78 found
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  1.  36
    Proposed Principles for International Bioethics Conferencing: Anti-Discriminatory, Global, and Inclusive.Nancy S. Jecker, Vardit Ravitsky, Mohammad Ghaly, Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon & Caesar Atuire - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (4):13-28.
    This paper opens a critical conversation about the ethics of international bioethics conferencing and proposes principles that commit to being anti-discriminatory, global, and inclusive. We launch this conversation in the Section, Case Study, with a case example involving the International Association of Bioethics’ (IAB’s) selection of Qatar to host the 2024 World Congress of Bioethics. IAB’s choice of Qatar sparked controversy. We believe it also may reveal deeper issues of Islamophobia in bioethics. The Section, Principles for International Bioethics Conferencing, sets (...)
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  2.  48
    Disclosing individual genetic results to research participants.Vardit Ravitsky & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (6):8 – 17.
    Investigators and institutional review boards should integrate plans about the appropriate disclosure of individual genetic results when designing research studies. The ethical principles of beneficence, respect, reciprocity, and justice provide justification for routinely offering certain results to research participants. We propose a result-evaluation approach that assesses the expected information and the context of the study in order to decide whether results should be offered. According to this approach, the analytic validity and the clinical utility of a specific result determine whether (...)
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  3.  40
    The Shifting Landscape of Prenatal Testing: Between Reproductive Autonomy and Public Health.Vardit Ravitsky - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (s3):S34-S40.
    Since the 1970s, prenatal testing has been integrated into many health care systems on the basis of two competing and largely irreconcilable rationales. The reproductive autonomy rationale focuses on nondirective counseling and consent as ways to ensure that women's decisions about testing and subsequent care are informed and free of undue pressures. It also represents an easily understandable and ethically convincing basis for widespread access to prenatal testing, since the value of autonomy is well established in Western bioethics and widely (...)
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  4.  42
    The ‘serious’ factor in germline modification.Erika Kleiderman, Vardit Ravitsky & Bartha Maria Knoppers - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (8):508-513.
    Current advances in assisted reproductive technologies aim to promote the health and well-being of future children. They offer the possibility to select embryos with the greatest potential of being born healthy (eg, preimplantation genetic testing) and may someday correct faulty genes responsible for heritable diseases in the embryo (eg, human germline genome modification (HGGM)). Most laws and policy statements surrounding HGGM refer to the notion of ‘serious’ as a core criterion in determining what genetic diseases should be targeted by these (...)
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  5.  47
    Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.Marie-Eve Lemoine & Vardit Ravitsky - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (11):37-48.
    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies. However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can (...)
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  6.  30
    The Serious Factor in Expanded Prenatal Genetic Testing.Vardit Ravitsky, Anne-Marie Laberge, Marie-Christine Roy, Bartha Knoppers, Vasiliki Rahimzadeh & Erika Kleiderman - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (2):23-25.
    Bayefsky and Berkman argue in favor of evidence-based policy development for expanded prenatal genetic testing. They propose to identify what kinds of information pregnant persons, their par...
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  7.  26
    Expanded Prenatal Testing: Maintaining a Non-Directive Approach to Promote Reproductive Autonomy.Anne-Marie Laberge, Tierry M. Laforce, Marie-Françoise Malo, Julie Richer, Marie-Christine Roy & Vardit Ravitsky - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (2):39-42.
    In "Implementing Expanded Prenatal Genetic Testing: Should Parents Have Access to Any and All Fetal Genetic Information?," Bayefsky and Berkman argue in favor of establishing three categorie...
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  8.  84
    Epigenetics and the Environment in Bioethics.Charles Dupras, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2012 - Bioethics 28 (7):327-334.
    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and – where appropriate – work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to – and so hopefully more (...)
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  9.  29
    Conceived and Deceived: The Medical Interests of Donor‐Conceived Individuals.Vardit Ravitsky - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (1):17-22.
    Effective July 22, 2011, a new law in the state of Washington requires any donor of sperm or eggs to provide a medical history and identifying information to fertility clinics. It also allows donor‐conceived individuals to request this information from clinics once they reach the age of eighteen. This is a significant legislative milestone and a promising development in a country that has consistently shied away from regulating the infertility industry in any way. What do we as a society owe (...)
