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  1. Plato Seeking for “One Real Explanation” in Phaedo.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - manuscript
    This essay intends to discuss what Plato was seeking as an explanation in Phaedo. In this dialogue, we observe Socrates criticizing both the natural scientists’ explanations and Anaxagoras’ theory of Mind because they could not explain all things, firstly, in a unitary and, secondary, in a real way. Thence, we are to call what Plato is seeking as his ideal explanation in Phaedo “One Real Explanation”. He talks at least about three kinds of explanation, two of which, the confused and (...)
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  2. Irrigating Blood: Plato on the Circulatory System, the Cosmos, and Elemental Motion.Douglas Campbell - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    This article concerns the so-called irrigation system in the Timaeus’ biology (77a-81e), which replenishes our body’s tissues with resources from food delivered as blood. I argue that this system functions mainly by the natural like-to-like motion of the elements and that the circulation of blood is an important case study of Plato’s physics. We are forced to revise the view that the elements attract their like. Instead, similar elements merely tend to coalesce with each other in virtue of their tactile (...)
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  3. Il trascendentale del bello, causa della razionalità. Estetica drammatica in Platone e in Hans Urs von Balthasar.Ida Elvira Annamaria Soldini - forthcoming - Siena: Edizioni Cantagalli.
    Balthasar impiega in tutta la sua Trilogia fattori fondamentali del pensiero di Platone: il bello, l’eros e l’analogia entis che chiama “Selbstbewegung” ignorando completamente la dottrina dei principi primi che la Scuola di Tübingen ha ricostruito grazie alle testimonianze dei suoi allievi nell’Accademia antica. Per parte sua, la Scuola di Tübingen esclude sistematicamente dall’indagine l’eros e la definizione di psychè del Fedro come “ciò che si muove sempre” e “muove sé stesso”. Non si occupa affatto del bello, perché lo assimila (...)
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  4. Plato on False Judgment in the Theaetetus.Axel Barceló-Aspeitia & Edgar González-Varela - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (3):349-372.
    Under what conditions would it be paradoxical to consider the possibility of false judgment? Here we claim that in the initial puzzle of Theaetetus 187e5–188c9, where Plato investigates the question of what could psychologically cause a false judgment, the paradoxical nature of this question derives from certain constraints and restrictions about causal explanation, in particular, from the metaphysical principle that opposites cannot cause opposites. Contrary to all previous interpretations, this metaphysical approach does not attribute to Plato any controversial epistemological assumptions (...)
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  5. Ousia no Fédon de Platão.Anderson de Paula Borges - 2023 - Substância Na História da Filosofia.
  6. Aristotle on Plato's Forms as Causes.Christopher Byrne - 2023 - In Mark Nyvlt (ed.), The Odyssey of Eidos: Reflections on Aristotle's Response to Plato. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 19-39.
    Much of the debate about Aristotle’s criticisms of Plato has focused on the separability of the Forms. Here the dispute has to do with the ontological status of the Forms, in particular Plato’s claim for their ontological priority in relation to perceptible objects. Aristotle, however, also disputes the explanatory and causal roles that Plato claims for the Forms. This second criticism is independent of the first; even if the problem of the ontological status of the Forms were resolved to Aristotle’s (...)
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  7. Plato on Sunaitia.Douglas R. Campbell - 2023 - Apeiron 56 (4):739-768.
    I argue that Plato thinks that a sunaition is a mere tool used by a soul (or by the cosmic nous) to promote an intended outcome. In the first section, I develop the connection between sunaitia and Plato’s teleology. In the second section, I argue that sunaitia belong to Plato’s theory of the soul as a self-mover: specifically, they are those things that are set in motion by the soul in the service of some goal. I also argue against several (...)
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  8. Explanation in the Phaedo: An Argument Against the Metaphysical Interpretation of the Clever Αἰτία.Elizabeth Jelinek - 2023 - In Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy In Honor of Professor Anthony Preus. Routledge. pp. 162-179.
    At Phaedo 105c, Socrates introduces a type of explanation (αἰτία) he describes as “clever.” Rather than explaining a body’s hotness in terms of the body’s participation in the Form Hot, for example, the clever αἰτία attributes a body’s hotness to the presence of fire in the body. Traditional interpretations argue that the clever αἰτία accounts for the interaction between fire and the body in terms of logical entailment relationships among the Forms. On this view, fire makes bodies hot because fire (...)
