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  1. Aristotle's Metaphysics Z.17 and the Project of First Philosophy.Samuel Meister - manuscript
    I argue that the famous discussion of substance and essence in Aristotle's Metaphysics Z offers a direct and positive response to the central question of 'first philosophy' or "metaphysics" as to the first principles and causes of being qua being: Z is designed to establish that essences are the first principles and causes of composite substances insofar as they are. Two moves are crucial to my argument: First, I argue that the goal of the final chapter of Z (that is, (...)
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  2. Modality and Essence in Contemporary Metaphysics.Kathrin Koslicki - forthcoming - In Sam Newlands and Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Modality: A Conceptual History. Oxford, UK:
    Essentialists hold that at least a certain range of entities can be meaningfully said to have natures, essences, or essential features independently of how these entities are described, conceptualized or otherwise placed with respect to our specifically human interests, purposes or activities. Modalists about essence, on the one hand, take the position that the essential truths are a subset of the necessary truths and the essential properties of entities are included among their necessary properties. Non-modalists about essence, on the other (...)
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  3. Metaphysics: The Science of Essence?Kathrin Koslicki - forthcoming - In Javier Cumpa (ed.), The Question of Ontology. Oxford, UK:
    Aristotle's concern with essence and definition, as central to the subject-matter of metaphysics, is shared by contemporary neo-Aristotelian philosophers. For E. J. Lowe metaphysics is an a priori inquiry that is “perhaps most perspicuously characterized as the science of essence” (Lowe (2008), p. 34). Kit Fine holds that “the concept [of essence] may be used to characterize what the subject [of metaphysics], or at least part of it, is about” (Fine (1994), p. 1). But whether metaphysics, and metaphysics alone, can (...)
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  4. Aristotle on the Relation Between Substance and Essence.Samuel Meister - 2021 - Ancient Philosophy 41 (2):477-94.
    In Metaphysics Z.6, Aristotle argues that each substance is the same as its essence. In this paper, I defend an identity reading of that claim. First, I provide a general argument for the identity reading, based on Aristotle’s account of sameness in number and identity. Second, I respond to the recent charge that the identity reading is incoherent, by arguing that the claim in Z.6 is restricted to primary substances and hence to forms.
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  5. "Natureza", "substância" e Metáfora em Aristóteles.Lucas Angioni - 2020 - Rónai 8 (2):246-261.
    This paper addresses a difficult passage from Aristotle’s Metaphysics (V. 4, 1015a11-13) in which he identifies a metaphorical use of the term “nature” (phusis) to refer to the entities which he calls “substances” (ousiai). I claim that the passage at stake deploys the very notion of metaphor on the basis of an analogy (as defined in the Poetics and in the Rhetorics), which is grounded on a weak (and, sometimes, very weak) similarity between two relations (each involving two relata). The (...)
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  6. A Teoria da Demonstração Científica de Aristóteles em Segundos Analíticos 1.2-9 e 1.13.Davi Bastos - 2020 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 30:e03021.
    I defend an interpretation of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics Book I which distinguishes between two projects in different passages of that work: (i) to explain what a given science is and (ii) to explain what properly scientific knowledge is. I present Aristotle’s theory in answer to ii, with special attention to his definition of scientific knowledge in 71b9-12 and showing how this is developed on chapters I.2-9 and I.13 into a solid Theory of Scientific Demonstration. The main point of this theory (...)
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  7. Essence and Identity.Kathrin Koslicki - 2020 - In Mircea Dumitru (ed.), Metaphysics, Meaning and Modality: Themes from Kit Fine. Oxford, UK: pp. 113-140.
    This paper evaluates six contenders which might be invoked by essentialists in order to meet Quine’s challenge, viz., to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the crossworld identity of individuals: (i) an object’s qualitative character; (ii) matter; (iii) origins; (iv) haecceities or primitive non-qualitative thisness properties; (v) “world-indexed properties”; and (iv) individual forms. The first three candidates, I argue, fail to provide conditions that are both necessary and sufficient for the crossworld identity of individuals; the fourth and fifth criteria are (...)