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  10.  22
    Academic freedom under siege.Nancy S. Jecker, Marcel Verweij, Vardit Ravitsky, Tenzin Wangmo & Mohammed Ghaly - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    This paper describes a global pattern of declining academic freedom, often driven by powerful political interference with core functions of academic communities. It argues that countering threats to academic freedom requires doubling down on ethics, specifically standards of justice and fairness in pursuing knowledge and assigning warrant to beliefs. Using the example of the selection of a Qatari university to host the 2024 World Congress of Bioethics, the authors urge fairness towards diverse groups over time and efforts to counter injustices (...)
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  11.  46
    Generative AI, Specific Moral Values: A Closer Look at ChatGPT’s New Ethical Implications for Medical AI.Gavin Victor, Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon & Vardit Ravitsky - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):65-68.
    Cohen’s (2023) mapping exercise of possible bioethical issues emerging from the use of ChatGPT in medicine provides an informative, useful, and thought-provoking trigger for discussions of AI ethic...
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  12.  49
    Epigenetics in the Neoliberal “Regime of Truth”.Charles Dupras & Vardit Ravitsky - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 46 (1):26-35.
    Recent findings in epigenetics have been attracting much attention from social scientists and bioethicists because they reveal the molecular mechanisms by which exposure to socioenvironmental factors, such as pollutants and social adversity, can influence the expression of genes throughout life. Most surprisingly, some epigenetic modifications may also be heritable via germ cells across generations. Epigenetics may be the missing molecular evidence of the importance of using preventive strategies at the policy level to reduce the incidence and prevalence of common diseases. (...)
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  13.  37
    Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Views of Canadian Pregnant Women and Their Partners Regarding Pressure and Societal Concerns.Vardit Ravitsky, Stanislav Birko, Jessica Le Clerc-Blain, Hazar Haidar, Aliya O. Affdal, Marie-Ève Lemoine, Charles Dupras & Anne-Marie Laberge - 2021 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 12 (1):53-62.
    Background Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) provides important benefits yet raises ethical concerns. We surveyed Canadian pregnant women and their partners to explore their views regarding pressure to test and terminate a pregnancy, as well as other societal impacts that may result from the routinization of NIPT.Methods A questionnaire was offered (March 2015 to July 2016) to pregnant women and their partners at five healthcare facilities in four Canadian provinces.Results 882 pregnant women and 395 partners completed the survey. 64% of women (...)
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  14.  22
    Providing Unrestricted Access to Prenatal Testing Does Not Translate to Enhanced Autonomy.Vardit Ravitsky, Francois Rousseau & Anne-Marie Laberge - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (1):39-41.
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  15.  23
    The ambiguous nature of epigenetic responsibility.Charles Dupras & Vardit Ravitsky - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):534-541.
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  16.  21
    The ethics of bioethics conferencing in Qatar.Nancy S. Jecker & Vardit Ravitsky - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (4):323-325.
    In 2022, the International Association of Bioethics (IAB) announced that the 17th World Congress of Bioethics would be held in Doha, Qatar. In response to ethical concerns expressed about the Qatar selection, the IAB Board of Directors developed and posted to the IAB website a response using a Q&A format. In this Letter, we (the IAB President and Vice President) address concerns about the ethics of bioethics conferencing raised in a 2023 Letter to the Editor of Bioethics by Van der (...)
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  17.  35
    Toward an Ethically Sensitive Implementation of Noninvasive Prenatal Screening in the Global Context.Jessica Mozersky, Vardit Ravitsky, Rayna Rapp, Marsha Michie, Subhashini Chandrasekharan & Megan Allyse - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (2):41-49.
    Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA, which analyzes placental DNA circulating in maternal blood to provide information about fetal chromosomal disorders early in pregnancy and without risk to the fetus, has been hailed as a potential “paradigm shift” in prenatal genetic screening. Commercial provision of cell-free DNA screening has contributed to a rapid expansion of the tests included in the screening panels. The tests can include screening for sex chromosome anomalies, rare subchromosomal microdeletions and aneuploidies, and most recently, the entire (...)
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  18.  21
    Individuals and (Synthetic) Data Points: Using Value-Sensitive Design to Foster Ethical Deliberations on Epistemic Transitions.Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Vardit Ravitsky, Bridge2AI-Voice Consortium & Yael Bensoussan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (9):69-72.
    Cho and Martinez-Martin (2023) provide a compelling critique of the profound influence that data sourcing for artificial intelligence (AI) has on the healthcare sector. They emphasize the need for...
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  19.  39
    Towards an Integration of PrEP into a Safe Sex Ethics Framework for Men Who Have Sex with Men.Julien Brisson, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (1):54-63.
