Results for 'Moral consideration'

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  1. Moral Considerability and Universal Consideration.Thomas H. Birch - 1993 - Environmental Ethics 15 (4):313-332.
    One of the central, abiding, and unresolved questions in environmental ethics has focused on the criterion for moral considerability or practical respect. In this essay, I call that question itself into question and argue that the search for this criterion should be abandoned because (1) it presupposes the ethical legitimacy of the Western project of planetary domination, (2) the philosophical methods that are andshould be used to address the question properly involve giving consideration in a root sense to (...)
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  2. Sympathy for Dolores: Moral Consideration for Robots Based on Virtue and Recognition.Massimiliano L. Cappuccio, Anco Peeters & William McDonald - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):9-31.
    This paper motivates the idea that social robots should be credited as moral patients, building on an argumentative approach that combines virtue ethics and social recognition theory. Our proposal answers the call for a nuanced ethical evaluation of human-robot interaction that does justice to both the robustness of the social responses solicited in humans by robots and the fact that robots are designed to be used as instruments. On the one hand, we acknowledge that the instrumental nature of robots (...)
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  3.  89
    On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.H. Bernstein Mark - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  4.  43
    Moral Considerability and the Argument From Relevance.Oscar Horta - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):369-388.
    The argument from relevance expresses an intuition that, although shared by many applied ethicists, has not been analyzed and systematized in the form of a clear argument thus far. This paper does this by introducing the concept of value relevance, which has been used before in economy but not in the philosophical literature. The paper explains how value relevance is different from moral relevance, and distinguishes between direct and indirect ways in which the latter can depend on the former. (...)
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  5.  56
    Ecosystem Moral Considerability: A Reply to Cahen.Stanley N. Salthe & Barbara M. Salthe - 1989 - Environmental Ethics 11 (4):355-361.
    Appeals to science as a help in constructing policy on complex issues often assume that science has relatively clear-cut, univocal answers. That is not so today in the environmentally crucial fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The social role of science has been as a source of information to be used in the prediction and domination of nature. Its perspectives are finely honed for such purposes. However, other more conscientious perspectives are now appearing within science, and we provide an example (...)
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  6.  16
    On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.Martino Traxler - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):595.
    Who or what is morally considerable? That is to say, what merits direct moral considerationconsideration in light of what it is? Mark Bernstein steers a middle course between the extremes he labels “chauvinism” and “deep ecology.” Chauvinists hold that, at most, all human beings are morally considerable. Deep ecologists are either individualists who hold that every living thing is morally considerable or holists who hold that ecosystems but not their constituent parts are considerable in themselves.
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  7.  12
    Ecosystem Moral Considerability: A Reply to Cahen.Stanley N. Salthe & Barbara M. Salthe - 1989 - Environmental Ethics 11 (4):355-361.
    Appeals to science as a help in constructing policy on complex issues often assume that science has relatively clear-cut, univocal answers. That is not so today in the environmentally crucial fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The social role of science has been as a source of information to be used in the prediction and domination of nature. Its perspectives are finely honed for such purposes. However, other more conscientious perspectives are now appearing within science, and we provide an example (...)
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  8.  76
    Moral Considerability: Deontological, Not Metaphysical. Hale - 2011 - Ethics and the Environment 16 (2):37-62.
    Ever since Kenneth Goodpaster published his article "On Being Morally Considerable," environmental ethicists have been engaged in a debate over whether animals, plants, and other natural objects matter morally (Goodpaster 1978). Many, if not most, theorists have treated the problem of moral considerability as a problem of status, arguing that earlier ethical positions have unjustifiably given privileged status to one group of beings over others. They have then proceeded in one of two ways. Either they have appealed to intrinsic (...)
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  9. The Epistemic Value of Moral Considerations: Justification, Moral Encroachment, and James' 'Will To Believe'.Michael Pace - 2011 - Noûs 45 (2):239-268.
