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105 found
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  1. Ecocentrism and Appeals to Nature's Goodness: Must they Be Fallacious?Antoine C. Dussault - manuscript
  2. Water Footprints and Veganism.Donald W. Bruckner - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-18.
  3. Climate Change Adaptation and the Back of the Invisible Hand.H. Clark Barrett & Josh Armstrong - forthcoming - Philosophical Transactions B.
    We make the case that scientifically accurate and politically feasible responses to the climate crisis require a complex understanding of human cultural practices of niche construction that moves beyond the adaptive significance of culture. We develop this thesis in two related ways. First, we argue that cumulative cultural practices of niche construction can generate stable equilibria and runaway selection processes that result in long-term existential risks within and across cultural groups. We dub this the back of the invisible hand. Second, (...)
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  4. Slippery Slope Arguments as Precautionary Arguments: A New Way of Understanding the Concern about Geoengineering Research.James Andow - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (6):701-717.
    It has been argued that geoengineering research should not be pursued because of a slippery slope from research to problematic deployment. These arguments have been thought weak or defective on the basis of interpretations that treat the arguments as relying on dubious premises. The paper urges a new interpretation of these arguments as precautionary arguments, i.e. as relying on a precautionary principle. This interpretation helps us better appreciate the potential normative force of the worries, their potential policy relevance, and the (...)
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  5. Misrelating values and empirical matters in conservation: A problem and solutions.Matthew J. Barker & Dylan J. Fraser - 2023 - Biological Conservation 281.
    We uncover a largely unnoticed and unaddressed problem in conservation research: arguments built within studies are sometimes defective in more fundamental and specific ways than appreciated, because they misrelate values and empirical matters. We call this the unraveled rope problem because just as strands of rope must be properly and intricately wound with each other so the rope supports its load, empirical aspects and value aspects of an argument must be related intricately and properly if the argument is to objectively (...)
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  6. Food, Focal Practices, and Decolonial Agrarianism.Lee A. McBride - 2023 - In Samantha Noll & Zachary Piso (eds.), Paul B. Thompson's Philosophy of Agriculture: Fields, Farmers, Forks, and Food. Springer Verlag. pp. 131-143.
    Agrarianism, according to Paul B. Thompson, is an environmental philosophy focused on agriculture and the nurturing of food, fuel, and fiber. Agrarianism hopes to re-establish our fundamental connection to the land, helping us approach a tenable understanding of sustainability. Thompson enlists Albert Borgmann’s notion of “focal practices” to discuss farming and the culture of the table. With this comes a critique of “the device paradigm,” the modern technological way of life that alienates us from quotidian beauty, lifecycles and seasonality, and (...)
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  7. The ethics of species extinctions.Anna Wienhues, Patrik Baard, Alfonso Donoso & Markku Oksanen - 2023 - Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1 (e23):1–15.
    This review provides an overview of the ethics of extinctions with a focus on the Western analytical environmental ethics literature. It thereby gives special attention to the possible philosophical grounds for Michael Soulé’s assertion that the untimely ‘extinction of populations and species is bad’. Illustrating such debates in environmental ethics, the guiding question for this review concerns why – or when – anthropogenic extinctions are bad or wrong, which also includes the question of when that might not be the case (...)
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  8. A right to pollute versus a duty to mitigate: on the basis of emissions trading and carbon markets.Sarah Isabel Espinosa-Flor - 2022 - Climate Policy 1.
    Emissions trading, also known as cap-and-trade systems, has not yet fulfilled its function of mitigating overall global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The reasons for this failure are manifold and have been broadly discussed at political and empirical levels in the last decades. However, much can still be said from a philosophical perspective. Such an analysis is not limited to the evaluation of cap-and-trade systems’ lack of efficiency and the consequences arising from it but goes deeper into the moral questions underlying (...)
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  9. Should I Offset or Should I Do More Good?H. Orri Stefansson - 2022 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 25 (3):225-241.
