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  1. Aristotle on Epigenesis.Devin Henry - 2018
    It has become somewhat of a platitude to call Aristotle the first epigenesist insofar as he thought form and structure emerged gradually from an unorganized, amorphous embryo. But modern biology now recognizes two senses of “epigenesis”. The first is this more familiar idea about the gradual emergence of form and structure, which is traditionally opposed to the idea of preformationism. But modern biologists also use “epigenesis” to emphasize the context-dependency of the process itself. Used in this sense development is not (...)
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  2. Aristotle on How Efficient Causation Works.Tyler Huismann - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    I argue that, in light of his critique of rival theories of efficient causation, there is a puzzle latent in Aristotle’s own account. To show this, I consider one of his preferred examples of such causation, the activity of experts. Solving the puzzle yields a novel reading of Aristotle, one according to which experts, but not their characteristic arts or skills, are efficient causes.
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  3. Aristotle's on the Soul: A Critical Guide.Caleb Cohoe (ed.) - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's On the Soul aims to uncover the principle of life, what Aristotle calls psuchē. For Aristotle, soul is the form which gives life to a body and causes all its living activities, from breathing to thinking. Aristotle develops a general account of all types of living through examining soul's causal powers. The thirteen new essays in this Critical Guide demonstrate the profound influence of Aristotle's inquiry on biology, psychology and philosophy of mind from antiquity to the present. They deepen (...)
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  4. Thought, Choice, and Other Causes in Aristotle’s Account of Luck.Emily Kress - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (4):615-648.
    In Physics 2.4–6, Aristotle offers an account of things that happen “by luck” and “spontaneously”. Many of these things are what we might think of as “lucky breaks”: cases where things go well for us, even though we don’t expect them to. In Physics 2.5, Aristotle illustrates this idea with the case of a man who goes to the market for some reason unrelated to collecting a debt he is owed. While he is there, this man just so happens to (...)
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  5. ¿Sostuvo Aristóteles una Teoría de la Explicación? Algunas Observaciones acerca del Alcance de la Noción Aristotélica de αἰτία.Carlo Rossi - 2021 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 149:519-547.
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  6. Contemporary Hylomorphisms: On the Matter of Form.Christopher J. Austin - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy Today 2 (2):113-144.
    As there is currently a neo-Aristotelian revival currently taking place within contemporary metaphysics and dispositions, or causal powers are now being routinely utilised in theories of causality and modality, more attention is beginning to be paid to a central Aristotelian concern: the metaphysics of substantial unity, and the doctrine of hylomorphism. In this paper, I distinguish two strands of hylomorphism present in the contemporary literature and argue that not only does each engender unique conceptual difficulties, but neither adequately captures the (...)
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  7. A Teoria da Demonstração Científica de Aristóteles em Segundos Analíticos 1.2-9 e 1.13.Davi Bastos - 2020 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 30:e03021.
    I defend an interpretation of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics Book I which distinguishes between two projects in different passages of that work: (i) to explain what a given science is and (ii) to explain what properly scientific knowledge is. I present Aristotle’s theory in answer to ii, with special attention to his definition of scientific knowledge in 71b9-12 and showing how this is developed on chapters I.2-9 and I.13 into a solid Theory of Scientific Demonstration. The main point of this theory (...)
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  8. Cohesive Causes in Ancient Greek Philosophy and Medicine.Sean Michael Pead Coughlin - 2020 - In Chiara Thumiger (ed.), Holism in Ancient Medicine and Its Reception. Leiden: pp. 237-267.
    This paper is about the history of a question in ancient Greek philosophy and medicine: what holds the parts of a whole together? The idea that there is a single cause responsible for cohesion is usually associated with the Stoics. They refer to it as the synectic cause (αἴτιον συνεκτικόν), a term variously translated as ‘cohesive cause,’ ‘containing cause’ or ‘sustaining cause.’ The Stoics, however, are neither the first nor the only thinkers to raise this question or to propose a (...)