    The ethics of safe sex in the gay community has, for many years, been focused on debates surrounding the responsibility regarding the use of condoms to prevent HIV transmission, once the only tool available. With the development of Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, for the first time in the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic there is the potential to significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission during sex without the use of condoms. The introduction of PrEP necessitates a (...)
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  20.  13
    Autonomous Choice and the Right to Know One's Genetic Origins.Vardit Ravitsky - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (2):36-37.
    In “The Ethics of Anonymous Gamete Donation: Is There a Right to Know One's Genetic Origins?,” Inmaculada de Melo‐Martín deconstructs the interests the right is supposed to protect. She argues that these interests are not set back or thwarted when one has no access to one's genetic origins. The basis of her argument is that we lack robust empirical evidence that donor‐conceived individuals suffer certain alleged harms, and that even when such harms are present, they do not provide strong enough (...)
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  21.  32
    Parents’ posthumous use of daughter’s ovarian tissue: Ethical dimensions.Aliya O. Affdal & Vardit Ravitsky - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (1):82-90.
    In recent years, progress in cancer treatment has greatly increased the chances of recovery. Yet, treatment may have irreversible effects on patients’ fertility. In order to protect future fertility, preservation of ovarian tissue may be offered today even to very young girls, involving a surgical procedure that may be performed by minimally invasive laparoscopy, under general anesthesia. However, in the tragic event of a girl’s death, questions may arise regarding the possible use of the preserved ovarian tissue by her parents. (...)
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  22.  23
    Mitochondrial/Nuclear Transfer: A Literature Review of the Ethical, Legal and Social Issues.Raphaëlle Dupras-Leduc, Stanislav Birko & Vardit Ravitsky - unknown
    Mitochondrial/nuclear transfer (M/NT) to avoid the transmission of serious mitochondrial disease raises complex and challenging ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). In February 2015, the United Kingdom became the first country in the world to legalize M/NT, making the heated debate surrounding this technology even more relevant. This critical interpretive review identified 95 relevant papers discussing the ELSI of M/NT, including original research articles, government-commissioned reports, editorials, letters to editors and research news. The review presents and synthesizes the arguments present (...)
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  23.  22
    Withholding and Withdrawing: A Religious–Cultural Path Toward a Practical Resolution.Avraham Steinberg & Vardit Ravitsky - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (3):49-50.
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  24. Toward a Public Health Approach to Infertility: The Ethical Dimensions of Infertility Prevention.Marie-Eve Lemoine & Vardit Ravitsky - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (3):pht026.
    While many experts and organizations have recognized infertility as a public health issue, most governments have not yet adopted a public health approach to infertility. This article argues in favor of such an approach by discussing the various implications of infertility for public health. We use a conceptual framework that focuses on the dual meaning of the term ‘public’ in this context: the health of the public, as opposed to that of individuals, and the public/collective nature of the required interventions. (...)
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  25.  24
    Rewriting the genetic bond: Gene editing and our understanding of genetic parenthood.Shelly Simana & Vardit Ravitsky - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (3):265-274.
    One of the most prominent justifications for the use of germline gene editing (GGE) is that it would allow parents to have a “genetically related child” while preventing the transmission of genetic disorders. However, we argue that since future uses of GGE may involve large-scale genetic modifications, they may affect the genetic relatedness between parents and offspring in a meaningful way: Due to certain genetic modifications, children may inherit much less than 50% of their DNA from each parent. We show (...)
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  26.  22
    ‘Serious’ factor—a relevant starting point for further debate: a response.Erika Kleiderman, Vardit Ravitsky & Bartha Maria Knoppers - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):153-155.
    In this reply, we wish to defend our original position and address several of the points raised by two excellent responses. The first response questions the relevance of the notion of ‘serious’ within the context of human germline genome modification. We argue that the ‘serious’ factor is relevant and that there is a need for medical and social lenses to delineate the limits of acceptability and initial permissible applications of HGGM. In this way, ‘serious’ acts as a starting point for (...)
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  27.  8
    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy: In Whose Interests?Forough Noohi, Vardit Ravitsky, Bartha Maria Knoppers & Yann Joly - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (3):597-602.
    Mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT), also called nuclear genome transfer and mitochondrial donation, is a new technique that can be used to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA diseases. Apart from the United Kingdom, the first country to approve MRT in 2015, Australia became the second country with a clear regulatory path for the clinical applications of this technique in 2021. The rapidly evolving clinical landscape of MRT makes the elaboration and evaluation of the responsible use of this technology a pressing (...)