    ABSTRACT Offsetting is a very ineffective way to do good. Offsetting your lifetime emissions may increase aggregated life expectancy by at most seven years, while giving the amount it costs to offset your lifetime emissions to a malaria charity saves in expectation the life of at least one child. Is there any moral reason to offset rather than giving to some charity that does good so much more effectively? There might be such a reason if your offsetting compensated or somehow (...)
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  10. Conceptual engineering is extremely unlikely to work. So what?James Andow - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 64 (1-2):212-226.
    ABSTRACT Conceptual engineering aims to improve our concepts. That's plausibly an extremely difficult thing to do. Should this make us sceptical of the idea that philosophers should try to do it? You might think so. Cappelen, in his Fixing Language: an Essay on Conceptual Engineering, thinks it shouldn't stop us – but his stated reasons are not really encouraging. In this paper, I say what I think Cappelen should have said, on the basis of a very rough cost-benefit analysis.
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  11. The Development of Ecological Thought: Contemporary Approaches and the Way Forward.Muhammad Jalil Arif - 2021 - Academia Letters 1 (Article 1008).
    This paper aims to identify and relate different ecological approaches (primarily Preservation and Conservation) that played a significant role in developing a global ecological conscience. After presenting a comprehensive historical account of the approaches and movements in ecological thought, at the end of the paper, I will briefly highlight the potential areas of future research that could develop and re-frame ecological thought that ensures collaboration, co-adaptation, and sustainability in the environmental ethos. I fully acknowledge the diverse environmental movements in different (...)
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  12. Terraforming Mars.Martin Beech, Joseph Seckbach & Richard Gordon (eds.) - 2021 - Salem, MA: Wiley-Scrivener.
    The idea of terraforming Mars has, in recent times, become a topic of intense scientific interest and great public debate. Stimulated in part by the contemporary imperative to begin geoengineering Earth, as a means to combat global climate change, the terraforming of Mars will work to make its presently hostile environment more suitable to life—especially human life. Geoengineering and terraforming, at their core, have the same goal—that is to enhance (or revive) the ability of a specific environment to support human (...)
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  13. The World Crisis - And What To Do About It: A Revolution for Thought and Action Preface and Chapter 1.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Singapore: World Scientific.
    At present universities are devoted to the acquisition of specialized knowledge and technological know-how. They fail to do what they most need to do: help the public acquire a good understanding of what our problems are, what needs to be done to solve them. Universities do not even conceive of their task in that way. The result is that the public, by and large, fails to appreciate just how serious the problems that face us are, and so fails to put (...)
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  14. vad gör en växt främmande? – Några olika perspektiv.Erik Persson - 2021 - In Johanna Alkan Olsson, Helena Hanson, Erik Persson, Carina Sjöholm & Niklas Vareman (eds.), Växtvärk - Perspektiv på invasiva främmande växter i svensk natur. pp. 31-42.
  15. Anarchism for an Ecological Crisis?Dan C. Shahar - 2021 - In Gary Chartier & Chad Van Schoelandt (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Anarchism and Anarchist Thought. pp. 381–392.
  16. The Innocent Mosquito? The environmental ethics of mosquito eradication.Anna Https://Orcidorg Wienhues - 2021 - In Marcus Hall & Dan Tamïr (eds.), Mosquitopia: The Place of Pests in a Healthy World. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: pp. 195-209.
    In any proposal for specicide, as represented by mosquito eradication, one must acknowledge that this involves a complex set of moral trade-offs. Taking it as given that the health burden of vector-borne diseases has to be reduced drastically, this chapter lays out the landscape of normative arguments that can be brought in the mosquito’s defence. These, in turn, should be involved in deliberations about whether such large-scale eradication practices can be morally justified. In favour of mosquito protection, several (but not (...)
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  17. The self in deep ecology: A response to Watson.Joshua Anderson - 2020 - Asian Philosophy 30 (1):30-39.
