The present study examined the influence of word complexity on the divided-word effect. By manipulating presentation conditions and visual complexity, we found a significant divided-word effect that the reading times such as gaze duration and total reading time were significantly longer in the divided-word presentation condition than in both the line-final and line-initial presentation conditions. On the measure of total reading time, the marginally significant interaction between the divided-word versus line-final presentation comparison and complexity showed that the divided-word effect was (...) larger for low complexity words than that for high complexity words. These results suggest that dividing a word across two lines interferes with reading, and word complexity modulates this effect. (shrink)
Sandra Field, Jeffrey Flynn, Stephen Macedo, Longxi Zhang, and Martin Powers discussed Powers’ book China and England: The Preindustrial Struggle for Social Justice in Word and Image at the American Philosophical Association’s 2020 Eastern Division meeting in Philadelphia. The panel was sponsored by the APA’s “Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies” and organized by Brian Bruya.
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
Qi is one of the most important concepts in Chinese philosophy and culture, and neo-Confucian Zhang Zai plays a pivotal role in developing the notion. This book provides a thorough and proper understanding of his thoughts.
In this selective overview of scholarship generated by _The Hunger Games_—the young adult dystopian fiction and film series which has won popular and critical acclaim—Zhange Ni showcases various investigations into the entanglement of religion and the arts in the new millennium.
This essay seeks to demonstrate the following: 1. the value of metaphysical cosmology to our relationship with nature, and to making policy about the environment; 2. the mistaken nature and harmful consequences of the hegemonic cosmology of anthropocentrism; and, 3. the possibility of Zhang Zai's Qi/qi Great Harmony cosmology as both the refutation of and replacement for anthropocentrism. The essay concludes that ultimate moral progress of expanding the self from the narrow and exclusionary views of anthropocentrism consists in cosmocentrism, (...) or the transformation of thought to a cosmological perspective as exemplified by Zhang Zai's Great Harmony continual cyclical process of Qi/qi. It is argued that positive metaphysical visions such as Zhang Zai's can negate anthropocentric cosmology and inspire us to view our relationship with the environment in a fundamentally enlightened and more respectful way, which is not arrogantly self-centred, disconnected and supremacist. (shrink)
Augustine's "Confessions" in the "question time" by later philosophers and spoke highly of the attention, but the emphasis is often placed where "mind stretching" of this dimension, to the neglect of God's creation of this dimension, ignoring the eternal the dimension. In fact, God's creation and the spiritual dimensions of these two inseparable extension, the former provides the latter, to clarify the origin of time; the latter reflects the former, indicating the existence and nature of time. The latter by the (...) former constraints. In other words, there is a limit stretch the mind, is insurmountable. When Windelband stressed Augustine's metaphysics is the "inner experience, metaphysics," he confirmed the view of Augustine's spiritual dimension of time; when Gilson called the "conversion of metaphysics," when it is stressed that "stretch the boundaries of the mind "that is the eternal God's creation. "The question of time" in Augustine's Confessions was extensive concerned and highly remarked by later philosophers. However, they always just paid attention to "Extension of Mind" and ignored the Creation of God and its relationship to Eternity. In fact the two dimensions, ie, the creation of God and the extension of mind, cannot be separated. The former decides the latter, expounding the origin of time; the latter reflects the former, expressing the existence and essence of time. Generally the latter is limited by the former. In other words,, there is a boundary line between them and it can't be surmounted. When W. Windelband emphasized Augustine's metaphysics is "Metaphysics of immanent experience", what he confirmed is the psychological dimension Augustine's time theory; When E. Gilson called it "the converted metaphysics", what he emphasized is "the limit of the mind's extension", namely eternal God's creation. (shrink)