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  8. Aristotle on the Purity of Forms in Metaphysics Z.10–11.Samuel Meister - 2020 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):1-33.
    Aristotle analyses a large range of objects as composites of matter and form. But how exactly should we understand the relation between the matter and form of a composite? Some commentators have argued that forms themselves are somehow material, that is, forms are impure. Others have denied that claim and argued for the purity of forms. In this paper, I develop a new purist interpretation of Metaphysics Z.10-11, a text central to the debate, which I call 'hierarchical purism'. I argue (...)
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  9. Situando Aristóteles na Discussão Acerca da Natureza da Causação.Davi Heckert César Bastos - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Campinas, Brazil
    I present Aristotle’s theory of causation in a way that privileges a comparison with contemporary discussion on causation. I do so by selecting in Aristotle’s theory points that are interesting to contemporary discussion and by translating Aristotle in the contemporary philosophical terminology. I compare Aristotle’s views with Mackie’s (1993/1965) and Sosa’s (1993/1980). Mackie is a humean regularist regarding the metaphysics of causal necessity, but his theory postulates some formal aspects of the causal relation which are similar to the Aristotelian theory. (...)
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  10. Aristotle and Husserl on the Relationship Between the Necessity of a Fact and Contingency.Irene Breuer - 2018 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy (2017):269-296.
    Aristotle’s philosophy and Husserl’s phenomenology both give immediate access to effective reality. A full ontology presupposes the facticity or givenness of the world. They both state the necessity of factual existence inasmuch as the presence of a being (Aristotle) or of the self-givenness of the Ego and of the world (Husserl) establishes itself in experience as apodictically evident. Both share the view that worldly beings are characterized by their contingency, though they differ as to its necessity. This chapter will argue (...)
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  11. The Object of Aristotle’s God’s Νόησις in Metaphysics Λ.9.Sean M. Costello - 2018 - Journal of Greco-Roman Studies 57 (3):49-66.
    In this paper I attempt to discover the object of Aristotle’s God’s νόησις in Metαphysics Λ.9. In Section I, I catalogue existing interpretations and mention the two key concepts of (i) God’s substancehood and (ii) his metaphysical simplicity. In Section II, I explore the first two aporiae of Λ.9 – namely (1) what God’s οὐσία is and (2) what God intelligizes. In Section III, I show how Aristotle solves these aporiae by contending that God’s οὐσία is actually intelligizing, and being (...)
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  12. Introdução às noções de essência, necessidade e predicação em Aristóteles.Thiago Silva Freitas Oliveira - 2018 - Argumentos 10 (20):50-63.
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  13. Lasst uns den Weg einer neuen Ontologie einschlagen! (Teil 1).Gianluigi Segalerba - 2017 - Analele Universitatii Din Craiova, Seria Filosofie 40 (2):91-183.
    The present essay is the first part of an analysis regarding aspects of Aristotle’s ontology. Aristotle’s ontology is, in my opinion, a formal ontology that examines the fundamental structures of reality and that investigates the features belonging to entities such as substance, quantity, quality, universals. Aristotle’s ontology investigates, moreover, the reciprocal relations existing between these entities. Aristotle’s interpretation of universals is not, in my opinion, a nominalist interpretation of universals: I do not think Aristotle regards universals as being only mental (...)
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  14. Aristotle’s Arguments and His Audiences in Metaphysics Z 4.Gyburg Uhlmann - 2017 - SFB 980 Working Paper 9:1-46.
  15. Aristotle's Metaphysics.S. Marc Cohen - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The first major work in the history of philosophy to bear the title "Metaphysics" was the treatise by Aristotle that we have come to know by that name. But Aristotle himself did not use that title or even describe his field of study as 'metaphysics'; the name was evidently coined by the first century C.E. editor who assembled the treatise we know as Aristotle's Metaphysics out of various smaller selections of Aristotle's works. The title 'metaphysics' -- literally, 'after the Physics' (...)
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  16. Aristotle on Exceptions to Essences in Biology.Petter Sandstad - 2016 - In Benedikt Strobel & Georg Wöhrle (eds.), Angewandte Epistemologie in antiker Philosophie und Wissenschaft, AKAN-Einzelschriften 11. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. pp. 69-92.