    Richard Watson maintains that deep ecology suffers from an internal contradiction and should therefore be rejected. Watson contends that deep ecology claims to be non-anthropocentric while at the same time is committed to setting humans apart from nature, which is inherently anthropocentric. I argue that Watson’s objection arises out of a fundamental misunderstanding of how deep ecologist’s conceive of the ‘Self.’ Drawing on resources from Buddhism, I offer an understanding of the ‘Self’ that is fully consistent with deep ecology, and (...)
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  18. Neutrality, Nature, and Intergenerational Justice.Britta Clark - 2020 - Environmental Politics 1.
    Suppose the present generation leaves future ones with a world depleted of all the natural resources required for many valuable human pursuits. Has the present generation acted unjustly? According to contemporary theories of liberal egalitarian intragenerational and intergenerational justice, the answer, it appears, is no. The explanation for this verdict lies in the liberal commitment to remaining neutral between different ways of life: many value-laden environ- mental sites and species are not an all-purpose means to any reasonable human end and (...)
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  19. On the Concept and Conservation of Critical Natural Capital.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science (N/A):1-22.
    Ecological economics is an interdisciplinary science that is primarily concerned with developing interventions to achieve sustainable ecological and economic systems. While ecological economists have, over the last few decades, made various empirical, theoretical, and conceptual advancements, there is one concept in particular that remains subject to confusion: critical natural capital. While critical natural capital denotes parts of the environment that are essential for the continued existence of our species, the meaning of terms commonly associated with this concept, such as ‘non-substitutable’ (...)
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  20. Book Review: Indigenizing Philosophy Through the Land: A Trickster Methodology for Decolonizing Environmental Ethics and Indigenous Futures by Brian Burkhart. [REVIEW]Joseph Len Miller - 2020 - APA Newsletter on Native American and Indigenous Philosophy 19 (2):7-11.
  21. Going green is good for you: Why we need to change the way we think about pro-environmental behavior.Michael Prinzing - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment (1):1-18.
    Awareness and concern about climate change are widespread. But rates of pro-environmental behaviour are low. This is partly due to the way in which pro-environmental behaviour is framed—as a sacrifice or burden that individuals bear for the planet and future generations. This framing elicits well-known cognitive biases, discouraging what we should be encouraging. We should abandon the self-sacrifice framing, and instead frame pro-environmental behaviour as intrinsically desirable. There is a large body of evidence that, around the world, people who are (...)
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  22. Precautionary Principles.Tanja Rechnitzer - 2020 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The basic idea underlying a precautionary principle is often summarized as “better safe than sorry.” Even if it is uncertain whether an activity will lead to harm, for example, to the environment or to human health, measures should be taken to prevent harm. This demand is partly motivated by the consequences of regulatory practices of the past. Often, chances of harm were disregarded because there was no scientific proof of a causal connection between an activity or substance and chances of (...)
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  23. Nature bites back.Trevor Stammers - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (2):81-81.
    Volume 26, Issue 2, June 2020, Page 81-81.
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  24. Diverse Environments, Diverse People.Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - In C. Tyler DesRoches, Frank Jankunis & Byron Williston (eds.), Canadian Environmental Philosophy. Mcgill-Queen's University Press. pp. 99-122.
    This paper is about both an application of virtue ethics, and about virtue ethics itself. A popular application of neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics to environmental issues is called interpersonal extensionism. It argues that we should view the normative range of traditional interpersonal virtues, such as compassion and humility, as extending beyond our interactions with people to also include our interactions with non-human environments. This paper uncovers an unaddressed problem for this view, then proposes a solution by revising how we understand neo-Aristotelian (...)
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  25. Climate Justice, Climate Policy, and the Role of Political Philosophy.Brian Berkey - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (2):145-147.
  26. Review of Ryan Burg, Business Ethics for a Material World: An Ecological Approach to Object Stewardship. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey & Eric W. Orts - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29:143-146.
  27. A Second Honeymoon: Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics.Sydney Faught - 2019 - Journal of Animal Ethics 9 (1):39-46.
