choose under any possible circumstances. I argue, however, that the Leibnizian problem of divine knowledge of human evil is best resolved by applying a Theodicy II distinction between determined, foreseen, and resolved action. This move eliminates deference to middle knowledge. Contingent action is indeed free, but not all action is contingent, and so not all action is free. For Leibniz, then, God’s (...)
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  50. Spontaneity and Freedom in Leibniz.Michael J. Murray - 2005 - In Donald Rutherford & J. A. Cover (eds.), Leibniz: nature and freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 194--216.
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