Results for 'Tania Norell'

444 found
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  1.  28
    Can emotional content reduce the age gap in visual working memory? Evidence from two tasks.Tania Bermudez & Alessandra S. Souza - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (8):1676-1683.
    Ageing is associated with declines in several cognitive abilities including working memory. The goal of the present study was to assess whether emotional information could reduce the age gap in the quantity and quality of representations in visual WM. Young and older adults completed a serial image recognition task and a colour-image binding task. Results of the SIR task showed worse performance for negative than neutral and positive images within the older group, hence enlarging the age gap in WM. In (...)
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  2.  3
    Ciencia, técnica y tecnología: reflexiones críticas.Tania Mendes de Oxilia Dâavalos (ed.) - 2002 - Asunción del Paraguay: Fondo Editorial UAA.
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  3.  43
    A Radical Approach to Ebola: Saving Humans and Other Animals.Sarah J. L. Edwards, Charles H. Norell, Phyllis Illari, Brendan Clarke & Carolyn P. Neuhaus - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):35-42.
    As the usual regulatory framework did not fit well during the last Ebola outbreak, innovative thinking still needed. In the absence of an outbreak, randomised controlled trials of clinical efficacy in humans cannot be done, while during an outbreak such trials will continue to face significant practical, philosophical, and ethical challenges. This article argues that researchers should also test the safety and effectiveness of novel vaccines in wild apes by employing a pluralistic approach to evidence. There are three reasons to (...)
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  4.  12
    Sustentabilidade Ambiental No Processo de Produção e Distribuição de Refeições Em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição: Geração e Viabilidade da Comercialização Dos Resíduos Recicláveis.Tânia Regina Kinasz & Nathane Beatrys dos Santos Ramos - 2018 - Simbio-Logias Revista Eletrônica de Educação Filosofia e Nutrição 10 (14):132-145.
    Food Services generate solid waste from the production process and distribution of meal. The raw material, after a rational flow, is transformed into meals for consumption generating solid waste of variable composition and quantity. Waste recovery actions in the recycling and selective collection in these services act as inhibitors of the inadequate disposal of these wastes in the environment, contributing to environmental sustainability. The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and viability of commercialization of recyclable solid waste (...)
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  5.  9
    Unchain My Anguish: A Feminist Take on Art and Trauma.Tania L. Abramson - 2019 - Feminist Review 122 (1):189-197.
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  6.  12
    Perspectives on Human Suffering.Jeff Malpas & Norelle Lickiss (eds.) - 2012 - Springer.
    This volume brings together a range of interdisciplinary perspectives on a topic of central importance, but which has otherwise tended to be approached from within just one or another disciplinary framework. Most of the essays contained here incorporate some degree of interdisciplinarity in their own approach, but the volume nevertheless divides into three main sections: Philosophical considerations; Humanities approaches; Legal, medical, and therapeutic contexts. The volume includes essays by philosophers, medical practitioners and researchers, historians, lawyers, literary, Classical, and Judaic scholars. (...)
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  7. Learning Through Simulation.Sara Aronowitz & Tania Lombrozo - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20.
    Mental simulation — such as imagining tilting a glass to figure out the angle at which water would spill — can be a way of coming to know the answer to an internally or externally posed query. Is this form of learning a species of inference or a form of observation? We argue that it is neither: learning through simulation is a genuinely distinct form of learning. On our account, simulation can provide knowledge of the answer to a query even (...)
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  8.  74
    Medical Information Commons to Support Learning Healthcare Systems: Examples From Canada.Tania Bubela, Shelagh K. Genuis, Naveed Z. Janjua, Mel Krajden, Nicole Mittmann, Katerina Podolak & Lawrence W. Svenson - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):97-105.
    We explore how principles predicting the success of a medical information commons advantaged or disadvantaged three MIC initiatives in three Canadian provinces. Our MIC case examples demonstrate that practices and policies to promote access to and use of health information can help improve individual healthcare and inform a learning health system. MICs were constrained by heterogenous health information protection laws across jurisdictions and risk-averse institutional cultures. A networked approach to MICs would unlock even more potential for national and international data (...)
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  9.  15
    The role of the written script in shaping mirror-image discrimination: Evidence from illiterate, Tamil literate, and Tamil-Latin-alphabet bi-literate adults.Tânia Fernandes, Mrudula Arunkumar & Falk Huettig - 2021 - Cognition 206 (C):104493.
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  10. Causal-explanatory pluralism: how intentions, functions, and mechanisms influence causal ascriptions.Tania Lombrozo - 2010 - Cognitive Psychology 61 (4):303-332.