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  9. Causalidade Natural e Espontaneidade em Aristóteles.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2020 - Griot 20 (1):204-216.
  10. Aristotle on Spontaneous Generation, Spontaneity, and Natural Processes.Emily Kress - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 58.
    Aristotle contrasts standard animal generation with ‘spontaneous generation’, which happens when some material putrefies and gives rise to a new organism. This paper addresses two interrelated puzzles about spontaneous generation. First, is it of the same ‘fundamental kind’ of causal process as standard generation? Second, is it ‘spontaneous’, as understood in Physics 2.4–6: rare, accidentally caused, and among things that are for the sake of something? I argue that both puzzles turn on the same questions about the process types involved. (...)
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  11. Review of Devin Henry, "Aristotle on Matter, Form, and Moving Causes: The Hylomorphic Theory of Substantial Generation". [REVIEW]Emily Kress - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 8.
  12. The Cause of Cosmic Rotation in Aristotle’s Metaphysics Xii 6-7.John Proios - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):349-367.
    In Metaphysics Λ.6-7 Aristotle argues that an unmoved substance causes the outermost sphere to rotate. His argument has puzzled and divided commentators from ancient Greece to the present. I offer a novel defense of Aristotle's argument by highlighting the logic of classification that Aristotle deploys. The core of Aristotle's argument is the identification of the unmoved substance on the 'table of opposites' as simple and purely actual. With this identification in place, Aristotle argues that the outermost sphere activates its capacity (...)
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  13. Out of Thin Air? Diogenes on Causal Explanation.Bryan C. Reece - 2020 - In Hynek Bartoš & Colin King (eds.), Heat, Pneuma, and Soul in Ancient Philosophy and Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 106-120.
    Diogenes subscribes to a principle that, roughly, causal interaction and change require a certain sort of uniformity among the relata. Attending to this principle can help us understand Diogenes's relationship to the superficially similar Anaximenes without insisting, as some do, that Diogenes must be consciously responding to Parmenides. Diogenes is distinctive and philosophically interesting because his principle combines two senses of ‘archê’ (principle, starting-point), namely, the idea of source or origin and that of underlying (material) principle, and gives the rudiments (...)
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  14. Movement as Efficient Cause in Aristotle’s Generation of Animals.Ignacio De Ribera-Martin - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):296-326.
    In this article, I present in a systematic way Aristotle’s understanding of movement (kinêsis) as efficient cause in the Generation of Animals. This aspect of movement is not disclosed in the approach to movement as an incomplete activity in contrast to energeia, which has been extensively discussed in the literature. I explain in which sense movement is the efficient cause of generation and how this movement is related to the other factors, in particular the source of movement, the seminal fluid, (...)
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  15. Material Cause and Syllogistic Necessity in Posterior Analytics II 11.Paolo Fait - 2019 - Manuscrito 42 (4):282-322.
    The paper examines Posterior Analytics II 11, 94a20-36 and makes three points. (1) The confusing formula ‘given what things, is it necessary for this to be’ [τίνων ὄντων ἀνάγκη τοῦτ᾿ εἶναι] at a21-22 introduces material cause, not syllogistic necessity. (2) When biological material necessitation is the only causal factor, Aristotle is reluctant to formalize it in syllogistic terms, and this helps to explain why, in II 11, he turns to geometry in order to illustrate a kind of material cause that (...)
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  16. Presentism and Cross-Time Relations.Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2019 - In Patrick Blackburn, Per Hasle & Peter Ohrstrom (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Time: Further Themes from Prior, Vol. 2. Aalborg, Denmark: pp. 53–72.
    This paper is a partial defence of presentism against the argument from cross-time relations. It is argued, first, that the Aristotelian view of causation and persistence does not really depict these phenomena in terms of relations between entities existing at different times, and indeed excludes the possibility of such cross-time relations obtaining. Second, it is argued that to reject the existence of the past—and thereby be unable to ground the truth of claims about the past—does not lead to any absurd (...)