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  9. Nature as an Instrumental Cause in Proclus.Rareș Ilie Marinescu - 2023 - Apeiron 56 (4):673-692.
    In this paper I focus on Proclus’ concept of the instrumental cause in his commentary on the Timaeus (In Tim.). Unlike earlier Neoplatonists who do not make much use of this type of causality, Proclus relates the instrumental cause to the hypostasis of nature (φύσις). The Demiurge uses nature as an instrument in his ordering and creation of the cosmos. How does Proclus arrive at this understanding of nature? I argue that the definition of nature as an instrumental cause is (...)
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  10. On Plato’s Precosmos ( Ti. 52d2–53c3).Federico M. Petrucci - 2023 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 44 (1):45-64.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a new reading of Plato’s precosmos (Ti. 52d2–53c3). More specifically, I shall argue that the precosmos is populated by bodies deriving from random complexes of properties, and that this is the effect of the Receptacle’s full precosmic participation in the Paradigm. This will turn out to be consistent with a robust notion of ‘precosmic generation’ and will reveal why Plato may have sought to refer to this otherwise puzzling scenario: representing the precosmos (...)
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  11. Il trascendentale del bello, causa della razionalità. Estetica drammatica in Platone e in Hans Urs von Balthasar.Ida Soldini - 2023 - Dissertation, Facoltà di Teologia, Lugano
  12. The Soul’s Tomb: Plato on the Body as the Cause of Psychic Disorders.Douglas R. Campbell - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (1):119-139.
    I argue that, according to Plato, the body is the sole cause of psychic disorders. This view is expressed at Timaeus 86b in an ambiguous sentence that has been widely misunderstood by translators and commentators. The goal of this article is to offer a new understanding of Plato’s text and view. In the first section, I argue that although the body is the result of the gods’ best efforts, their sub-optimal materials meant that the soul is constantly vulnerable to the (...)
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  13. Psychological Causes in Plato’s Phaedo.Matthew L. Evans - 2022 - Ancient Philosophy Today 4 (2):196-216.
    Nearly all of us would accept that at least some of our thoughts – desires, beliefs, and intentions, for example – can be causally responsible for movements in our bodies. Starting in antiquity, and especially since Descartes, philosophers have deployed this claim as the pivotal premise in an increasingly popular line of argument against dualism. The purpose of this paper is to show that, in the Phaedo, Socrates uses this very same claim as the pivotal premise in a surprisingly powerful (...)
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  14. Plato on chemistry.Ernesto Paparazzo - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):221-238.
    It is a notion commonly acknowledged that in his work Timaeus the Athenian philosopher Plato (_c_. 429–347 BC) laid down an early chemical theory of the creation, structure and phenomena of the universe. There is much truth in this acknowledgement because Plato’s “chemistry” gives a description of the material world in mathematical terms, an approach that marks an outstanding advancement over cosmologic doctrines put forward by his predecessors, and which was very influential on western culture for many centuries. In the (...)
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  15. Aristotle on Efficient and Final Causes in Plato.Daniel Vázquez - 2022 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 43 (1):29-54.
    In Metaphysics A 6, Aristotle claims that Plato only recognises formal and material causes. Yet, in various dialogues, Plato seems to use and distinguish efficient and final causes too. Consequently, Harold Cherniss accuses Aristotle of being an unfair, forgetful, or careless reader of Plato. Since then, scholars have tried to defend Aristotle’s exegetical skills. I offer textual evidence and arguments to show that their efforts still fall short of the desired goal. I argue, instead, that we can reject Cherniss’ assertation (...)
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  16. Causes in Plato’s Phaedo.Michael Wiitala - 2022 - Plato Journal 23:37-50.
    As Socrates recounts his search for causes (aitiai) in the Phaedo, he identifies the following as genuine causes: intelligence (nous), seeming best, choice of the best, and the forms. I argue that these causes should be understood as norms prescribing the conditions their effects must meet if those effects are to be produced. Thus, my account both explains what Socrates’ causes are and the way in which they cause what they cause.