    Exceptions are often cited as a counterargument against formal causation. Against this I argue that Aristotle explicitly allows for exceptions to essences in his biological writings, and that he has a means of explaining them through formal causation – though this means that he has to slightly elaborate on his general case theory from the Posterior Analytics, by supplementing it with a special case application in the biological writings. Specifically for Aristotle an essential predication need not be a universal predication. (...)
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  17. Causa e princípio explicativo do ser em Aristóteles (Metafísica VII, 17).Barbara Botter - 2015 - Mirabilia 21:324-344.
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  18. Aristotle on Being.George Couvalis - 2015 - Modern Greek Studies (Australia and New Zealand) 1:41-50.
    Aristotle explains existence through postulating essences that are intrinsic and percep- tion independent. I argue that his theory is more plausible than Hume’s and Russell’s theories of existence. Russell modifies Hume’s theory because he wants to allow for the existence of mathematical objects. However, Russell’s theory facilitates a problematic collapse of ontology into epistemology, which has become a feature of much analytic philosophy. This collapse obscures the nature of truth. Aristotle is to be praised for starting with a clear account (...)
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  19. Aristotle on Essence and Habitat.Jessica Gelber - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 48:267-293.
    Despite his awareness that organisms are well suited to the habitats they are typically found in, Aristotle nowhere tries to explain this. It is unlikely that he thinks this “fit” (as I call it) between organisms and their habitats is simply a lucky coincidence, given how vehemently he rejects that as an explanation of the fit between organisms’ various body parts. But it is quite puzzling that Aristotle never explicitly addresses this, since it is a question that seemed so pressing (...)
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  20. El mundo de Aristoteles.Enrique Morata (ed.) - 2015 - Eride Ed..
    Comentario de la "Metafisica" de Aristoteles. Ed. Ëride, 2015. ISBN 978-84-16058-31-0 -/- DL M-23357-0.
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  21. Heidegger and the Essence of Dasein.Nate Zuckerman - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (4):493-516.
    Being and Time argues that we, as Dasein, are defined not by what we are, but by our way of existing, our “existentiell possibilities.” I diagnose and respond to an interpretive dilemma that arises from Heidegger's ambiguous use of this latter term. Most readings stress its specific sense, holding that Dasein has no general essence and is instead determined by some historically contingent way of understanding itself and the meaning of being at large. But this fails to explain the sense (...)
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  22. Definition and Essence in Metaphysics Vii 4.Lucas Angioni - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (1):75-100.
    I discuss Aristotle's treatment of essence and definition in Metaphysics VII.4. I argue that it is coherent and perfectly in accord with its broader context. His discussion in VII.4 offers, on the one hand, minimal criteria for what counts as definition and essence for whatever kind of object, but also, on the other hand, stronger criteria for a primary sort of definition and essence—and thereby it serves the interest of book VII in pointing to the explanatory power of the essence (...)
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  23. Aristotle on Necessary Principles and on Explaining X Through X’s Essence.Lucas Angioni - 2014 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 7 (2):88-112.
    I discuss what Aristotle means when he say that scientific demonstration must proceed from necessary principles. I argue that, for Aristotle, scientific demonstration should not be reduced to sound deduction with necessary premises. Scientific demonstration ultimately depends on the fully appropriate explanatory factor for a given explanandum. This explanatory factor is what makes the explanandum what it is. Consequently, this factor is also unique. When Aristotle says that demonstration must proceed from necessary principles, he means that each demonstration requires the (...)
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  24. Editorial- Aristotelian Metaphysics: Essence and Ground.Riin Sirkel & Tuomas E. Tahko - 2014 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 7 (2).
    This special issue centers around Aristotelian metaphysics, construed broadly to cover both scholarly research on Aristotle’s metaphysics, as well as work by contemporary metaphysicians on Aristotelian themes. It focuses on two themes in Aristotelian metaphysics, namely essence and grounding, and their connections. A variety of related questions regarding dependence, priority, fundamentality, explanation, causation, substance, and modality also receive attention.