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  17. How Things Happen for the Sake of Something: The Dialectical Strategy of Aristotle, Physics 2.8.Emily Nancy Kress - 2019 - Phronesis 64 (3):321-347.
    I offer a fresh interpretation of the dialectical strategy of Physics 2.8’s arguments that things in nature happen for the sake of something. Whereas many recent interpreters have concluded that these arguments inevitably beg the question against Aristotle’s opponents, I argue that they constitute a careful attempt to build common ground with an opponent who rejects Aristotle’s basic worldview. This common ground, first articulated in the famous Winter Rain Argument, takes the form of an intriguing pattern of reasoning: that natural (...)
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  18. Aristotle's Four Causes of Action.Bryan C. Reece - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (2):213-227.
    Aristotle’s typical procedure is to identify something's four causes. Intentional action has typically been treated as an exception: most think that Aristotle has the standard causalist account, according to which an intentional action is a bodily movement efficiently caused by an attitude of the appropriate sort. I show that action is not an exception to Aristotle’s typical procedure: he has the resources to specify four causes of action, and thus to articulate a powerful theory of action unlike any other on (...)
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  19. Causality and Coextensiveness in Aristotle's Posterior Analytics 1.13.Lucas Angioni - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 54:159-185.
    I discuss an important feature of the notion of cause in Post. An. 1. 13, 78b13–28, which has been either neglected or misunderstood. Some have treated it as if Aristotle were introducing a false principle about explanation; others have understood the point in terms of coextensiveness of cause and effect. However, none offers a full exegesis of Aristotle's tangled argument or accounts for all of the text's peculiarities. My aim is to disentangle Aristotle's steps to show that he is arguing (...)
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  20. Geometrical Premisses in Aristotle’s Incessu Animalium and Kind-Crossing.Lucas Angioni - 2018 - Anais de Filosofia Clássica 24 (12):53-71.
    At some point in the Incessu Animalium, Aristotle appeals to some geometrical claims in order to explain why animal progression necessarily involves the bending (of the limbs), and this appeal to geometrical claims might be taking as violating the recommendation to avoid “kind-crossing” (as found in the Posterior Analytic). But a very unclear notion of kind-crossing has been assumed in most debates. I will argue that kind-crossing in the Posterior Analytics does not mean any employment of premises from a discipline (...)
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  21. Situando Aristóteles na Discussão Acerca da Natureza da Causação.Davi Heckert César Bastos - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Campinas, Brazil
    I present Aristotle’s theory of causation in a way that privileges a comparison with contemporary discussion on causation. I do so by selecting in Aristotle’s theory points that are interesting to contemporary discussion and by translating Aristotle in the contemporary philosophical terminology. I compare Aristotle’s views with Mackie’s (1993/1965) and Sosa’s (1993/1980). Mackie is a humean regularist regarding the metaphysics of causal necessity, but his theory postulates some formal aspects of the causal relation which are similar to the Aristotelian theory. (...)
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  22. Aristotle’s Science of Matter and Motion.Christopher Byrne - 2018 - Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
    Although Aristotle's contribution to biology has long been recognized, there are many philosophers and historians of science who still hold that he was the great delayer of natural science, calling him the man who held up the Scientific Revolution by two thousand years. They argue that Aristotle never considered the nature of matter as such or the changes that perceptible objects undergo simply as physical objects; he only thought about the many different, specific natures found in perceptible objects. Against this (...)
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  23. As 'Διαστάσεις' em Aristóteles: entre as potências da alma e a tridimensionalidade do corpo.Matheus Oliveira Damião - 2018 - Dissertation, UFRJ, Brazil
  24. Aristotle on the Indetermination of Accidental Causes and Chance.Gabriela Rossi - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Research 43:223-240.