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  17. Cohesive Causes in Ancient Greek Philosophy and Medicine.Sean Coughlin - 2020 - In Chiara Thumiger (ed.), Holism in Ancient Medicine and Its Reception. Leiden: pp. 237-267.
    This paper is about the history of a question in ancient Greek philosophy and medicine: what holds the parts of a whole together? The idea that there is a single cause responsible for cohesion is usually associated with the Stoics. They refer to it as the synectic cause (αἴτιον συνεκτικόν), a term variously translated as ‘cohesive cause,’ ‘containing cause’ or ‘sustaining cause.’ The Stoics, however, are neither the first nor the only thinkers to raise this question or to propose a (...)
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  18. Teleology, Causation and the Atlas Motif in Plato's Phaedo.Daniel Vazquez - 2020 - Schole 14 (1):82-103.
    In this paper, I propose a new reading of Phaedo 99b6-d2. My main thesis is that in 99c6-9, Socrates does not refer to the teleological αἰτία but to the αἰτία that will be provided by a stronger ‘Atlas’ (99c4-5). This means that the passage offers no evidence that Socrates abandons teleology or modifies his views about it. He acknowledges, instead, that he could not find or learn any αἰτία stronger than the teleological one. This, I suggest, allows an interpretation of (...)
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  19. The Drama of the Human Condition. Notes on the causes and origins of Evil in Plato’s Republic.Gianluigi Segalerba - 2019 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 63 (1):19-35.
    In my analysis I deal with some causes and origins of evil and of moral degeneration in the human dimension. My analysis focuses on Plato’s Republic. The origins and causes of the presence of injustice and of vice lie in the very structure of the human soul. The division of the soul into parts which are at least reciprocally independent of each other implies that there is the possibility that they are in conflict with each other. This is the origin (...)
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  20. The Argument against the Friends of the Forms Revisited: Sophist 248a4–249d5.Michael Wiitala - 2018 - Apeiron 51 (2):171-200.
    There are only two places in which Plato explicitly offers a critique of the sort of theory of forms presented in the Phaedo and Republic: at the beginning of the Parmenides and in the argument against the Friends of the Forms in the Sophist. An accurate account of the argument against the Friends, therefore, is crucial to a proper understanding of Plato’s metaphysics. How the argument against the Friends ought to be construed and what it aims to accomplish, however, are (...)
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  21. The Form of the Good in Plato's Timaeus.Thanassis Gkatzaras - 2017 - Plato Journal: The Journal of the International Plato Society 17:71-83.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that the Form of the Good (as we know it from the Republic) is still present in the Timaeus and is ontologically independent from the Demiurge and his Paradigm. This claim is supported by selected passages from Timaeus’ text, but it is also based on Phaedo’s theory of causation and on the simile of the sun in Republic. It is also highlighted after a detailed comparison between the philosopher-kings and the Demiurge, (...)
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  22. The Form of the Good in Plato’s Timaeus.Thanassis Gkatzaras - 2017 - Plato Journal 17:71-83.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that the Form of the Good is still present in the Timaeus and is ontologically independent from the Demiurge and his Paradigm. This claim is supported by selected passages from Timaeus’ text, but it is also based on Phaedo’s theory of causation and on the simile of the sun in Republic. It is also highlighted after a detailed comparison between the philosopher-kings and the Demiurge, and after the emergence of their striking (...)
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  23. Is the Form of the Good a Final Cause for Plato?Elizabeth Jelinek - 2016 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 33 (2):99-116.
    Many assume that Plato's Form of the Good is a final cause. This might be true if one assumes an Aristotelian definition of final cause; however, I argue that if one adopts Plato's conception of final causation as evidenced in the Phaedo and Timaeus, the claim that the Form of the Good is a final cause for Plato is untenable.
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  24. Platonic Causes Revisited.D. T. J. Bailey - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):15-32.
    This Paper Offers A New Interpretation of Phaedo 96a–103a. Plato has devoted the dialogue up to this point to a series of arguments for the claim that the soul is immortal. However, one of the characters, Cebes, insists that so far nothing more has been established than that the soul is durable, divine, and in existence before the incarnation of birth. What is needed is something more ambitious: a proof that the soul is not such as to pass out of (...)
