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James Hughes [22]James J. Hughes [20]James M. Hughes [2]James Ryan Hughes [2]
James Michael Hughes [1]
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James J. Hughes
University of Massachusetts, Boston
  1. Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future.James J. Hughes - 2004 - New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.
    A provocative work by medical ethicist James Hughes, Citizen Cyborg argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically. Hughes challenges both the technophobia of Leon Kass and Francis Fukuyama and the unchecked enthusiasm of others for limitless human enhancement. He argues instead for a third way, "democratic transhumanism," by asking the question destined to become a fundamental issue of the twenty-first century: How can we use new cybernetic and (...)
     
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  2.  31
    Moral Enhancement Requires Multiple Virtues.James J. Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):86-95.
  3. Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary.James J. Hughes & George Dvorsky - 2008 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    Postgenderism is an extrapolation of ways that technology is eroding the biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory. Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and reproductive technologies. Postgenderists contend that dyadic gender roles and sexual dimorphisms are generally to the detriment (...)
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  4. Transhumanism and Personal Identity.James Hughes - 2013 - In The Transhumanist Reader. pp. 227=234.
    Enlightenment values are built around the presumption of an independent rational self, citizen, consumer and pursuer of self-interest. Even the authoritarian and communitarian variants of the Enlightenment presumed the existence of autonomous individuals, simply arguing for greater weight to be given to their collective interests. Since Hume, however, radical Enlightenment empiricists have called into question the existence of a discrete, persistent self. Today neuroscientific reductionism has contributed to the rejection of an essentialist model of personal identity. Contemporary transhumanism has yet (...)
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  5.  84
    The Politics of Transhumanism and the Techno‐Millennial Imagination, 1626–2030.James J. Hughes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):757-776.
    Transhumanism is a modern expression of ancient and transcultural aspirations to radically transform human existence, socially and bodily. Before the Enlightenment these aspirations were only expressed in religious millennialism, magical medicine, and spiritual practices. The Enlightenment channeled these desires into projects to use science and technology to improve health, longevity, and human abilities, and to use reason to revolutionize society. Since the Enlightenment, techno‐utopian movements have dynamically interacted with supernaturalist millennialism, sometimes syncretically, and often in violent opposition. Today the transhumanist (...)
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  6. Technoprogressive Biopolitics and Human Enhancement.James Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press.
    A principal challenge facing the progressive bioethics project is the crafting of a consistent message on biopolitical issues that divide progressives. -/- The regulation of enhancement technologies is one of the issues central to this emerging biopolitics, pitting progressive defenders of enhancement, “technoprogressives,” against progressive critics. This essay [PDF] will argue that technoprogressive biopolitics express the consistent application of the core progressive values of the Enlightenment: the right of individuals to control their own bodies, brains and reproduction according to their (...)
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  7. The Future of Death: Cryonics and the Telos of Liberal Individualism.James Hughes - 2001 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 6 (1).
    This paper addresses five questions: First, what is trajectory of Western liberal ethics and politics in defining life, rights and citizenship? Second, how will neuro-remediation and other technologies change the definition of death for the brain injured and the cryonically suspended? Third, will people always have to be dead to be cryonically suspended? Fourth, how will changing technologies and definitions of identity affect the status of people revived from brain injury and cryonic suspension? I propose that Western liberal thought is (...)
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  8.  61
    A Socialist Approach to Disaster Preparedness: A Leftist Guide for the Coming Catastrophes.James Hughes - 2021 - After The Storm.
    Socialists have historically thought a lot about the catastrophic risks society faces. Today many DSA chapters have gotten involved in mutual aid to respond to the Covid crisis, generating a debate about how mutual aid fits into socialist work. One form of community engagement that is likely to be increasingly necessary, and is an opportunity for radicalizing angry neighbors, is disaster preparedness. While the prepper subculture is perceived as right-wing, and parts are tied into the militia movement, there are also (...)
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  9.  28
    A Strategic Opening for a Basic Income Guarantee in the Global Crisis Being Created by AI, Robots, Desktop Manufacturing and BioMedicine.James J. Hughes - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):45-61.
    Robotics and artificial intelligence are beginning to fundamentally change the relative profitability and productivity of investments in capital versus human labor; creating technological unemployment at all levels of the workforce; from the North to the developing world. As robotics and expert systems become cheaper and more capable the percentage of the population that can find employment will also fall; stressing economies already trying to curtail "entitlements" and adopt austerity. Two additional technology-driven trends will exacerbate the structural unemployment crisis in the (...)
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  10.  45
    EcoSocialism and the Technoprogressive Perspective.James Hughes - 2021 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    The ecosocialists have broad agreements about the radical political economic changes that are called for, and have largely rejected the mysanthropic and anti-technological views of some radical ecologists. But the ecosocialists differ on what role nuclear power and emerging technologies should play under a Green New Deal. The ecomodernists broadly agree on the importance of nuclear and emerging technologies, but their impact has been muted by their association with corporate “greenwashing” and neoliberal technofix apologias for free markets and boy geniuses. (...)
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  11.  33
    Technopolitics is Not Beyond Left and Right After All.James Hughes - 2021 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    Attitudes towards science and technology are closely aligning with Culture War attitudes towards secularism, sexuality, gender, civil liberties, race and nationalism.
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  12.  12
    A Defense of Limited Regulation of Human Genetic Therapies.James J. Hughes - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):112-120.
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  13. Millennial Tendencies in Response to Apocalyptic Threats.James J. Hughes - 2008 - In Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford, UK: pp. 73-90.
    Popular discussion of utopian possibilities and apocalyptic risks from new technologies is sometimes dismissed as ungrounded millennial hysteria. In this essay I reflect on the various types of historic, pancultural millennialism. I then suggest how contemporary forms of secular techno-utopian and techno-apocalyptic discourse reflect these millennialist types and their characteristic biases to over- or under-estimate catastrophic risks, and adopt fatalistic or inappropriate stances toward risk reduction. Then I suggest that awareness of these characteristic millennialist cognitive biases help us separate grounded (...)
     