    In “Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce,” Mark Sagoff asserts that “environmentalists cannot be animal liberationists. Animal liberationists cannot be environmentalists”. In this article, I explore and refute this claim. As a result of structuring his argument around the work of Peter Singer and Aldo Leopold, I argue Sagoff too quickly dismisses rights-based approaches to animal liberation. Drawing on Thomas Pogge’s institutional framework for human rights, I present a rights-based foundation upon which animal liberationism and environmentalism can (...)
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  28. Methodologies of Curiosity: Epistemology, Practice, and the Question of Animal Minds.Yogi Hale Hendlin - 2019 - Biosemiotics 12 (2):349-356.
    Umwelt theory has finally come of age. The paradigm-breaking power of Jakob vonUexküll’s technical term, after decades of inquiry by scholars such as Merleau-Ponty(1962) and Kauffman (1993) has become part of the vernacular of animal studies, psychology, sociology, and other scientific domains (Buchanan 2008; Lahti 2015;Stevens et al. 2018). The newfound fame of the Umwelt frame, however, is as much a boon to the field of biosemiotics as it is a burden, due to the usual serial misinterpretation and cooptation that (...)
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  29. Autonomy of Nations and Indigenous Peoples and the Environmental Release of Genetically Engineered Animals with Gene Drives.Zahra Meghani - 2019 - Global Policy 10 (4):554-568.
    This article contends that the environmental release of genetically engineered (GE) animals with heritable traits that are patented will present a challenge to the efforts of nations and indigenous peoples to engage in self‐determination. The environmental release of such animals has been proposed on the grounds that they could function as public health tools or as solutions to the problem of agricultural insect pests. This article brings into focus two political‐economic‐legal problems that would arise with the environmental release of such (...)
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  30. Book Review: Jones, Clint. Ecological Reflections on Post-Capitalist Society (2018). [REVIEW]Tiffany Montoya - 2019 - The North Meridian Review 1.
  31. Development and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria: An African Perspective.Brian Ifere Njar & David Abim Enagu - 2019 - GNOSI: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis 2 (1).
    This research titled “Development and Environment Sustainability in Nigeria: An African Perspective” examines the effect of development on the African environment. Recent trends and tenets of development are accredited to technological advancements infrastructures and industrialization. Thus, development is respected within the light of social and economic productivity and mostly applauded within the ambiance of consumable scientific, architectural, agricultural and engineering, etc. Notably, the afore-mentioned directly affects the environment and this has become a conundrum to both living and non-living organisms within (...)
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  32. Sustaining Growth.Dan C. Shahar - 2019 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Ethics, Left and Right: The Moral Issues that Divide Us. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 294–301.
  33. Body Aesthetics.Aili Bresnahan - 2018 - British Journal of Aesthetics 58 (1):111-113.
    £ British Society of Aesthetics 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society of Aesthetics. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] unique and sprawling collection of sixteen essays explores a wide range of perspectives on the human body and how it is embodied, lived, viewed, perceived, and constructed by ourselves and by others in both positive and harmful ways. The book’s contributors include philosophers, sociologists, anthropologists, and artists, as well as scholars who focus on (...)
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  34. How New Climate Science and Policy Can Help Climate Refugees.Justin Donhauser - 2018 - Journal of Ethical Urban Living 2 (1):1-21.
    This paper examines potential responses to emerging ‘climate refugee’ justice issues. ‘Climate refugee’ describes migrants forced to flee their homeland due to losses and damages brought about by events linked to global climate change. These include losses and damages due to extreme weather events, severe droughts and floods, sea-level rise, and an array of pollutant contamination issues. A paradigm case if climate refugeedom is seen in the influx of Peruvian immigrants into various North American cities; seeking asylum after losing access (...)
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  35. Risk Impositions, Genuine Losses, and Reparability as a Moral Constraint.Madeleine Hayenhjelm - 2018 - Ethical Perspectives 25 (3):419-446.