    This article offers an interpretation of Aristotle’s tenet that chance and accidental causes are indeterminate. According to one existing reading, the predicate ‘indeterminate’ is said of the effect of chance, meaning ‘causally indeterminate.’ Another reading claims instead that the predicate ‘indeterminate’ is said of the cause of a chance event, meaning something close to ‘potentially infinite in number.’ For my part, I contend that the predicate ‘indeterminate,’ when applied to Aristotle’s concept of accidental cause and to chance, is best understood (...)
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  25. Definition and the Epistemology of Natural Kinds in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2018 - Metaphysics 1 (1):33–51.
    We have reason to think that a fundamental goal of natural science, on Aristotle’s view, is to discover the essence-specifying definitions of natural kinds—with biological species as perhaps the most obvious case. However, we have in the end precious little evidence regarding what an Aristotelian definition of the form of a natural kind would look like, and so Aristotle’s view remains especially obscure precisely where it seems to be most applicable. I argue that if we can get a better understanding (...)
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  26. As subordinações das causas em Aristóteles.Thayrine Vilas Boas - 2017 - Em Curso 4:1-6.
    Ao desenvolver sua teoria causal no livro II da Física, Aristóteles explica e exemplifica cada uma das causas separadamente, como se existissem por si só. Mas, ao se fazerem presentes nos entes, encontram-se ligadas uma às outras, expressando uma relação de subordinação entre si. Cada ente possui uma causa de um dos quatro tipos em sua formação, sendo uma causa material, uma formal, uma eficiente e uma final. Desse modo, meu objetivo é apresentar como as causas existem nos entes a (...)
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  27. O onde antes do lugar: as διαστάσεις no De incessu animalium de Aristóteles.Matheus Oliveira Damião - 2017 - Codex 5 (2):155-180.
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  28. Aristotelian Mechanistic Explanation.Monte Johnson - 2017 - In J. Rocca (ed.), Teleology in the Ancient World: philosophical and medical approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 125-150.
    In some influential histories of ancient philosophy, teleological explanation and mechanistic explanation are assumed to be directly opposed and mutually exclusive alternatives. I contend that this assumption is deeply flawed, and distorts our understanding both of teleological and mechanistic explanation, and of the history of mechanistic philosophy. To prove this point, I shall provide an overview of the first systematic treatise on mechanics, the short and neglected work Mechanical Problems, written either by Aristotle or by a very early member of (...)
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  29. Philosophy, Certainty and Semantic Stretch.Michaelis Michael - 2017 - Australasian Philosophical Review 1 (3):281-290.
    ABSTRACTLloyd encourages us to look anew at philosophy and science by using a comparative methodology, comparing the familiar Western form of philosophy, for example, with the forms found in ancient China. Taking lessons from comparative biology, this paper attempts to show that such comparison can only take place when we understand what we are looking at in the familiar case. The question of the centrality of the drive for certainty is addressed. Why has certainty been so attractive and what does (...)
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  30. Desire and Cognition in Aristotle’s Theory of the Voluntary Movements of Animal Locomotion.Daniel Simão Nascimento - 2017 - Filosofia Unisinos 18 (2).
    Duas das principais controvérsias que têm ocupado aqueles que se dedicam à teoria aris- totélica do movimento animal são a controvérsia acerca da forma da cognição através da qual um animal irracional apreende um objeto como um objeto de desejo e a controvérsia acerca da função desempenhada pela cognição na explicação aristotélica dos movimentos voluntários de locomoção animal. Neste artigo, eu apresento uma teoria acerca das formas como o desejo e a cognição se articulam na teoria aristotélica segundo a qual (...)
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  31. Filosofia da Natureza em Aristóteles: A Teoria das Quatro Causas e a Necessidade Teleológica.Mário Henrique Miguel Pereira - 2017 - São Paulo: Paulus.
  32. Causation and Explanation in Phenotype Research.Özlem Yılmaz - 2017 - Balkan Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):63-70.