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  25. ASPECTOS FORMAIS E ONTOLÓGICOS DA FILOSOFIA DA CIÊNCIA DE ARISTÓTELES.Breno Andrade Zuppolini - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Campinas
    Aristotle's theory of demonstration, developed in the Posterior Analytics, is not restricted to determining the formal requirements for formulating probative arguments that establish properly the results of scientific investigation. To the probative aspect of demonstration it shall be added its primarily explanatory character, orientated by theses of strong ontological and metaphysical content and involving notions like substance, essence and causation. We shall analyze the relation between those two ranges of Aristotle's philosophy of science and investigate how the formal features of (...)
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  26. ANGIONI E YEBRA: da definição de “essência” na Metafísica de Aristóteles.Saulo Sbaraini Agostini - 2013 - XVI Semana Acadêmica de Filosofia da Unioeste.
  27. A Noção de Um e a Aporia 11 na Metafísica de Aristóteles.Wellington Damasceno de Almeida - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Campinas
    The Eleventh Aporia results from the breakup of the entire Greek philosophy previous to Aristotle in two manners of conceiving and proposing the first principles (archai), specially the One (to hen): (i) the manner by which Physiologoi conceived the One as a principle, namely, assuming an underlying nature, different from the One in itself, not adequately characterized by the simple fact of being one and which is denoted by the concept of One, and (ii) the manner inaugurated by the Pythagoreans (...)
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  28. Conhecimento e Opinião em Aristóteles (Segundos Analíticos I-33).Lucas Angioni - 2013 - In Marcelo Carvalho (ed.), Encontro Nacional Anpof: Filosofia Antiga e Medieval. Anpof. pp. 329-341.
    This chapter discusses the first part of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics A-33, 88b30-89a10. I claim that Aristotle is not concerned with an epistemological distinction between knowledge and belief in general. He is rather making a contrast between scientific knowledge (which is equivalent to explanation by the primarily appropriate cause) and some explanatory beliefs that falls short of capturing the primarily appropriate cause.
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  29. The Activity of Being: An Essay on Aristotle’s Ontology.Aryeh Kosman - 2013 - Harvard.
    Understanding “what something is” has long occupied philosophers, and no Western thinker has had more influence on the nature of being than Aristotle. Focusing on a reinterpretation of the concept of energeia as “activity,” Aryeh Kosman reexamines Aristotle’s ontology and some of our most basic assumptions about the great philosopher’s thought.
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  30. Metaphysics as the First Philosophy.Tuomas Tahko - 2013 - In Edward Feser (ed.), Aristotle on Method and Metaphysics. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 49-67.
    Aristotle talks about 'the first philosophy' throughout the Metaphysics – and it is metaphysics that Aristotle considers to be the first philosophy – but he never makes it entirely clear what first philosophy consists of. What he does make clear is that the first philosophy is not to be understood as a collection of topics that should be studied in advance of any other topics. In fact, Aristotle seems to have thought that the topics of Metaphysics are to be studied (...)
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  31. Things Are the Same as Their “Essences”? Notes on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Z-6.Lucas Angioni - 2012 - Analytica (Rio) 16 (1):37-66.
    I discuss Aristotle’s views in Metaphysics VII-6 (Z-6) on the issue whether each thing is the same as its essence. I propose a deflationary interpretation according to which Z-6 develops a “logical approach” (logikos) in which “sameness” amounts only to coextensiveness between definiendum and definiens with no attention to more specific issues about ontological and explanatory features of definitions.
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  32. Essence, Necessity, and Explanation.Kathrin Koslicki - 2012 - In Tuomas E. Tahko (ed.), Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 187--206.
    It is common to think of essence along modal lines: the essential truths, on this approach, are a subset of the necessary truths. But Aristotle conceives of the necessary truths as being distinct and derivative from the essential truths. Such a non-modal conception of essence also constitutes a central component of the neo-Aristotelian approach to metaphysics defended over the last several decades by Kit Fine. Both Aristotle and Fine rely on a distinction between what belongs to the essence proper of (...)
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  33. In Defense of Hierarchy: A Response to Levi Bryant's 'A Logic of Multiplicities: Deleuze, Immanence, and Onticology'.Seamus O'Neill - 2012 - Analecta Hermeneutica 4:1-36.