    Both philosophers and psychologists have argued for the existence of distinct kinds of explanations, including teleological explanations that cite functions or goals, and mechanistic explanations that cite causal mechanisms. Theories of causation, in contrast, have generally been unitary, with dominant theories focusing either on counterfactual dependence or on physical connections. This paper argues that both approaches to causation are psychologically real, with different modes of explanation promoting judgments more or less consistent with each approach. Two sets of experiments isolate the (...)
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  11.  18
    A Bibliometric Study on Academic Dishonesty Research.Tânia Marques, Nuno Reis & Jorge Gomes - 2019 - Journal of Academic Ethics 17 (2):169-191.
    Educational policy and social sciences researchers have been studying dishonest behaviors among students for a long time. In this bibliometric study we examine the extant literature on academic dishonesty until 2017. We also analyze the specific case of the literature on plagiarism since it is arguably one of the most common academic dishonest behavior. We aim at identifying the intellectual structure of the field of academic dishonesty and plagiarism. Results show that Donald L. McCabe and Richard L. Marsh appear as (...)
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  12.  14
    Understanding cheating behaviours: proactive and reactive intentions.Tânia Marques, Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Jorge F. S. Gomes - 2019 - Ethics and Education 14 (4):415-429.
    ABSTRACTThe understanding of a wide array of practices related to fraud, bribery, corruption, and more widely, illicit practices have been capturing the attention of practitioners and management researchers worldwide. A substantial portion of the extant research has used university students to measure their actual or intended cheating behaviours and often studies have tested for variations across countries and cultures. We highlight some major concerns in this stream of inquiry and discuss both the definition and some inconclusive results in prior studies, (...)
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  13. Ktitor: Le sens du Don Des panneaux votifs dans le monde byzantin.Tania Kambourova - 2008 - Byzantion 78:261-287.
    Le terme ktitor accompagne souvent la représentation d'un acte de don dans la peinture murale byzantines et post-byzantines. Même si le terme "ktitor" a été traduit le plus souvent par "fondateur", sémantiquement et historiquement, on retrouve dans le mot le sens de possession. Les ktitores - des propriétaires modaux, offrent leurs dons, dont le destinataire final est Dieu. Les panneaux votifs de Théodore Métochite , du sebastokrator Kalojan , de Stefan Uroš III , de Mircea l'Ancien témoignent des droits, des (...)
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  14.  12
    Efficacy of an Educational Intervention to Increase Consent for HIV Testing in Rural Appalachia.Tania B. Basta, Teena Stambaugh & Celia B. Fisher - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (2):129-145.
    This study sought to assess barriers and enhance readiness to consent to home and Planned Parenthood HIV testing among 60 out-patients from a mental health and substance abuse clinic in rural Appalachia. Testing barriers included not knowing where to get tested, lack of confidentiality, and loss of partners if one tested sero-positive. The intervention yielded lowered HIV stigma, increase in HIV knowledge, and agreement to take the HIV home test. These results are encouraging because they suggest that a brief educational (...)
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  15.  25
    What and How Much Do Children Lose in Academic Settings Owing to Parental Separation?Tania Corrás, Dolores Seijo, Francisca Fariña, Mercedes Novo, Ramón Arce & Ramón G. Cabanach - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  16.  85
    Physician‐Assisted Suicide: Promoting Autonomy—Or Medicalizing Suicide?Tania Salem - 1999 - Hastings Center Report 29 (3):30-36.
    Assisted suicide, many argue, honors self‐determination in returning control of their dying to patients themselves. But physician assistance and measures proposed to safeguard patients from coercion in fact return ultimate authority over this “private and deeply personal” decision to medicine and society.
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  17. Medicine and the individual: is phenomenology the answer?Tania L. Gergel - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1102-1109.
    The issue of how to incorporate the individual's first‐hand experience of illness into broader medical understanding is a major question in medical theory and practice. In a philosophical context, phenomenology, with its emphasis on the subject's perception of phenomena as the basis for knowledge and its questioning of naturalism, seems an obvious candidate for addressing these issues. This is a review of current phenomenological approaches to medicine, looking at what has motivated this philosophical approach, the main problems it faces and (...)
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  18.  34
    Dangerous Excursions: The Case Against Expanding Forensic DNA Databases to Innocent Persons.Tania Simoncelli - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):390-397.
    Recent expansions of federal and state law enforcement databanks to include DNA samples and profiles of innocent persons threaten individual privacy, impose unjustifiable costs on society, and may undermine our pursuit of justice. The move to permanently retain DNA from arrestees and proposals for a universal database should be vigorously opposed on matters of principle, legality, and practicality.