    A moral-pragmatic argument for a proposition is an argument intended to establish that believing the proposition would be morally beneficial. Since such arguments do not adduce epistemic reasons, i.e., reasons that support the truth of a proposition, they can seem at best to be irrelevant epistemically. At worst, believing on the basis of such reasoning can seem to involve wishful thinking and intellectual dishonesty of a sort that that precludes such beliefs from being epistemically unjustified. Inspired by an argument (...)
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  10.  48
    On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):730-733.
    In this engaging, highly instructive, well-written, and carefully constructed work, Bernstein inquires into the qualities that confer moral patienthood on an individual. To be a moral patient is to be an individual deserving of moral consideration ; and to be so deserving requires that the individual have a “welfare” in that it must be capable of being made better or worse off. An individual qualifies as a moral patient if and only if it has a (...)
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  11. The Moral Considerability of Invasive Transgenic Animals.Benjamin Hale - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):337-366.
    The term moral considerability refers to the question of whether a being or set of beings is worthy of moral consideration. Moral considerability is most readily afforded to those beings that demonstrate the clearest relationship to rational humans, though many have also argued for and against the moral considerability of species, ecosystems, and “lesser” animals. Among these arguments there are at least two positions: “environmentalist” positions that tend to emphasize the systemic relations between species, and (...)
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  12. Some Moral Considerations on Teaching as a Profession.Gary D. Fenstermacher - 1990 - In John I. Goodlad, Roger Soder & Kenneth A. Sirotnik (eds.), The Moral Dimensions of Teaching. Jossey-Bass Publishers. pp. 130--151.
  13. Deriving Moral Considerability From Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac.Ben Dixon - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal (...)
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  14. On Being Morally Considerable.Kenneth E. Goodpaster - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (6):308-325.
  15. On the Moral Considerability of Homo Sapiens and Other Species.Ronald Sandler & Judith Crane - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (1):69 - 84.
    It is sometimes claimed that as members of the species Homo sapiens we have a responsibility to promote the good of Homo sapiens itself (distinct from the good of its individual members). Lawrence Johnson has recently defended this claim as part of his approach to resolving the problem of future generations. We show that there are several difficulties with Johnson's argument, many of which are likely to attend any attempt to establish the moral considerability of Homo sapiens or species (...)
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  16. Intention, Intentional Action and Moral Considerations.J. Knobe - 2004 - Analysis 64 (2):181-187.
  17.  53
    The Issue of Moral Consideration in Robot Ethics.Anne Gerdes - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):274-279.
    This paper discusses whether we should grant moral consideration to robots. Contemporary approaches in support of doing so centers around a relational appearance based approach, which takes departure in the fact that we already by now enter into ethical demanding relations with robots as if they had a mind of their own. Hence, it is assumed that moral status can be viewed as socially constructed and negotiated within relations. However, I argue that a relational turn risks turning (...)
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  18.  18
    The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jamie Harris & Jacy Reese Anthis - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-95.
    Ethicists, policy-makers, and the general public have questioned whether artificial entities such as robots warrant rights or other forms of moral consideration. There is little synthesis of the research on this topic so far. We identify 294 relevant research or discussion items in our literature review of this topic. There is widespread agreement among scholars that some artificial entities could warrant moral consideration in the future, if not also the present. The reasoning varies, such as concern (...)
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  19.  52
    On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.Martino Traxler - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):595-598.
    Who or what is morally considerable? That is to say, what merits direct moral considerationconsideration in light of what it is? Mark Bernstein steers a middle course between the extremes he labels “chauvinism” and “deep ecology.” Chauvinists hold that, at most, all human beings are morally considerable. Deep ecologists are either individualists who hold that every living thing is morally considerable or holists who hold that ecosystems but not their constituent parts are considerable in themselves.
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  20. Against the Moral Considerability of Ecosystems.Harley Cahen - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (3):195-216.