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  25. Platonic Causes Revisited.Dominic Bailey - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):15-32.
    this paper offers a new interpretation of Phaedo 96a–103a. Plato has devoted the dialogue up to this point to a series of arguments for the claim that the soul is immortal. However, one of the characters, Cebes, insists that so far nothing more has been established than that the soul is durable, divine, and in existence before the incarnation of birth. What is needed is something more ambitious: a proof that the soul is not such as to pass out of (...)
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  26. Aristote, critique de Platon sur les causes.Karel Thein - 2014 - Chôra 12:15-46.
    The paper reconsiders Aristotle’s criticism of Platonic forms as causes together with its wider implications for the differences but also similiarities between the two philosophers. Analyzing the relevant texts of Metaphysics A 9 and Generation and Corruption II, 9, where Aristotle addresses the hypothesis of forms as put forward in the Phaedo, it discusses two interpretative options : that Aristotle takes these forms for an imperfect anticipation of formal causes, and that he sees them as an aborted attempt at grasping (...)
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  27. The Forms in the Euthyphro and the Statesman: A Case against the Developmental Reading of Plato’s Dialogues.Michael Oliver Wiitala - 2014 - International Philosophical Quarterly 54 (4):393-410.
    The Euthyphro is generally considered one of Plato’s early dialogues. According to the developmental approach to reading the dialogues, when writing the Euthyphro Plato had not yet developed the sort of elaborate “theory of forms ” that we see presented in the middle dialogues and further refined in the late dialogues. This essay calls the developmental account into question by showing how key elements from the theory of forms that appear in the late dialogues, particularly in the Statesman, are already (...)
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  28. Plato on Necessity and Disorder.Olof Pettersson - 2013 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China (BRILL) 8 (4):546-565.
    In the Timaeus, Plato makes a distinction between reason and necessity. This distinction is often accounted for as a distinction between two types of causation: purpose oriented causation and mechanistic causation. While reason is associated with the soul and taken to bring about its effects with the good and the beautiful as the end, necessity is understood in terms of a set of natural laws pertaining to material things. In this paper I shall suggest that there are reasons to reconsider (...)
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  29. Physical Change in Plato's Timaeus.Brian D. Prince - 2013 - Apeiron 47 (2):211-229.
    In this paper I ask how Timaeus explains change within the trianglebased part of his cosmos. Two common views are that change among physical items is somehow caused or enabled by either the forms or the demiurge. I argue for a competing view, on which the physical items are capable of bringing about change by themselves, prior to the intervention of the demiurge, and prior to their being turned into imitations of the forms. I outline three problems for the view (...)
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  30. On Necessity.D. Rita Alfonso - 2012 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (2):233-245.
    Since Stalbaum’s 1838 translation revived interest in Plato’s Timaeus, commentators have tended to bracket the discourse on Necessity, reading it as either mythical or mystical. This essay offers an interpretation of Necessity that is also an assertion of its importance for understanding the philosophically important conception of chora-space found therein. Beginning with throwing ourselves back into the Presocratic milieu, I examine what remains of Presocratic notions of kreon and ananke (necessity) in order to move forward a more robust interpretation of (...)
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  31. Nature and Divinity in Plato's Timaeus.Sarah Broadie - 2011 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Plato's Timaeus is one of the most influential and challenging works of ancient philosophy to have come down to us. Sarah Broadie's rich and compelling study proposes new interpretations of major elements of the Timaeus, including the separate Demiurge, the cosmic 'beginning', the 'second mixing', the Receptacle and the Atlantis story. Broadie shows how Plato deploys the mythic themes of the Timaeus to convey fundamental philosophical insights and examines the profoundly differing methods of interpretation which have been brought to bear (...)
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  32. Proclus' Cosmogony - (D.T.) Runia, (M.) Share (edd., trans.) Proclus: Commentary on Plato's Timaeus. Volume II. Book 2: Proclus on the Causes of the Cosmos and its Creation. Pp. xii + 410. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Cased, £65, US$130. ISBN: 978-0-521-84871-8. [REVIEW]Niketas Siniossoglou - 2011 - The Classical Review 61 (1):92-94.