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  19. De Babel y el Sinaí: en torno a la ley, la traducción y la escucha.Tania Checchi - 2007 - Revista de Filosofía (México) 39 (120):87-104.
     
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  20.  20
    California's Proposition 69: A Dangerous Precedent for Criminal DNA Databases.Tania Simoncelli & Barry Steinhardt - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (2):279-293.
    On November 2, 2004, California voters elected to radically expand their state criminal DNA database through the passage of Proposition 69. The approved ballot initiative authorized DNA collection and retention from all felons, any individuals with past felony convictions – including juveniles – and, beginning in 2009, all adults arrested for any felony offense. This dramatic database expansion threatens civil liberties and establishes a dangerous precedent for U.S. criminal databases.
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  21.  70
    Functional explanation and the function of explanation.Tania Lombrozo & Susan Carey - 2006 - Cognition 99 (2):167-204.
    Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted-for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore the theoretical commitments that underlie teleological explanations. With the analysis of [Wright, L. (1976). Teleological Explanations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press] from philosophy as a point of departure, we examine (...)
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  22.  21
    Dangerous Excursions: The Case against Expanding Forensic DNA Databases to Innocent Persons.Tania Simoncelli - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):390-397.
    Recent expansions of federal and state law enforcement databanks to include DNA samples and profiles of innocent persons threaten individual privacy, impose unjustifiable costs on society, and may undermine our pursuit of justice. The move to permanently retain DNA from arrestees and proposals for a universal database should be vigorously opposed on matters of principle, legality, and practicality.
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  23.  16
    Toward a dialogical understanding of objects in subjective experience and social practices.Tania Zittoun - 2023 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 43 (3):178-183.
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  24.  89
    The role of moral commitments in moral judgment.Tania Lombrozo - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (2):273-286.
    Traditional approaches to moral psychology assumed that moral judgments resulted from the application of explicit commitments, such as those embodied in consequentialist or deontological philosophies. In contrast, recent work suggests that moral judgments often result from unconscious or emotional processes, with explicit commitments generated post hoc. This paper explores the intermediate position that moral commitments mediate moral judgments, but not through their explicit and consistent application in the course of judgment. An experiment with 336 participants finds that individuals vary in (...)
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  25.  38
    The metamorphosis of the statistical segmentation output: Lexicalization during artificial language learning.Tânia Fernandes, Régine Kolinsky & Paulo Ventura - 2009 - Cognition 112 (3):349-366.
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  26.  9
    Models of causation in epidemiology.Staffan Norell - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 129--135.
  27.  22
    Making the Case Against Gene Patents.Tania Simoncelli & Sandra S. Park - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (1):106-145.
    . On June 13, 2013, the Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, holding that a naturally occurring DNA segment that has merely been “isolated” is not patent eligible, and effectively overturning a longstanding policy that had allowed for patents to be issued on thousands of human genes. Drawing largely on the expert testimony and arguments presented during the court proceedings, this paper provides an overview of the discovery and patenting of the BRCA1 (...)
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  28.  12
    In the name of Husserl: nursing in pursuit of the things‐in‐themselves.Tania Yegdich - 2000 - Nursing Inquiry 7 (1):29-40.
    In the name of Husserl: nursing in pursuit of the things‐in‐themselves A perceived contradiction between the tenets of humanism and positivism secures phenomenology’s endorsement in nursing as an alternative methodology to the natural sciences. Nursing’s humanistic doctrine of valuing the individual is aligned with phenomenology in the belief that both projects investigate the subjective experiences of others. However, the belief that phenomenology opposes objectifying methods does not account for the different understandings of subjectivity that underpin various philosophic positions, such as (...)
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  29.  23
    California's Proposition 69: A Dangerous Precedent for Criminal DNA Databases.Tania Simoncelli & Barry Steinhardt - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (2):279-293.
    On November 2, 2004, California voters approved Proposition 69, “The DNA Fingerprint, Unsolved Crime, and Innocence Protection Act” by a margin of approximately 60 to 40 percent. Given the limited amount of information provided to voters during the initiative process, it is unclear how many of the yea-sayers were apprised of the full implications of this measure. Indeed, by voting “yes” on Proposition 69, California has elected to house the most radical and costly state criminal DNA database in the country. (...)
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  30. Reasons for endorsing or rejecting ‘self-binding directives’ in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study of survey responses from UK service users.Tania Gergel, Preety Das, Lucy Stephenson, Gareth Owen, Larry Rifkin, John Dawson, Alex Ruck Keene & Guy Hindley - 2021 - The Lancet Psychiatry 8.