    What kind of moral principle could be sufficiently restrictive to avoid the kind of large-scale risks that have resulted in catastrophe in the past, while at the same time not be so restrictive as to halt desirable progress? Is there such a principle that is not merely a precautionary principle, but one that could be based on firm moral grounds? In this article, I set out to explore a simple idea: might it be the case that reparability could serve as (...)
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  36. Solar Geoengineering and Democracy.Joshua Horton, Jesse Reynolds, Holly Jean Buck, Daniel Edward Callies, Stefan Schaefer, David Keith & Steve Rayner - 2018 - Global Environmental Politics 3 (18):5-24.
    Some scientists suggest that it might be possible to reflect a portion of incoming sunlight back into space to reduce climate change and its impacts. Others argue that such solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering is inherently incompatible with democracy. In this article, we reject this incompatibility argument. First, we counterargue that technologies such as SRM lack innate political characteristics and predetermined social effects, and that democracy need not be deliberative to serve as a standard for governance. We then rebut each (...)
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  37. Debunking Myths About Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic.Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - Biological Conservation 217:391–396.
    Aldo Leopold's land ethic has been extremely influential among people working in conservation biology, environmental ethics, and related fields. Others have abandoned the land ethic for purportedly being outdated or ethically untenable. Yet, both acceptance of the land ethic and rejection of the land ethic are often based on misunderstandings of Leopold's original meaning – misunderstandings that have become so entrenched as to have the status of myths. This essay seeks to identify and then debunk six myths that have grown (...)
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  38. Is Aldo Leopold's 'Land Community' an Individual?Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - In O. Bueno, R. Chen & M. B. Fagan (eds.), Individuation across Experimental and Theoretical Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 279-302.
    The “land community” (or “biotic community”) that features centrally in Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic has typically been equated with the concept of “ecosystem.” Moreover, some have challenged this central Leopoldean concept given the multitude of meanings of the term “ecosystem” and the changes the term has undergone since Leopold’s time (see, e.g., Shrader-Frechette 1996). Even one of Leopold’s primary defenders, J. Baird Callicott, asserts that there are difficulties in identifying the boundaries of ecosystems and suggests that we recognize that their (...)
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  39. Equitable Local Climate Action Planning: Sustainable & Affordable Housing.Andrew Pattison & Jason Kawall - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):17-20.
    Despite projected devastating impacts on human communities, the US still lacks comprehensive national policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This vacuum has provided the space for a surge of promising sustainability and climate action planning efforts at the state and local level. Meanwhile, according to the National Low Income Housing Coalition’s (2015) Out of Reach Report, ‘there is no state in the US where a minimum wage worker working full time can afford a one-bedroom apartment at the fair market (...)
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  40. What's So Good About Environmental Human Rights?: Constitutional Versus International Environmental Rights.Daniel P. Corrigan - 2017 - In Markku Oksanen, Ashley Dodsworth & Selina O'Doherty (eds.), Environmental Human Rights: A Political Theory Perspective. Routledge. pp. 124-148.
    In recent decades, environmental rights have been increasingly developed at both the national and international level, along with increased adjudication of these rights in both national (constitutional) courts and international human rights courts. These parallel trends raise a question as to whether it is better to develop and adjudicate environmental rights at the national or international level. This article considers the case made by James May and Erin Daly in favor of developing environmental rights at the national constitutional level and (...)
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  41. Should We Bring Back the Passenger Pigeon? The Ethics of De-Extinction.T. J. Kasperbauer - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 20 (1):1-14.
    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to revive extinct species of animals, a process known as ‘de-extinction’. This paper examines two reasons for supporting de-extinction: the potential for de-extinct species to play useful roles in ecosystems; and human valuing of certain de-extinct species. I focus on the particular case of passenger pigeons to argue that the most critical challenge for de-extinction is that it entails significant suffering for sentient individual animals. I also provide reasons to take existence (...)