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  14. Beyond “Real Boys” and Back to Parental Obligations.James Hughes - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):61-62.
    Learning to see the continuity between our everyday decision-making and our decision-making around new biotechnologies is key to acclimatizing to our enhanced future. By excavating this decision-making, Singh helps us see that Ritalin isn’t really that big a deal and helps dispel what Malcolm Gladwell (1999) noted as the “strange inversion of moral responsibility” encouraged by books like ‘Ritalin Nation’ and ‘Running on Ritalin,’ whose authors “seek to make those parents and physicians trying to help children with A.D.H.D. feel guilty (...)
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  15. Buddhism and Abortion: A Western Approach.James Hughes - 1999 - In Buddhism and Abortion. New York, NY, USA: pp. 183-198.
    Most Western Buddhists employ both utilitarian and virtue ethics, in the paradoxical unity of compassion and wisdom. On the one hand, our personal karmic clarity is most related to our cultivation of compassionate intention, but on the other hand we also need to develop penetrating insight into the most effective means to the ends. We do not believe that the person who helps others without any intention of doing so to have accrued merit, while we look upon the person who (...)
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  16.  95
    Algorithms and Posthuman Governance.James Hughes - 2017 - Journal of Posthuman Studies.
    Since the Enlightenment, there have been advocates for the rationalizing efficiency of enlightened sovereigns, bureaucrats, and technocrats. Today these enthusiasms are joined by calls for replacing or augmenting government with algorithms and artificial intelligence, a process already substantially under way. Bureaucracies are in effect algorithms created by technocrats that systematize governance, and their automation simply removes bureaucrats and paper. The growth of algorithmic governance can already be seen in the automation of social services, regulatory oversight, policing, the justice system, and (...)
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  17.  77
    Human Augmentation and the Age of the Transhuman.James Hughes - 2018 - In Tony Prescott, Nathan Lepora & Paul Verschure (eds.), Living Machines: A Handbook of Research in Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Human augmentation is discussed in three axes: the technological means, the ability being augmented, and the social systems that will be affected. The technological augmentations considered range from exocortical information and communication systems, to pharmaceuticals, tissue and genetic engineering, and prosthetic limbs and organs, to eventually nanomedical robotics, brain-computer interfaces and cognitive prostheses. These technologies are mapped onto the capabilities which we are in the process of enabling and augmenting, which include extending longevity and physical, sensory and cognitive abilities, and (...)
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  18.  38
    Guest Editorial: How Moral is Moral Enhancement?Vojin Rakić & James Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):3-6.
    Moral bioenhancement is a topic that will only increase in controversy as neuroscience advances.
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  19.  26
    Humans Should Be Free of All Biological Limitations Including Sex.James J. Hughes - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):15-15.
  20. Beyond the Medical Model of Gender Dysphoria to Morphological Self-Determination.James Hughes - 2006 - Lahey Clinic Medical Ethics Journal 13 (1):10.
    Gender dysphoria is better understood within the right to morphological self-determination than as a medical condition.
     