    Summary Background Self-binding directives instruct clinicians to overrule treatment refusal during future severe episodes of illness. These directives are promoted as having potential to increase autonomy for individuals with severe episodic mental illness. Although lived experience is central to their creation, service users’ views on self-binding directives have not been investigated substantially. This study aimed to explore whether reasons for endorsement, ambivalence, or rejection given by service users with bipolar disorder can address concerns regarding self-binding directives, decision-making capacity, and human (...)
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  31. The Instrumental Value of Explanations.Tania Lombrozo - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (8):539-551.
    Scientific and ‘intuitive’ or ‘folk’ theories are typically characterized as serving three critical functions: prediction, explanation, and control. While prediction and control have clear instrumental value, the value of explanation is less transparent. This paper reviews an emerging body of research from the cognitive sciences suggesting that the process of seeking, generating, and evaluating explanations in fact contributes to future prediction and control, albeit indirectly by facilitating the discovery and confirmation of instrumentally valuable theories. Theoretical and empirical considerations also suggest (...)
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  32.  11
    Narrando el miedo y la esperanza: las hiperescrituras del yo y la producción de memorias en la pandemia.Tania Lucía Maddalena & Leonardo Nolasco Silva - 2021 - Voces de la Educación:206-224.
    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal presentar y discutir el concepto de las hiperescrituras del yo como prácticas de producción de memorias. A partir de estas escrituras, practicadas y compartidas en la pandemia, se pretende pensar la ficción como táctica de (re)existencia. Finalmente se presenta una experiencia en la plataforma Moodle, diseñada con estudiantes durante el 2020, que tuvo la ficción como punto de partida de la propuesta didáctica.
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  33.  23
    Difficult secularity: Talmud as symbolic resource.Tania Zittoun - 2006 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (2):59-75.
    Religious systems are organised semiotic structures providing people with values and rules, identities, regularity, and meaning. Consequently, a person moving out of a religious system might be exposed to meaning-ruptures. The paper presents the situation of young people who have been in Yeshiva, a rabbinic high-school, and who have to join secular university life. It analyses the changes to which they are exposed. On the bases of this case study, the paper examines the following questions: can the religious symbolic system (...)
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  34. The empathic brain: how, when and why?Frederique de Vignemont & Tania Singer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (10):435-441.
    Recent imaging results suggest that individuals automatically share the emotions of others when exposed to their emotions. We question the assumption of the automaticity and propose a contextual approach, suggesting several modulatory factors that might influence empathic brain responses. Contextual appraisal could occur early in emotional cue evaluation, which then might or might not lead to an empathic brain response, or not until after an empathic brain response is automatically elicited. We propose two major roles for empathy; its epistemological role (...)
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  35. Imagens que não agüentam mais.Tania Mara Galli Fonseca - 2005 - Episteme 20:101-110.
     
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  36.  73
    Morality justifies motivated reasoning in the folk ethics of belief.Corey Cusimano & Tania Lombrozo - 2021 - Cognition 209 (C):104513.
    When faced with a dilemma between believing what is supported by an impartial assessment of the evidence (e.g., that one's friend is guilty of a crime) and believing what would better fulfill a moral obligation (e.g., that the friend is innocent), people often believe in line with the latter. But is this how people think beliefs ought to be formed? We addressed this question across three studies and found that, across a diverse set of everyday situations, people treat moral considerations (...)
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  37. Experiential Explanation.Sara Aronowitz & Tania Lombrozo - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1321-1336.
    People often answer why-questions with what we call experiential explanations: narratives or stories with temporal structure and concrete details. In contrast, on most theories of the epistemic function of explanation, explanations should be abstractive: structured by general relationships and lacking extraneous details. We suggest that abstractive and experiential explanations differ not only in level of abstraction, but also in structure, and that each form of explanation contributes to the epistemic goals of individual learners and of science. In particular, experiential explanations (...)
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  38.  74
    Explanation and categorization: How “why?” informs “what?”.Tania Lombrozo - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):248-253.
    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that explanation and categorization are intimately related. This paper explores the hypothesis that explanations can help structure conceptual representations, and thereby influence the relative importance of features in categorization decisions. In particular, features may be differentially important depending on the role they play in explaining other features or aspects of category membership. Two experiments manipulate whether a feature is explained mechanistically, by appeal to proximate causes, or functionally, by appeal to a function or goal. (...)
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  39. Teatro Estudantil: As Tecnologias do Eu ea Constituição Ética de Si.Tânia Cristina dos Santos Boy - 2007 - Quaestio: Revista de Estudos Em Educação 9 (2).