  33. Knowledge, Cause, and Abstract Objects: Causal Objections to Platonism.C. Cheyne - 2010 - Springer.
    According to platonists, entities such as numbers, sets, propositions and properties are abstract objects. But abstract objects lack causal powers and a location in space and time, so how could we ever come to know of the existence of such impotent and remote objects? In Knowledge, Cause, and Abstract Objects, Colin Cheyne presents the first systematic and detailed account of this epistemological objection to the platonist doctrine that abstract objects exist and can be known. Since mathematics has such a central (...)
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  34. Medical Theory in Plato's Timaeus.Laura Grams - 2009 - Rhizai 6:161-192.
    Plato’s Timaeus provides a significant, original account of diseases afflicting the body and soul. The causes of disease are explained according to the same physical principles that account for the motion of the four elements in the universe. As a result, medical expertise concerning the microcosm of the human body depends on cosmological expertise concerning the macrocosm of the universe. in addition, the methods of division and collection (diairesis and sunagōgē) that Plato uses in other late dialogues are employed in (...)
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  35. Timaeus and Critias.Plato . (ed.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'The god wanted everything to be good, marred by as little imperfection as possible.'Timaeus, one of Plato's acknowledged masterpieces, is an attempt to construct the universe and explain its contents by means of as few axioms as possible. The result is a brilliant, bizarre, and surreal cosmos - the product of the rational thinking of a creator god and his astral assistants, and of purely mechanistic causes based on the behaviour of the four elements. At times dazzlingly clear, at times (...)
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  36. Comments on Plato's Causal Explanation.D. Z. Andriopoulos - 2008 - Philosophical Inquiry 30 (3-4):115-143.
  37. Mental Causation: The Mind-Body Problem.Anthony Dardis - 2008 - Columbia University Press.
    Anthony Dardis shows how to unravel the knot. He traces its early appearance in the history of philosophical inquiry, specifically in the work of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and T. H. Huxley.
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  38. Proclus: Commentary on Plato's Timaeus: Volume 2, Book 2: Proclus on the Causes of the Cosmos and its Creation.David T. Runia & Michael Share (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume of Proclus' commentary on Plato's Timaeus records Proclus' exegesis of Timaeus 27a–31b, in which Plato first discusses preliminary matters that precede his account of the creation of the universe, and then moves to the account of the creation of the universe as a totality. For Proclus this text is a grand opportunity to reflect on the nature of causation as it relates to the physical reality of our cosmos. The commentary deals with many subjects that have been of (...)
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  39. Ist die Idee des Guten nicht transzendent oder ist sie es doch? Nochmals Platons ΕΠΕΚΕΙΝΑ ΤΗΣ ΟΥΣΙΑΣ.Rafael Ferber - 2005 - In Damir Barbaric (ed.), Platon über das Gute und die Gerechtigkeit / Plato on Goodness and Justice / Platone sul Bene e sulla Giustizia. Königshausen & Neumann. pp. 149-174.
    Plato scholars such as Matthias Baltes (1940-2003) and Luc Brisson have defended the thesis that Plato‘s Idea of the Good is on the one hand beyond being (epekeina tês ousias) in dignity and power, but is nevertheless not transcendent over being. The article gives first (I.), an introduction into the status questionis. Second (II.), it delivers the most important arguments for the thesis of Baltes and Brisson. Third (III.), it gives two counterarguments against the thesis. Fourth (IV), it deals with (...)
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  40. Causation in the phaedo.Sean Kelsey - 2004 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (1):21–43.
    In the _Phaedo Socrates says that as a young man he thought it a great thing to know the causes of things; but finding existing accounts unsatisfying, he fell back on a method of his own, hypothesizing that Forms are causes. I argue that part of what this hypothesis says is that certain phenomena--the ones for which it postulates Forms as causes--are the result of processes whose object was to produce them. I then use this conclusion to explain how Socrates' (...)
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  41. À quelles conditions peut-on parler de « matière » dans le Timée de Platon ?Luc Brisson - 2003 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 1 (1):5-21.
