43 found
Order:
Disambiguations
James J. Hughes [28]James Hughes [27]James M. Hughes [2]James Ryan Hughes [2]
James Michael Hughes [1]
  1. The Ethics of Automating Therapy.Jake Burley, James J. Hughes, Alec Stubbs & Nir Eisikovits - 2024 - Ieet White Papers.
    The mental health crisis and loneliness epidemic have sparked a growing interest in leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) and chatbots as a potential solution. This report examines the benefits and risks of incorporating chatbots in mental health treatment. AI is used for mental health diagnosis and treatment decision-making and to train therapists on virtual patients. Chatbots are employed as always-available intermediaries with therapists, flagging symptoms for human intervention. But chatbots are also sold as stand-alone virtual therapists or as friends and lovers. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Transhumanism and Personal Identity.James Hughes - 2013 - In Max More & Natasha Vita-More (eds.), The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 227=234.
    Enlightenment values are built around the presumption of an independent rational self, citizen, consumer and pursuer of self-interest. Even the authoritarian and communitarian variants of the Enlightenment presumed the existence of autonomous individuals, simply arguing for greater weight to be given to their collective interests. Since Hume, however, radical Enlightenment empiricists have called into question the existence of a discrete, persistent self. Today neuroscientific reductionism has contributed to the rejection of an essentialist model of personal identity. Contemporary transhumanism has yet (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  3.  46
    Moral Enhancement Requires Multiple Virtues.James J. Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):86-95.
  4. Technoprogressive biopolitics and human enhancement.James Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press.
    A principal challenge facing the progressive bioethics project is the crafting of a consistent message on biopolitical issues that divide progressives. -/- The regulation of enhancement technologies is one of the issues central to this emerging biopolitics, pitting progressive defenders of enhancement, “technoprogressives,” against progressive critics. This essay [PDF] will argue that technoprogressive biopolitics express the consistent application of the core progressive values of the Enlightenment: the right of individuals to control their own bodies, brains and reproduction according to their (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  5. The Democratic Metaverse: Building an Extended Reality Safe for Citizens, Workers and Consumers.Alec Stubbs, James J. Hughes, Nir Eisikovits & Jake Burley - 2023 - Ieet White Papers.
    We are likely to have immersive virtual reality and ubiquitous augmented reality in the coming decades. At least some people will use extended reality or “the metaverse” to work, play and shop. In order to achieve the best possible versions of this virtual future, however, we will need to learn from three decades of regulating the Internet. The new virtual world cannot consist of walled corporate fiefdoms ruled only by profitmaximization. The interests of workers, consumers and citizens in virtuality require (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  36
    The Deskilling of Teaching and the Case for Intelligent Tutoring Systems.James Hughes - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 31 (2):1-16.
    This essay describes trends in the organization of work that have laid the groundwork for the adoption of interactive AI-driven instruction tools, and the technological innovations that will make intelligent tutoring systems truly competitive with human teachers. Since the origin of occupational specialization, the collection and transmission of knowledge have been tied to individual careers and job roles, specifically doctors, teachers, clergy, and lawyers, the paradigmatic knowledge professionals. But these roles have also been tied to texts and organizations that can (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7. The future of death: cryonics and the telos of liberal individualism.James Hughes - 2001 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 6 (1).
    This paper addresses five questions: First, what is trajectory of Western liberal ethics and politics in defining life, rights and citizenship? Second, how will neuro-remediation and other technologies change the definition of death for the brain injured and the cryonically suspended? Third, will people always have to be dead to be cryonically suspended? Fourth, how will changing technologies and definitions of identity affect the status of people revived from brain injury and cryonic suspension? I propose that Western liberal thought is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  8. Algorithms and Posthuman Governance.James Hughes - 2017 - Journal of Posthuman Studies.
    Since the Enlightenment, there have been advocates for the rationalizing efficiency of enlightened sovereigns, bureaucrats, and technocrats. Today these enthusiasms are joined by calls for replacing or augmenting government with algorithms and artificial intelligence, a process already substantially under way. Bureaucracies are in effect algorithms created by technocrats that systematize governance, and their automation simply removes bureaucrats and paper. The growth of algorithmic governance can already be seen in the automation of social services, regulatory oversight, policing, the justice system, and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9. Buddhism and Abortion: A Western Approach.James Hughes - 1998 - In Buddhism and Abortion: A Western Approach. pp. 183-198.
    Most Western Buddhists employ both utilitarian and virtue ethics, in the paradoxical unity of compassion and wisdom. On the one hand, our personal karmic clarity is most related to our cultivation of compassionate intention, but on the other hand we also need to develop penetrating insight into the most effective means to the ends. We do not believe that the person who helps others without any intention of doing so to have accrued merit, while we look upon the person who (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  71
    Buddhism and Our Posthuman Future.James J. Hughes - 2019 - Sophia 58 (4):653-662.