    A phenome occurs through the many pathways of the complex net of interaction between the phenome and its environment; therefore researching and understanding how it arises requires investigation into many possible causes that are in constant interaction with each other. The most comprehensive investigations in biology are the ones in which many biologists from different sub-areas—evolutionary biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, physiology, genetics, epigenetics, ecology—have collaborated. Still, biologists do not always need to collaborate or look for the most comprehensive explanations. (...)
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  33. La demostración por la causa eficiente en Sobre la generación y la corrupción 2. 10 de Aristóteles.Manuel Berron - 2016 - Circe de Clásicos y Modernos 20 (1):35-48.
    Tomamos como texto de referencia Sobre la generación y la corrupción 2. 10 para establecer el uso de la demostración científica. Aristóteles establece los principios de la generación en GC 1 pero en adelante construye genuinas demostraciones científicas apoyándose precisamente en aquellos principios. Reconstruiremos un pasaje puntual de GC 2. 10 para defender la hipótesis del uso real de la demostración científica en los tratados científicos. La particularidad específica de este trabajo es que esta demostración científica apunta a hacer explícita, (...)
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  34. Four Causes.Boris Hennig - 2016
    This is partly a book about Aristotle’s four causes (material, formal, efficient, and final cause), partly a systematic discussion of the relation between form and matter, causation, and teleology. Its overall aim is to show that the four causes form a system, so that the form of a natural thing relates to its matter as the final cause of a natural process relates to its efficient cause. It reaches two highly distinctive conclusions. The first is that the formal cause or (...)
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  35. Aristotle on Accidental Causation.Tyler Huismann - 2016 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2 (4):561-575.
    I offer a new analysis of Aristotle's concept of an accidental cause. Using passages fromMetaphysics Δ and Ε, as well as Physics II, I argue that accidental causes are causally inert. After defending this reading against some objections, I draw some conclusions about Aristotle's basic understanding of causation.
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  36. Sobre o Chamado "Modelo Das Quatro Causas" Em Aristóteles.Rodolfo Lopes - 2016 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 9 (21):129-142.
    O presente texto tem por simples objectivo o comentário sistemático ao capítulo 2 do Livro V da Metafísica de Aristóteles, onde o autor apresenta uma sistematização sobre o chamado modelo das quatro causas. Teremos também no horizonte de análise o famoso capítulo 3 do Livro I do mesmo tratado, onde Aristóteles inicia a crítica à tradição precedente justamente à luz deste modelo de causalidade. O objectivo é apenas comentar e esclarecer o texto original, cujas hesitantes formulações podem levantar alguns obstáculos (...)
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  37. The Principle of Life: from Aristotelian Psyche to Drieschian Entelechy.Agustin Ostachuk - 2016 - Ludus Vitalis 24 (45):37-59.
    Is life a simple result of a conjunction of physico-chemical processes? Can be reduced to a mere juxtaposition of spatially determined events? What epistemology or world-view allows us to comprehend it? Aristotle built a novel philosophical system in which nature is a dynamical totality which is in constant movement. Life is a manifestation of it, and is formed and governed by the psyche. Psyche is the organizational principle of the different biological levels: nutritive, perceptive and intelective. Driesch's crucial experiment provided (...)
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  38. El modelo geométrico y el movimiento circular en el De Motu Animalium de Aristóteles.Angel Augusto Pasquale - 2016 - Dissertation, Universidad Nacional de La Plata
  39. David Ebrey, Ed. Theory and Practice in Aristotle’s Natural Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Pp. Viii+261. $99.00. [REVIEW]Tiberiu Popa - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (2):354-357.
  40. The Formal Cause in the Posterior Analytics.Petter Sandstad - 2016 - Filozofski Vestnik 37 (3):7-26.
    I argue that Aristotle’s account of scientific demonstrations in the Posterior Analytics is centred upon formal causation, understood as a demonstration in terms of essence (and as innocent of the distinction between form and matter). While Aristotle says that all four causes can be signified by the middle term in a demonstrative syllogism, and he discusses at some length efficient causation, much of Aristotle’s discussion is foremost concerned with the formal cause. Further, I show that Aristotle had very detailed procedures (...)