    Bryant’s paper, "A Logic of Multiplicities: Deleuze, Immanence, and Onticology," is useful for showing how the historical legacy of hierarchy in its many philosophical forms is still present, important, and, in fact, required even by those such as Bryant who would seek to deconstruct or ignore it. The following response will discuss Bryant’s presentation of his alternative position and throughout point out: a) the straw-man versions of hierarchy that Bryant employs; b) why what Bryant claims to be inherent negatively in (...)
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  34. In Defence of Aristotelian Metaphysics.Tuomas E. Tahko - 2012 - In Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26-43.
    When I say that my conception of metaphysics is Aristotelian, or neo-Aristotelian, this may have more to do with Aristotle’s philosophical methodology than his metaphysics, but, as I see it, the core of this Aristotelian conception of metaphysics is the idea that metaphysics is the first philosophy . In what follows I will attempt to clarify what this conception of metaphysics amounts to in the context of some recent discussion on the methodology of metaphysics (e.g. Chalmers et al . (2009), (...)
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  35. METAFÍSICA X (Iota) 2: SOBRE A DÉCIMA PRIMEIRA APORIA.Wellington Damasceno de Almeida - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Campinas
    In the following pages, the reader will find a detailed study of what Aristotle considered the most difficult aporia formulated in Metaphysics III (Beta), which is answered in chapter 2 of Book X (Iota): the Eleventh Aporia. In such aporia, Aristotle rivals: (i) the conception assumed by the ancient Physiologoi, which takes the One to be an underlying nature whose being is not exhausted by being One, and (ii) the Platonic-Pythagorean view, which prefers to conceive the One in itself, according (...)
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  36. Ohne Satz vom Widerspruch keine Entität – Der Satz vom Widerspruch als Strukturformel der Realität.Gianluigi Segalerba - 2011 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 5 (2):1-57.
    This paper deals with the strategy of defence that Aristotle dedicates to the principle of contradiction; the analysis is concentrated on passages of Metaphysics Gamma 4. The main thesis of the paper is that Aristotle’s strategy is an ontological, and therefore not only a logical, one: the principle is defended on the basis of the, from an ontological point of view, unacceptable consequences which would arise in case of the absence of the principle itself. These consequences are, for instance, the (...)
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  37. Sobre perguntar por que o homem é homem (Metafísica, Z17).Raphael Zillig - 2011 - In Alfredo Storck & Raphael Zillig (eds.), Aristóteles: ensaios sobre ética e metafísica. Linus Editores. pp. 127-144.
  38. Essencialismo e Necessidade Modal em Aristóteles: uma análise de Segundos Analíticos I 6.Breno A. Zuppolini - 2011 - Filogenese 4 (1):21-35.
    At the beginning of the first book of Posterior Analytics, Aristotle‟s feature of demonstrative knowledge involves a certain concept of “necessity”. The traditional interpretation tends to associate this concept with modal necessity, which is found in the Prior Analytics and De interpretatione. The present article aims to show in which way the sixth chapter of book A of Posterior Analytics presupposes a set of essentialist theses that claims to base the necessity of scientific knowledge on predicative relations of essential character. (...)
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  39. Prioridade e substância na metafísica de Aristóteles.Lucas Angioni - 2010 - Dois Pontos 7 (3):75-106.
    This paper examines Aristotle’s notion of priority with the specific aim of capturing the sort of priority that characterizes the primacy of substances in his metaphysics. I reject the traditional interpretation, which understands the ontological priority of substances in terms of independent existence. But there are rather two sorts of priority: the ontological priority of substances should be understood in terms of completeness, whereas the ontological priority of “substances-of-something” (the essences) is a causal-explanatory priority. Furthermore, an important piece of Aristotle’s (...)
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  40. Aristóteles e o progresso da investigação científica: o caso do De caelo.Lucas Angioni - 2010 - Scientiae Studia 8 (3):319-338.
    This article examines three passages of De caelo in order to discuss Aristotle’s epistemological attitude towards the theories advanced by him and towards the possibility of progress in the scientific research of the celestial world. I argue that, although the possibility of progress in scientific investigation is not central in Aristotle’s reflections, progress is not ruled out either as impossible or as undesirable.