    Are ecosystems morally considerable-that is, do we owe it to them to protect their “interests”? Many environmental ethicists, impressed by the way that individual nonsentient organisms such as plants tenaciously pursue their own biological goals, have concluded that we should extend moral considerability far enough to include such organisms. There is a pitfall in the ecosystem-to-organism analogy, however. We must distinguish a system’s genuine goals from the incidental effects, or byproducts, of the behavior of that system’s parts. Goals seem (...)
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  21. Intentional Action and Moral Considerations: Still Pragmatic.F. Adams & A. Steadman - 2004 - Analysis 64 (3):268-276.
  22. Artificial Beings Worthy of Moral Consideration in Virtual Environments: An Analysis of Ethical Viability.Stefano Gualeni - 2020 - Journal of Virtual Worlds Research 13 (1).
    This article explores whether and under which circumstances it is ethically viable to include artificial beings worthy of moral consideration in virtual environments. In particular, the article focuses on virtual environments such as those in digital games and training simulations – interactive and persistent digital artifacts designed to fulfill specific purposes, such as entertainment, education, training, or persuasion. The article introduces the criteria for moral consideration that serve as a framework for this analysis. Adopting this framework, (...)
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  23. Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture.Hannah Arendt - 1984 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 51.
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  24. Robot Rights? Towards a Social-Relational Justification of Moral Consideration.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):209-221.
    Should we grant rights to artificially intelligent robots? Most current and near-future robots do not meet the hard criteria set by deontological and utilitarian theory. Virtue ethics can avoid this problem with its indirect approach. However, both direct and indirect arguments for moral consideration rest on ontological features of entities, an approach which incurs several problems. In response to these difficulties, this paper taps into a different conceptual resource in order to be able to grant some degree of (...)
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  25. Moral Considerability and Decision-Making.Magdalena Hoły-Łuczaj - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):47-54.
    The paper revisits metaphysical and deontological stances on moral considerability and offers a new criterion for it – “affectability”, that is a capacity of an agent to affect a considered entity. Such an approach results in significant changes in the scope of moral considerability and is relevant for discussing the human position in the Anthropocene. This concept, given especially the assumption of the directness of moral considerability, is also substantial for the decision making process on the ethical, (...)
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  26.  93
    Are Mere Things Morally Considerable?W. Murray Hunt - 1980 - Environmental Ethics 2 (1):59-65.
    Kenneth Goodpaster has criticized ethicists like Feinberg and Frankena for too narrowly circumscribing the range of moral considerability, urging instead that “nothing short of the condition of being alive” is a satisfactory criterion. Goodpaster overlooks at least one crucial objection: that his own “condition of being alive” may aIso be too narrow a criterion of moral considerability, since “being in existence” is at least as plausible and nonarbitrary a criterion as is Goodpaster’s. I show that each of the (...)
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  27.  86
    Can a Corporation Be Worthy of Moral Consideration?Kenneth Silver - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (1):253-265.
    Much has been written about what corporations owe society and whether it is appropriate to hold them responsible. In contrast, little has been written about whether anything is owed to corporations apart from what is owed to their members. And when this question has been addressed, the answer has always been that corporations are not worthy of any distinct moral consideration. This is even claimed by proponents of corporate agency. In this paper, I argue that proponents of corporate (...)
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  28.  12
    Moral Considerations and Public Policy Choices: Individual Autonomy and the NIMBY Problem.John Martin Gillroy - 1991 - Public Affairs Quarterly 5 (4):319-332.
  29.  16
    Moral Considerations in Body Donation for Scientific Research: A Unique Look at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility.Angi M. Christensen - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (3):136–145.
  30.  22
    Moral Considerations in Epistemic Conceptions of Democracy.Mary Stewart Butterfield - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):163-170.
  31. Moral Consideration and the Environment: Perception, Analysis, and Synthesis.Kenneth E. Goodpaster - 1993 - Topoi 12 (1):5-20.
  32.  28
    The Moral Considerations Affecting Sex Education in the Primary School.J. F. Risby - 1973 - Journal of Moral Education 3 (1):325-343.