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  28.  22
    Adolescent oncofertility discussions: Recommendations from a systematic literature review.Dorit Barlevy, Bernice S. Elger, Tenzin Wangmo & Vardit Ravitsky - 2017 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 8 (2):106-115.
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  29.  69
    Israel: Bioethics in a Jewish-Democratic State.Michael L. Gross & Vardit Ravitsky - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (3):247-255.
    Unlike most Western nations, Israel does not recognize full separation of church and state but seeks instead a gentle fusion of Jewish and democratic values. Inasmuch as important religious norms such as sanctity of life may clash with dignity, privacy, and self-determination, conflicts frequently arise as Israeli lawmakers, ethicists, and healthcare professionals attempt to give substance to the idea of a Jewish-democratic state. Emerging issues in Israeli bioethics—end-of-life treatment, fertility, genetic research, and medical ethics during armed conflict—highlight this conflict vividly.
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  30. Biopolitical Barriers to a Potterian Bioethics: The (Potentially) Missed Opportunity of Epigenetics.Charles Dupras, Bryn Williams-Jones & Vardit Ravitsky - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (9):15-17.
    Lee (2017) calls for greater attention to the shared epistemological and normative grounds of both public health ethics and environmental ethics, and to Potter’s original conception of bioethics, which, as she rightly observes, has been largely disregarded in contemporary North American bioethics scholarship and practice. In a previous publication we also argued in favor of reviving the Potterian approach to bioethics; we built a case grounded in “the relatively new field of molecular epigenetics [that] provides novel information that should serve (...)
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  31.  41
    On the proliferation of bioethics sub-disciplines: Do we really need "genethics" and "neuroethics"?Benjamin S. Wilfond & Vardit Ravitsky - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):20 – 21.
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  32.  46
    The Best Interest Standard and the Child’s Right to an Open Future.Aliya O. Affdal & Vardit Ravitsky - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):74-76.
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  33.  22
    Cross-cultural perspectives on decision making regarding noninvasive prenatal testing: A comparative study of Lebanon and Quebec.Hazar Haidar, Meredith Vanstone, Anne-Marie Laberge, Gilles Bibeau, Labib Ghulmiyyah & Vardit Ravitsky - 2018 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 9 (2):99-111.
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  34.  39
    Cultural and Personal Considerations in Informed Consent for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.Ya'arit Bokek-Cohen & Vardit Ravitsky - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (5):55-57.
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  35.  32
    Ethics education in public health: where are we now and where are we going?Victoria Doudenkova, Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Louise Ringuette, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2017 - International Journal of Ethics Education 2 (2):109-124.
    Over the last decade there has been a noticeable increase in attention, on the part of public health scholars and professionals, to the important ethical challenges that arise in the context of public health policy, practice and research. This has arguably been a driver for the development of public health ethics as both a specialized field of study in bioethics and a subject for professional education. But how is PHE taught in public health programs and schools? Are current educational approaches (...)
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  36.  87
    Incentives for postmortem organ donation: ethical and cultural considerations.Vardit Ravitsky - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):380-381.
    Chronic shortage in organs for transplantation worldwide is leading many policy-makers to consider various incentives that may increase donation rates.1 These range from giving holders of donor cards some priority on the transplant waiting list or a discount on health insurance premiums, to giving families who consent to donation a medal of honour, reimbursement of funeral expenses, tax incentives or even financial compensation.2–4 Of the various proposed incentive mechanisms, the one that has consistently garnered the most criticism and objection in (...)
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  37.  27
    The Penn Center Guide to Bioethics.Vardit Ravitsky, Autumn Fiester & Arthur L. Caplan (eds.) - 2009 - Springer Publishing Company.
    This book will also inform the general public, patients, and family members as they seek answers to the bioethical issues of the day.
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  38.  24
    Are Immunity Licenses Just?Vardit Ravitsky & Daniel Weinstock - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):172-174.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 172-174.
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  39.  19
    Implementation challenges for an ethical introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing: a qualitative study of healthcare professionals’ views from Lebanon and Quebec.Vardit Ravitsky, Labib Ghulmiyyah, Gilles Bibeau, Anne-Marie Laberge, Meredith Vanstone & Hazar Haidar - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundThe clinical introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidies is currently transforming the landscape of prenatal screening in many countries. Since it is noninvasive, safe and allows the early detection of abnormalities, NIPT expanded rapidly and the test is currently commercially available in most of the world. As NIPT is being introduced globally, its clinical implementation should consider various challenges, including the role of the surrounding social and cultural contexts. We conducted a qualitative study with healthcare professionals in Lebanon (...)