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  41. Michael T. Ferejohn, Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy In: Socratic and Aristotelian Thought. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2016 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 19:235-241.
    I review Michael T. Ferejohn's "Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought".
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  42. Explanation and Hypothetical Necessity in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2016 - Ancient Philosophy 36 (2):353-382.
  43. Scientific Knowledge in Aristotle’s Biology.Barbara Botter - 2015 - ATINER'S Conference Paper Series:1-15.
    Aristotle was the first thinker to articulate a taxonomy of scientific knowledge, which he set out in Posterior Analytics. Furthermore, the “special sciences”, i.e., biology, zoology and the natural sciences in general, originated with Aristotle. A classical question is whether the mathematical axiomatic method proposed by Aristotle in the Analytics is independent of the special sciences. If so, Aristotle would have been unable to match the natural sciences with the scientific patterns he established in the Analytics. In this paper, I (...)
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  44. Blood, Matter, and Necessity.David Ebrey - 2015 - In Theory and Practice in Aristotle's Natural Science. Cambridge, UK: pp. 61-76.
    According to most scholars, in the Parts of Animals Aristotle frequently provides explanations in terms of material necessity, as well as explanations in terms of that-for-the-sake-of-which, i.e., final causes. In this paper, I argue that we misunderstand both matter and the way that Aristotle explains things using necessity if we interpret Aristotle as explaining things in terms of material necessity. Aristotle does not use the term “matter” very frequently in his detailed discussions of animal parts; when he does use it, (...)
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  45. Theory and Practice in Aristotle's Natural Science.David Ebrey (ed.) - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle argued that in theory one could acquire knowledge of the natural world. But he did not stop there; he put his theories into practice. This volume of new essays shows how Aristotle's natural science and philosophical theories shed light on one another. The contributors engage with both biological and non-biological scientific works and with a wide variety of theoretical works, including Physics, Generation and Corruption, On the Soul, and Posterior Analytics. The essays focus on a number of themes, including (...)
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  46. Tad M. Schmaltz, Ed. Efficient Causation: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Pp. 392. £64.00 ; £22.99. [REVIEW]Antonia Lolordo - 2015 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (2):356-360.
  47. Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought by Michael T. Ferejohn. [REVIEW]Christopher V. Mirus - 2015 - Review of Metaphysics 69 (1):132-134.
  48. Réceptivité et résistance de la matière au mouvement local.Eraci Oliveira - 2015 - Epekeina 6 (2):1-12.
  49. From Aristotle’s Teleology to Darwin’s Genealogy: The Stamp of Inutility, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (Pdf: Contents, Introduction).Marco Solinas - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Starting with Aristotle and moving on to Darwin, Marco Solinas outlines the basic steps from the birth, establishment and later rebirth of the traditional view of living beings, and its overturning by evolutionary revolution. The classic framework devised by Aristotle was still dominant in the 17th Century world of Galileo, Harvey and Ray, and remained hegemonic until the time of Lamarck and Cuvier in the 19th Century. Darwin's breakthrough thus takes on the dimensions of an abandonment of the traditional finalistic (...)
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  50. The Limits of Teleology in Aristotle’s Meteorology IV.12.Mary Louise Gill - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):335-50.
    Meteorology IV.12, the final chapter of Aristotle’s “chemical” treatise, is a major text for the traditional view that Aristotle believed in universal teleology, the idea that everything in the cosmos—including the elements, earth, water, air, and fire—is what it is because of the goal or good it serves. But in the context of the rest of Meteorology IV, a different picture emerges. Meteorology IV.1–11 analyze the dispositional properties of material compounds (malleability, elasticity, etc.), examine the behavior of stuffs when heated (...)
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