  33.  27
    Do Moral Considerations Override Others?D. Z. Phillips - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (116):247-254.
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  34.  53
    Are Moral Considerations Always Overriding?Huntington Terrell - 1969 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47 (1):51-60.
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  35. Toward the Moral Considerability of Species and Ecosystems.Lawrence E. Johnson - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (2):145-157.
    I develop the thesis that species and ecosystems are living entities with morally significant interests in their own right and defend it against leading objections. Contrary to certain claims, it is possible to individuate such entities sufficiently well. Indeed, there is a sense in which such entities define their own nature. I also consider and reject the argument that species and ecosystems cannot have interests or even traits in their own right because evolution does not proceed on that level. Although (...)
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  36. Animals Deserve Moral Consideration.Scott Hill - 2020 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 33 (2):177-185.
    Timothy Hsiao asks a good question: Why believe animals deserve moral consideration? His answer is that we should not. He considers various other answers and finds them wanting. In this paper I consider an answer Hsiao has not yet discussed: We should accept a conservative view about how to form beliefs. And such a view will instruct us to believe that animals deserve moral consideration. I think conservatives like Hsiao do best to answer his question in (...)
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  37.  46
    Neonatal Euthanasia: Moral Considerations and Criminal Liability.M. Sklansky - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (1):5-11.
    Despite tremendous advances in medical care for critically ill newborn infants, caregivers in neonatal intensive care units still struggle with how to approach those patients whose prognoses appear to be the most grim, and whose treatments appear to be the most futile. Although the practice of passive neonatal euthanasia, from a moral perspective, has been widely condoned, those clinicians and families involved in such cases may still be found legally guilty of child abuse or even manslaughter. Passive neonatal euthanasia (...)
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  38.  12
    Hybrids and the Boundaries of Moral Considerability or Revisiting the Idea of Non-Instrumental Value.Magdalena Holy-Luczaj & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):223-242.
    The transgressive ontological character of hybrids—entities crossing the ontological binarism of naturalness and artificiality, e.g., biomimetic projects—calls for pondering the question of their ethical status, since metaphysical and moral ideas are often inextricably linked. The example of it is the concept of “moral considerability” and related to it the idea of “intrinsic value” understood as a non-instrumentality of a being. Such an approach excludes hybrids from moral considerations due to their instrumental character. In the paper, we revisit (...)
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  39.  4
    Ethical and Moral Considerations of (Patient) Centredness in Nursing and Healthcare: Navigating Uncharted Waters.Deanne J. O'Rourke, Genevieve N. Thompson & Diana E. McMillan - 2019 - Nursing Inquiry:e12284.
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  40.  18
    Cold Side-Effect Effect: Affect Does Not Mediate the Influence of Moral Considerations in Intentionality Judgments.Rodrigo Díaz - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:295.
    Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side- effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful (...)
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  41.  21
    Ethical and Moral Considerations and the Principle of Excellence in Management Consulting.William Exton - 1982 - Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):211-218.
    This paper discusses the diversity of specializations, applications, practices and practitioners of management consulting ; ways in which consultants do, can or should relate to or contribute to the effectiveness of executives and/or specialized staff personnel ; optimization of contribution; advancing the profession as a whole, etc.In situations of great complexity, the creative contributions derived from judgment — when the factual foundations are sound and adequate — can often be especially valuable to clients. The necessary and appropriate foundations for these (...)
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  42.  20
    Kant and the Moral Considerability of Non-Rational Beings.Tim Hayward - 1994 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 36:129-142.
    Kant's ethics is widely viewed as inimical to environmental values, as arbitrary and morally impoverished, because, while exalting the value of human, rational, beings, it denies moral consideration to non-human, or non-rational, beings. In this paper I seek to show how, when specific statements of this general view are examined, they turn out to involve some significant inaccuracies or confusions. This will lead me to suggest that Kant might have more to offer to environmental ethics than has hitherto (...)