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  41. Sobre a definição de natureza.Lucas Angioni - 2010 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 51 (122):521-542.
    I discuss in this paper Aristotle’s definition of nature in Physics 192b 20-23. I intend to prove that this definition has to be taken as a set of three (not only two) conditions: the first condition just establishes that nature is a sort of cause; the second condition concerns the relationship between nature and the natural thing that has it as a cause; the third condition concerns the relationship between nature and the properties that natural things have from nature’s causality.
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  42. The Four Causes.Boris Hennig - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (3):137-160.
    I will argue that Aristotle’s fourfold division of four causes naturally arises from a combination of two distinctions (a) between things and changes, and (b) between that which potentially is something and what it potentially is. Within this scheme, what is usually called the “efficient cause” is something that potentially is a certain natural change, and the “final cause” is, at least in a basic sense, what the efficient cause potentially is. I will further argue that the essences of things (...)
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  43. Significação e Linguagem no Livro Gamma da Metafísica de Aristóteles.Thiago Silva Freitas Oliveira - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Campinas
  44. The Double Meanings of “Essence”: The Natural and Humane Sciences — a Tentative Linkage of Hegel, Dilthey, and Husserl. [REVIEW]Shiying Zhang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):143-155.
    Early in Aristotle’s terminology, and ever since, “essence” has been conceived as having two meanings, namely “universality” and “individuality”. According to the tradition of thought that has dominated throughout the history of Western philosophy, “essence” unequivocally refers to “universality”. As a matter of fact, however, “universality” cannot cover Aristotle’s definition and formulation of “essence”: Essence is what makes a thing “happen to be this thing.” “Individuality” should be the deep meaning of “essence”. By means of an analysis of some relevant (...)
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  45. As noções aristotélicas de substância e essência.Lucas Angioni - 2008 - Editora da Unicamp.
    This book discusses Aristotle’s notions of essence and substance as they are developed in Metaphysics ZH. I examine Aristotle's argument at length and defends an unorthodox interpretation according to which his motivation is to provide an answer against a conflation between criteria for existential priority (delivering substances as primary beings) and criteria for explanatory priority (delivering essences as primary principles).
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  46. Substância e Unidade em Aristóteles.Mateus Ricardo Fernandes Ferreira - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Campinas
  47. Substância e vir a ser em metafísica Z.Raphael Zillig - 2008 - Dissertation, UFRGS, Brazil
  48. Aristóteles e a noção de sujeito de predicação (Segundos analíticos I 22, 83a 1-14).Lucas Angioni - 2007 - Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 12 (2):107-129.
    This paper explores some aspects of Aristotle’s notion of subject for predications. I examine the argument Aristotle develops in Posterior Analytics I.22, 83a1-14. I argue that the notion advanced by Aristotle in that argument is different from the one found in his Categories, although they are far from being incompatible with each other. I also add some philological considerations to justify the Portuguese translation of “hypokeimenon” as “algo subjacente” (“underlying thing”) instead of “sujeito” (“subject”).
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  49. Significação e não contradição.Raphael Zillig - 2007 - Analytica. Revista de Filosofia 11 (1):107-126.
    The so called “elenctic” defense of the principle of non-contradiction in Metaphysics Γ4 will succed if only the opponent will say something. The strategy consists in showing that, in speaking, the opponent has al- ready accepted the principle. Given the structure of the argument, the only way to avoid begging the question is not to ask from the opponent any commitment exceeding the conditions of mere meanigfullness of speech. In particular, it is specially important to avoid any reliance on Aristotelian (...)
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  50. Introdução à teoria da predicação em Aristóteles.Lucas Angioni - 2006 - Editora da Unicamp.
    This is an introductory handbook for some of the main themes around the notion of predication in Aristotle. It does not aim at being exhaustive, but only sketches some important lines about the subject; it contains an introductory essay, besides the translation (into Portuguese) and commentary of basic texts (such as Posterior Analytics I-22, Categories 1-5, Interpretation 1-6 etc.).
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