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  21.  19
    Beyond Human Nature: Human-Racism in the Debate Over Genetic and Nanotechnological Enhancement.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Nanoscale. New York, NY, USA: pp. 61-70.
    The alleged threats to human nature are at the root of many concerns about the use of nanotechnology to extend human health and capabilities. Bu the concept of human nature is illusory, selectively deployed, and does not impose any ethical constraint on human enhancement. Human nature is not only a meaningless concept, a product of our imperfect human cognition and a relic of the idea of a "soul," but, as it is deployed today against human enhancement technologies, it is also (...)
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  22. Are Technological Unemployment and a Basoc Income Guarantee Inevitable or Desirable?James J. Hughes - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):1-4.
    Robotics and artificial intelligence are beginning to fundamentally change the relative profitability and productivity of investments in capital versus human labor; creating technological unemployment at all levels of the workforce; from the North to the developing world. As robotics and expert systems become cheaper and more capable the percentage of the population that can find employment will also fall; stressing economies already trying to curtail "entitlements" and adopt austerity. Two additional technology-driven trends will exacerbate the structural unemployment crisis in the (...)
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  23.  15
    Humanism for Personhood: Against Human-Racism: A New Fight for Human Rights.James Hughes - 2004 - Free Inquiry 1 (June):36-37.
    In the coming decades humanists and trans-humanists need to wage a global campaign to radicalize the idea of human rights. We need to assert our rights to control our own bodies and brains, whether we choose to change our genders or medicate our brains. We need to assert that the measure of a society’s fairness is how universally available we make the prerequisites for achieving our fullest potential. We need to defend the right to enhance ourselves - whether through education (...)
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  24.  2
    Medical Ethics Through the Star Trek Lens.James Hughes & John Lantos - 2001 - Literature and Medicine 1 (20):26-38.
    Star Trek scripts have often grappled with dilemmas of medical ethics. The most explicitly medical-ethics-oriented Star Trek episode is named, aptly enough, “Ethics.” The script was written by Sara Charno and Stuart Charno, authors of two other Star Trek episodes. “Ethics” first aired on 2 March 1992. In the fall of 1992, we began to use this “Ethics” episode to motivate discussions in our first-year medical students’ course on medical ethics and the doctor-patient relationship. We asked students to write essays (...)
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  25.  3
    The Deskilling of Teaching and the Case for Intelligent Tutoring Systems.James Hughes - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 31 (2):1-16.
    This essay describes trends in the organization of work that have laid the groundwork for the adoption of interactive AI-driven instruction tools, and the technological innovations that will make intelligent tutoring systems truly competitive with human teachers. Since the origin of occupational specialization, the collection and transmission of knowledge have been tied to individual careers and job roles, specifically doctors, teachers, clergy, and lawyers, the paradigmatic knowledge professionals. But these roles have also been tied to texts and organizations that can (...)
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  26.  10
    Aliens, Technology and Freedom: SF Consumption and SocioEthical Attitudes.James Hughes - 1995 - Futures Research Quarterly 4 (11):39-58.
    As we enter the 21st century, we do well to consider the values implicit in science fiction, the principal arena of future speculation in popular culture. This study explored whether consumption of science fiction (SF) is correlated with distinctive socio-ethical views. SF tends to advocate the extension of value and rights to all forms of intelligence, regardless of physical form; enthusiasm for technology; and social and economic libertarianism. This suggests that consumers with these socio-ethical views would be attracted to the (...)
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  27.  77
    Social Pressures for Technological Mood Management.James Hughes - 2009 - Free Inquiry 29:28-32.
    The prospect of neurotechnologies for mood manipulation alarms some people who worry about the pernicious effects they might have. In particular there is a concern that individuals will be pressured to make themselves inauthentically happy, and tolerant of things that should make them sad or angry. The most common result of social pressures to adjust mood will likely be far more beneficial both for the individual and society. This essay reviews research on the stresses of "emotion work" and the personality (...)
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  28.  14
    The Death of Death.James J. Hughes - 2004 - In C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.), Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum. pp. 79--87.
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  29.  64
    Utilitarianism, And The Genetic Welfare Of Future Generations: A Reply To Salvi.James Hughes - 1997 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (2):38-39.
    The utilitarian calculators of genetic therapy would do well to reflect again on Mills' liberal democratic rules of thumb: utility will generally be maximized when people are free to make choices, with good information, good instruments of collective action (democracy), and relative equality. My rule of thumb is that if we give future generations genetic choices, they will generally choose health, happiness, intelligence, and longevity, for themselves and their descendants.
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  30.  46
    Commentary: Freedom Means Self-Awareness and Self-Control: Bioenhancement Can Help.James Hughes - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (3):394-397.
    The manipulation of sentiments and capacities for self-control can be combined in a program of posthuman character development that enhances flourishing and the subjective sense of free will. Indeed the faculties of self-awareness, deliberation, and self-control are the only referents this illusory concept of free will can be based on.
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  31.  27
    Buddhism and Our Posthuman Future.James J. Hughes - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):653-662.
    New human enhancement technologies will radically challenge traditional religious understandings of the human project. But among the world’s faiths, Buddhists will have some distinct advantages adapting to and contributing to thinking about, a posthuman future. Buddhism and human enhancement have some affinities and some useful complementarities. In the Abrahamic faiths, humanity is divinely created with static capacities, while in traditional Buddhism, human beings routinely evolve into gods and superbeings. While Buddhism counsels against grasping, it has no objection to using medicine (...)
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  32. Biopolitics.James J. Hughes - 2016 - In Keywords in the Study of Environment and Culture. pp. 22-24.
    The term “biopolitics” has four distinct but overlapping meanings in modern scholarship. According to Lemke’s history of the term (Lemke 2011), political scientists used “biopolitics” in a variety of ways as early as the 1920s, and the Third Reich used it to describe their eugenic plans. But the term really found common usage first among 1960s political scientists interested in the relationship of evolutionary biology and politics (Caldwell 1964). Forming the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) in 1981, (...)
     