    Dans le Timée, l'hypothèse de la khó̱ra, qu'il faut se garder d'identifier avec la húle̱ aristotélicienne, permet de rendre compte du fait que les choses sensibles sont radicalement différentes de leur modèle intelligible. Or, la constitution mathématique des éléments à partir de la khó̱ra mène à la contradiction suivante : dans l'univers platonicien, il faut tenir compte à la fois du continu qui doit caractériser la khó̱ra, et du discontinu qu'instaurent inéluctablement les polyèdres réguliers auxquels sont associés les éléments. La (...)
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  42. Why should we prefer Plato's Timaeus to Aristotle's Physics? Proclus' critique of Aristotle's explanation of the physical world.Carlos Steel - 2003 - Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 78:175-187.
  43. A Relation of Causes: Efficient Cause in the Context of Formal and Final Cause for Plato and Aristotle.Catherine Ann Jack - 2000 - Dissertation, Fordham University
    It is generally accepted that early modern thinkers dispense with formal and final causes and identify efficient cause alone as a 'real' cause. My thesis is that formal and final causes determine the character and operation of efficient causes, in which case efficient causes cannot operate independently of formal and final causes. This dissertation explores the relation of efficient, formal, and final cause for Plato and Aristotle and, ultimately, argues that formal and final causes shape efficient causes. ;I begin with (...)
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  44. Reasons and Causes in Plato.Grace M. Ledbetter - 1999 - Ancient Philosophy 19 (2):255-265.
  45. Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought.R. J. Hankinson - 1998 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
    'A fascinating book. It contains a sweeping survey of approaches to causation and explanation from the Presocratic philosophers to the Neo-platonist philosophers. Hankinson pays a visit to every major figure and movement in between: the sophists, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans and a variety of medical writers, early and late... impressive... Hankinson's observations are regularly intriguing, at times refreshingly trenchant, and in some cases straightforwardly arresting... the history itself is excellent: clear, intelligently conceived and executed, and broadly (...)
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  46. Platonic Causes.David Sedley - 1998 - Phronesis 43 (2):114-132.
    This paper examines Plato's ideas on cause-effect relations in the "Phaedo." It maintains that he sees causes as things (not events, states of affairs or the like), with any information as to how that thing brings about the effect relegated to a strictly secondary status. This is argued to make good sense, so long as we recognise that aition means the "thing responsible" and exploit legal analogies in order to understand what this amounts to. Furthermore, provided that we do not (...)
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  47. Causation in Plato and Aristotle.Sean Armel Kelsey - 1997 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    It is a commonplace that the Greek word $\alpha\iota\sp{\!\!\!{\sp{\sp,}}\prime}\!\tau\iota o\nu,$ traditionally translated "cause," is far broader than its English equivalent. When philosophers today talk about causes, they are interested in what makes things happen or brings things about; by contrast, the Greek notion of an $a\iota\tau\iota o\nu$ will embrace anything that contributes to our understanding of a thing. Still, some $\alpha\iota\sp{\!\!\!{\sp{\sp,}}\prime}\!\tau\iota\alpha$ are causes, and in this dissertation I take up the question of what Plato and Aristotle thought it was to (...)
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  48. Plato's Individuals. By Mary Margaret McCabe. [REVIEW]Scott Berman - 1996 - Modern Schoolman 73 (4):356-359.
  49. Aitios Words and the Metaphysics of Active Causation in Plato's "Phaedo" and "Timaeus".Grace Marie Ledbetter - 1996 - Dissertation, Cornell University
    This thesis first considers a question about Plato's causal terminology, and then turns to particular questions about active causation in the Phaedo and Timaeus. I argue that the terms aitia and aition do not in Plato mark a distinction between propositional and non-propositional items, but do indeed have different ranges of meaning: aitia, but not aition, can refer to someone's reason or ground. I then turn to the Phaedo and argue that Plato is there largely concerned with causal explanation. Teleological (...)
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  50. The Good or The Demiurge: Causation and the Unity of Good in Plato.Eugenio E. Benitez - 1995 - Apeiron 28 (2):113 - 140.
    In Republic VI 508e-9b Plato has Socrates claim that the Good is the cause (αίτίαν) of truth and knowledge as well as the very being of the Forms. Consequently, as causes must be distinct from and superior to their effects, the Good is neither truth nor knowledge nor even being, but exceeds them all in beauty (509a), as well as in honour and power (509b). No other passage in Plato has had a more intoxicating effect on its readers. To take (...)
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