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  40. Faisons mieux les choses : représentation publique de la science sur la COVID-19.Tania Bubela, Timothy Caulfield, Jonathan Kimmelman & Vardit Ravitsky - 2020 - Ottawa, Canada:
    Les recherches scientifiques sur la COVID-19 sont à la fois menées et diffusées à une cadence effrénée. Bien qu’il soit inspirant de voir la communauté de la recherche répondre avec autant de vigueur à la crise causée par la pandémie, toute cette activité a par ailleurs engendré un chaos de mauvaises données, de résultats contradictoires et de manchettes exagérées. Alors que la polarisation, la déformation et la médiatisation des résultats scientifiques s’intensifient chaque jour, les inquiétudes se font de plus en (...)
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  41. Let’s Do Better: Public Representations of COVID-19 Science.Tania Bubela, Timothy Caulfield, Jonathan Kimmelman & Vardit Ravitsky - 2020 - Ottawa, Canada:
    COVID science is being both done and circulated at a furious pace. While it is inspiring to see the research community responding so vigorously to the pandemic crisis, all this activity has also created a churning sea of bad data, conflicting results, and exaggerated headlines. With representations of science becoming increasingly polarized, twisted and hyped, there is growing concern that the relevant science is being represented to the public in a manner that may cause confusion, inappropriate expectations, and the erosion (...)
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  42.  70
    The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning.Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments provide (...)
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  43.  46
    Explanation and inference: mechanistic and functional explanations guide property generalization.Tania Lombrozo & Nicholas Z. Gwynne - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:102987.
    The ability to generalize from the known to the unknown is central to learning and inference. Two experiments explore the relationship between how a property is explained and how that property is generalized to novel species and artifacts. The experiments contrast the consequences of explaining a property mechanistically, by appeal to parts and processes, with the consequences of explaining the property functionally, by appeal to functions and goals. The findings suggest that properties that are explained functionally are more likely to (...)
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  44.  29
    Patients rebuilt: Dr Auguste Rollier's heliotherapeutic portraits, c.1903–1944.Tania Anne Woloshyn - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (1):38-46.
    This article explores and critically contextualises the photographic production of heliotherapist Auguste Rollier (1874–1954), specifically the ‘patient portraits’ photographed at his Leysin sanatoria over a substantial period of four decades, c.1903–1944. It argues that these photographs, ignored in secondary literature, were particularly persuasive in communicating the natural healing powers of sunlight and through their international dissemination brought Rollier's work professional acclaim and prestige. Always presenting anonymous patients, and most often children, the images produced for Rollier's work interweave aesthetic and medical (...)
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  45.  12
    On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization.Kouteva/Kuteva Tania - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  46.  18
    L'émergence du capitalisme au prisme de l'histoire globale.Philippe Norel - 2013 - Actuel Marx 53 (1):63.
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  47.  55
    Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) Versus Explaining for the Best Inference.Tania Lombrozo & Daniel Wilkenfeld - 2015 - Science & Education 24 (9-10):1059-1077.
    In pedagogical contexts and in everyday life, we often come to believe something because it would best explain the data. What is it about the explanatory endeavor that makes it essential to everyday learning and to scientific progress? There are at least two plausible answers. On one view, there is something special about having true explanations. This view is highly intuitive: it’s clear why true explanations might improve one’s epistemic position. However, there is another possibility—it could be that the process (...)
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  48. Psicologia e saúde: intervenção em hospital geral; Psychology and health: general hospital therapeutics.Tânia Martins de Barros - 2002 - Aletheia: An International Journal of Philosophy 15:77-83.
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  49. Tell me your (cognitive) budget, and I’ll tell you what you value.David Kinney & Tania Lombrozo - 2024 - Cognition 247 (C):105782.
    Consider the following two (hypothetical) generic causal claims: “Living in a neighborhood with many families with children increases purchases of bicycles” and “living in an affluent neighborhood with many families with children increases purchases of bicycles.” These claims not only differ in what they suggest about how bicycle ownership is distributed across different neighborhoods (i.e., “the data”), but also have the potential to communicate something about the speakers’ values: namely, the prominence they accord to affluence in representing and making decisions (...)
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  50.  12
    The Impact of Sexualized Video Game Content and Cognitive Load on State Rape Myth Acceptance.Tania Noël, Frank Larøi & Jonathan Burnay - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The potential negative impact of sexualized video games on attitudes toward women is an important issue. Studies that have examined this issue are rare and contain a number of limitations. Therefore, it largely remains unclear whether sexualized video games can have an impact on attitudes toward women. This study examined the consequences of sexualized video game content and cognitive load on rape victim blame and rape perpetrator blame, and whether the degree of humanness of the victim and of the perpetrator (...)
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