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  40.  43
    Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Implications for Muslim Communities.Hazar Haidar, Vardit Rispler-Chaim, Anthony Hung, Subhashini Chandrasekharan & Vardit Ravitsky - 2015 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):94-105.
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  41.  22
    The “Three-Parent Baby”: A Case Study of How Language Frames the Ethical Debate Regarding an Emerging Technology.Vardit Ravitsky, Stanislav Birko & Raphaelle Dupras-Leduc - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):57-60.
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  42.  20
    Turning Queer Villages into Ghost Towns: A Community Perspective on Conversion Therapies.Jason Behrmann & Vardit Ravitsky - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (1):14-16.
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  43.  14
    Toward Broader Genetic Contextualism: Genetic Testing Enters the Age of Evidence-Based Medicine.Vardit Ravitsky, Julie Richer & Anne-Marie Laberge - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):77-79.
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  44. Colombian adolescents’ preferences for independently accessing sexual and reproductive health services: a cross-sectional and bioethics analysis.Julien Brisson, Bryn Williams-Jones & Vardit Ravitsky - 2022 - Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare 100698 (32).
    Objective Our study sought to (1) describe the practices and preferences of Colombian adolescents in accessing sexual and reproductive health services: accompanied versus alone; (2) compare actual practices with stated preferences; and (3) determine age and gender differences regarding the practice and these stated preferences. -/- Methods 812 participants aged 11–24 years old answered a survey in two Profamilia clinics in the cities of Medellin and Cali in Colombia. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to compare participants’ answers based on the (...)
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  45. Life after death' : the Israeli approach to posthumous reproduction.Vardit Ravitsky & Ya'arit Bokek-Cohen - 2018 - In Hagai Boas, Shai Joshua Lavi, Yael Hashiloni-Dolev, Dani Filc & Nadav Davidovitch (eds.), Bioethics and biopolitics in Israel: socio-legal, political and empirical analysis. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  46. Impacts of the Early COVID-19 Pandemic on the Work of Bioethicists in Canada.Marilou Charron, Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Vincent Couture, Bryn Williams-Jones, Vardit Ravitsky & Charles Dupras - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 5 (4):20-29.
    Bioethics experts played a key role in ensuring a coherent ethical response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the fields of healthcare, public health, and scientific research in Canada. In the province of Quebec, a group of academic and practicing bioethicists met periodically in the early months of the pandemic to discuss approaches and solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered during the crisis. These meetings created the opportunity for a national survey of bioethics practitioners from different fields. The survey, in which forty-five (...)
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  47.  13
    Harvey and Gurvir’s Law: Ontario Bill for Quality Prenatal Information about Down Syndrome: Terminology, Feasibility, and Ethical Issues.Marie-Eve Lemoine, Anne-Marie Laberge, Marie-Françoise Malo, Stéphanie Cloutier, Marie-Christine Roy, Stanislav Birko, Andréa Daigle & Vardit Ravitsky - 2023 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 51 (3):651-657.
    Harvey and Gurvir’s Law is a bill proposed to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario (Canada) to reduce stigma and bias associated with Down syndrome, by developing and disseminating quality information about Down syndrome in the context of prenatal testing.
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  48.  10
    The misplaced embryo: legal parenthood in ‘embryo mix-up’ cases.Shelly Simana, Vardit Ravitsky & I. Glenn Cohen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Recently in Israel, a woman was mistakenly implanted with an embryo that is genetically related to another couple. Unfortunately, this case is not an isolated occurrence, as other cases of embryo mix-ups have been reported in several countries, including the USA, China, the UK and various other countries within the European Union. Cases of mixed-up embryos are ethically and legally complex: the woman who carried the pregnancy and the woman who is genetically related to the resulting child—both of whom endured (...)
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  49.  17
    A Jewish Perspective on the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Therapies: Culture as Shaping Bioethical Discourse.Vardit Ravitsky - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):60-62.
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  50.  21
    Social Paternalism in a Communitarian Context: Enhancing Individuals' Moral Deliberation Through a Communal “Moral Voice”.Vardit Ravitsky - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (8):20-22.
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