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  43.  15
    Public Distress as a Moral Consideration in After-Birth Abortion.Paul Biegler - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):323-323.
    Giubilini and Minerva argue that, in cases where in utero abortion is currently condoned, ‘after-birth abortion’, or infanticide, ought also to be permitted.1 For example, a third-trimester abortion might be defended on the basis of foetal genetic abnormality, or through appeal to unacceptable parental suffering should the child live. On the authors’ formulation, infanticide in neonates of the same corrected age, in otherwise identical circumstances, ought also to be defended. The paper has, unsurprisingly, provoked public criticism, and even revulsion. I (...)
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  44.  22
    Welfare, Health, and the Moral Considerability of Nonsentient Biological Entities.Antoine C. Dussault - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (1):184-209.
    This paper discusses a challenge to the claims made by biocentrists and some ecocentrists that some nonsentient biological entities qualify as candidates for moral considerability. This challenge derives from Wayne Sumner’s critique of “objective theories of welfare” and, in particular, from his critique of biocentrists’ and ecocentrists’ biofunction-based accounts of the “good of their own” of nonsentient biological entities. Sumner’s critique lends support to animal ethicists’ typical skepticism regarding those accounts, by contending that they are more plausibly interpreted as (...)
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  45.  26
    Ethics and Alterity: Moral Considerability and the Other.Bradley Douglas Park - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    This study examines the problem of moral considerability and the Other and from two basic standpoints, namely, a phenomenological analysis of alterity and a hermeneutical-comparative encounter between the continental tradition and its "Other." This hermeneutical-comparative engagement places the phenomenological tradition in dialogue with the East Asian tradition concerning the intersection of knowledge and "moral disclosure." ;I argue that we confront the moral considerability of the Other horizontally, which is to say that the presence of knowing shades into (...)
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  46.  54
    Communicative Ethics and Moral Considerability.Richard J. Evanoff - 2007 - Environmental Ethics 29 (3):247-266.
    Although nonhuman entities are indeed incapable of entering into contractual relations with humans or of participating in social dialogue on ethical norms, they can nonetheless become the objects of moral consideration on the part of humans. Moral consideration need not be extended universally to all nonnatural entities, but only to those entities with which humans interact. Rather than regard some or all of the natural world as having “intrinsic value,” considered judgments must be made regarding which (...)
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    An African Relational Environmentalism and Moral Considerability.Kevin Gary Behrens - 2014 - Environmental Ethics 36 (1):63-82.
    There is a pervasive presumption that African thought is inherently anthropocentric and has little to contribute to environmental ethics. Against this view, a promising African environmentalism can be be found in a belief in a fundamental interrelatedness between natural objects. What establishes moral considerability on this African view is that entities are part of the interconnected web of life. This position accords moral standing to all living things, groups of living things, as well as inanimate natural entities. This (...)
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  48. The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis.Toby Svoboda - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the same (...)
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  49. Side-Effect Effect Without Side Effects: The Pervasive Impact of Moral Considerations on Judgments of Intentionality.Florian Cova & Hichem Naar - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (6):837-854.
    Studying the folk concept of intentional action, Knobe (2003a) discovered a puzzling asymmetry: most people consider some bad side effects as intentional while they consider some good side effects as unintentional. In this study, we extend these findings with new experiments. The first experiment shows that the very same effect can be found in ascriptions of intentionality in the case of means for action. The second and third experiments show that means are nevertheless generally judged more intentional than side effects, (...)
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  50. Is Equal Moral Consideration Really Compatible with Unequal Moral Status?John Rossi - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (3):251-276.
    Most theorists writing about animal ethics acknowledge that many types of animals are conscious and have interests, meaning that these animals have "an experiential welfare" (Regan 2001, p. 202), and that because of this some things have, or might have, an "effect on [their] good, welfare, or well-being" (DeGrazia 1996, p. 39).1,2 Most also acknowledge that, as a result of many animals' possession of interests, they have moral status; that "animals' interests have moral importance independently of human interests" (...)
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