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  42. The Clean Plate Club? Food Waste and Individual Responsibility.Erich Hatala Matthes & Jaclyn Hatala Matthes - 2017 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 313-330.
    We offer an overview of both the empirical literature on food waste and philosophical work on the concept of waste. We use this background to argue that an overemphasis on the reduction of individual food waste is misleading at best, and pernicious at worst, in combatting the substantial problems that global food waste creates. Rather, we argue that civic engagement and political activism aimed at institutional reform will be essential in addressing these problems.
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  43. Review of Interpreting Nature: The Emerging Field of Environmental Hermeneutics. [REVIEW]Chandler D. Rogers - 2017 - Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy 32 (2):206-209.
  44. Mischaracterizing Uncertainty in Environmental-Health Sciences.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2017 - Diametros 53:96-124.
    Researchers doing welfare-related science frequently mischaracterize either situations of decision-theoretic mathematical/scientific uncertainty as situations of risk, or situations of risk as those of uncertainty. The paper outlines this epistemic/ethical problem ; surveys its often-deadly, welfare-related consequences in environmental-health sciences; and uses recent research on diesel particulate matter to reveal 7 specific methodological ways that scientists may mischaracterize lethal risks instead as situations of uncertainty, mainly by using methods and assumptions with false-negative biases. The article closes by outlining two normative strategies (...)
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  45. Spinoza, Ecology, and Immanent Ethics: Beside Moral Considerability.Oli Stephano - 2017 - Environmental Philosophy 14 (2):317-338.
    This paper develops an immanent ecological ethics that locates human flourishing within sustaining ecological relationships. I outline the features of an immanent ethics drawn from Spinoza, and indicate how this model addresses gaps left by approaches based in moral considerability. I argue that an immanent ecological ethics provides unique resources for contesting anthropogenic harm, by 1) shifting the focus from what qualifies as a moral subject to what bodies can or cannot do under particular relations, 2) emphasizing the constitutive role (...)
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  46. On the Epistemology of the Precautionary Principle: Reply to Steglich-Petersen.J. Adam Carter & Martin Peterson - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (2):297-304.
    In a recent paper in this journal, we proposed two novel puzzles associated with the precautionary principle. Both are puzzles that materialise, we argue, once we investigate the principle through an epistemological lens, and each constitutes a philosophical hurdle for any proponent of a plausible version of the precautionary principle. Steglich-Petersen claims, also in this journal, that he has resolved our puzzles. In this short note, we explain why we remain skeptical.
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  47. Deriving Moral Considerability from Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac.Ben Dixon - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal of the (...)
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  48. "Food Ethics and Religion".Tyler Doggett & Matthew C. Halteman - 2016 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), Food, Ethics, and Society: An Introductory Text with Readings. Oxford University Press USA.
    How does an engagement with religious traditions (broadly construed) illuminate and complicate the task of thinking through the ethics of eating? In this introduction, we survey some of the many food ethical issues that arise within various religious traditions and also consider some ethical positions that such traditions take on food. To say the least, we do not attempt to address all the ethical issues concerning food that arise in religious contexts, nor do we attempt to cover every tradition’s take (...)
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  49. Making Ecological Values Make Sense: Toward More Operationalizable Ecological Legislation.Justin Donhauser - 2016 - Ethics and the Environment 21 (2):1-25.
    Value claims about ecological entities, their functionality, and properties take center stage in so-called “ecological” ethical and aesthetic theories. For example, the claim that the biodiversity in an old-growth forest imbues it with “value in and for itself” is an explicit value claim about an ecological property. And the claim that one can study “the aesthetics of nature, including natural objects...such as ecosystems” presupposes that natural instances of a type of ecological entity exist and can be regarded as more or (...)
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  50. Paying it Forward: Geoengineering and Compensation for the Further Future.Allen Habib & Frank Jankunis - 2016 - In Christopher J. Preston (ed.), Climate Justice and Geoengineering: Ethics and Policy in the Atmospheric Anthropocene. Rowman & Littlefield International. pp. 63-75.
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