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  33. Sex Selection and Women’s Reproductive Rights.James J. Hughes - 2008 - In At Issue: Should Parents Be Allowed to Choose the Gender of Their Children? pp. 31-40.
    A woman's right to know the contents of her own body, and to make a choice about whether to continue her pregnancy or not, should be defended against laws trying to stop prenatal sex selection, either in the developing world or in the developed world. Restrictions on women's reproductive freedom harm the interests of women and girls, and ignore myriad social policy solutions, such as education and income incentives to have girls and universal old age pensions, that provide better answers (...)
     
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  34. Technoprogressive Biopolitics and Human.James J. Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press. pp. 163.
     
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  35. The Psychology of Human Thought ROBERT J. STERNBERG & EDWARD E. SMITH. [REVIEW]James M. Hughes - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2 (3):345.
     
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  36.  16
    Humanism for Personhood: Against Human-Racism.James J. Hughes - 2004 - Free Inquiry 24.
    To the degree that we succeed in our campaign for personhood over human-racism we will fulfill the dreams of our humanist forebears.
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  37.  16
    Empathy Is Just One Component of Moral Character.James J. Hughes - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (3):49-55.
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  38.  27
    Moral Reconstruction.James Ryan Hughes - 1937 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 13:181-185.
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  39.  24
    Human Vs. Posthuman.James Hughes - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (5):4-7.
    Agar is inadvertently pointing to two more subtle problems with transhumanist ethics however, ones with which many of us are grappling. The first is the problem of balancing beneficent solidarism with strict non-interventionist liberalism. When, for instance, is someone's choice to modify their brain equivalent to selling themselves into slavery? Transhumanists need to articulate "the good life," inevitably shaped by local values, to ensure that we are in fact enhancing and not simply changing. Second and related, transhumanists need to be (...)
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  40.  31
    Review of Limitless. 105 Mins. Relativity Media, USA, 2011 and Rise of the Planet of the Apes. 105 Min, 20th Century Fox, USA, 2011. [REVIEW]James J. Hughes - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):42 - 43.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 10, Page 42-43, October 2011.
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  41.  21
    Global Technology Regulation and Potentially Apocalyptic Technological Threats.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor & John Weckert (eds.), Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology. New York: Wiley. pp. 201-214.
    In 2000 Bill Joy proposed that the best way to prevent technological apocalypse was to "relinquish" emerging bio-, info- and nanotechnologies. His essay introduced many watchdog groups to the dangers that futurists had been warning of for decades. One such group, ETC, has called for a moratorium on all nanotechnological research until all safety issues can be investigated and social impacts ameliorated. In this essay I discuss the differences and similarities of regulating bio- and nanotechnological innovation to the efforts to (...)
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  42.  1
    From Human-Racism to Personhood.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Paul Kurtz & David R. Koepsell (eds.), Science and Ethics: Can Science Help Us Make Wise Moral Judgments? Prometheus Books. pp. 24--4.
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  43.  1
    What Comes After Homo Sapiens?James Hughes - 2006 - In New Scientist. London: pp. 70-72.
  44.  7
    Introduction.James Hughes - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):i-vi.
    In the Spring of 2006, the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies and the Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics organized a conference on Human Enhancement Technologies and Human Rights with the co-sponsorship of the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, GeneForum, the ExtraLife Foundation and the Stanford Program in Ethics in Society. The conference was held May 26-28, 2006 at the Stanford Law School and more than fifty people, representing a frothy mix of philosophers, lawyers and political scientists, (...)
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