    New human enhancement technologies will radically challenge traditional religious understandings of the human project. But among the world’s faiths, Buddhists will have some distinct advantages adapting to and contributing to thinking about, a posthuman future. Buddhism and human enhancement have some affinities and some useful complementarities. In the Abrahamic faiths, humanity is divinely created with static capacities, while in traditional Buddhism, human beings routinely evolve into gods and superbeings. While Buddhism counsels against grasping, it has no objection to using medicine (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  19
    A Defense of Limited Regulation of Human Genetic Therapies.James J. Hughes - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):112-120.
    Abstract:There is a role for regulatory oversight over new genetic technologies. Research must ensure the rights of human subjects, and all medical products and techniques should be ensured to be safe and effective. In the United States, these forms of regulation are largely the purview of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration. Some have argued, however, that human genetic therapies require new regulatory agencies empowered to enforce cultural norms, protect against hypothetical social harms, or ensure (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. Human Augmentation and the Age of the Transhuman.James Hughes - 2018 - In Tony J. Prescott, Nathan Lepora & Paul F. M. J. Verschure (eds.), Living Machines: A Handbook of Research in Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems. Oxford University Press.
    Human augmentation is discussed in three axes: the technological means, the ability being augmented, and the social systems that will be affected. The technological augmentations considered range from exocortical information and communication systems, to pharmaceuticals, tissue and genetic engineering, and prosthetic limbs and organs, to eventually nanomedical robotics, brain-computer interfaces and cognitive prostheses. These technologies are mapped onto the capabilities which we are in the process of enabling and augmenting, which include extending longevity and physical, sensory and cognitive abilities, and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  55
    Buddhism and Abortion: A Western Approach.James Hughes - 1998 - In Damien Keown (ed.), Buddhism and Abortion. Palgrave MacMillan.
  14. A Socialist Approach to Disaster Preparedness: A Leftist guide for the coming catastrophes.James Hughes - 2021 - After The Storm.
    Socialists have historically thought a lot about the catastrophic risks society faces. Today many DSA chapters have gotten involved in mutual aid to respond to the Covid crisis, generating a debate about how mutual aid fits into socialist work. One form of community engagement that is likely to be increasingly necessary, and is an opportunity for radicalizing angry neighbors, is disaster preparedness. While the prepper subculture is perceived as right-wing, and parts are tied into the militia movement, there are also (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. EcoSocialism and the Technoprogressive Perspective.James Hughes - 2021 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    The ecosocialists have broad agreements about the radical political economic changes that are called for, and have largely rejected the mysanthropic and anti-technological views of some radical ecologists. But the ecosocialists differ on what role nuclear power and emerging technologies should play under a Green New Deal. The ecomodernists broadly agree on the importance of nuclear and emerging technologies, but their impact has been muted by their association with corporate “greenwashing” and neoliberal technofix apologias for free markets and boy geniuses. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Beyond “Real Boys” and Back to Parental Obligations.James Hughes - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):61-62.
    Learning to see the continuity between our everyday decision-making and our decision-making around new biotechnologies is key to acclimatizing to our enhanced future. By excavating this decision-making, Singh helps us see that Ritalin isn’t really that big a deal and helps dispel what Malcolm Gladwell (1999) noted as the “strange inversion of moral responsibility” encouraged by books like ‘Ritalin Nation’ and ‘Running on Ritalin,’ whose authors “seek to make those parents and physicians trying to help children with A.D.H.D. feel guilty (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17.  9
    Medical Ethics through the Star Trek Lens.James Hughes & John Lantos - 2001 - Literature and Medicine 1 (20):26-38.
    Star Trek scripts have often grappled with dilemmas of medical ethics. The most explicitly medical-ethics-oriented Star Trek episode is named, aptly enough, “Ethics.” The script was written by Sara Charno and Stuart Charno, authors of two other Star Trek episodes. “Ethics” first aired on 2 March 1992. In the fall of 1992, we began to use this “Ethics” episode to motivate discussions in our first-year medical students’ course on medical ethics and the doctor-patient relationship. We asked students to write essays (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  18.  16
    The death of death.James J. Hughes - 2004 - In C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.), Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum. pp. 79--87.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19.  31
    Humans Should Be Free of All Biological Limitations Including Sex.James J. Hughes - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):15-15.
  20. Technopolitics is Not Beyond Left and Right After All.James Hughes - 2021 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    Attitudes towards science and technology are closely aligning with Culture War attitudes towards secularism, sexuality, gender, civil liberties, race and nationalism.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Humanism for Personhood: Against Human-Racism: A New Fight for Human Rights.James Hughes - 2004 - Free Inquiry 1 (June):36-37.
    In the coming decades humanists and trans-humanists need to wage a global campaign to radicalize the idea of human rights. We need to assert our rights to control our own bodies and brains, whether we choose to change our genders or medicate our brains. We need to assert that the measure of a society’s fairness is how universally available we make the prerequisites for achieving our fullest potential. We need to defend the right to enhance ourselves - whether through education (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Aliens, Technology and Freedom: SF Consumption and SocioEthical Attitudes.James Hughes - 1995 - Futures Research Quarterly 4 (11):39-58.
    As we enter the 21st century, we do well to consider the values implicit in science fiction, the principal arena of future speculation in popular culture. This study explored whether consumption of science fiction (SF) is correlated with distinctive socio-ethical views. SF tends to advocate the extension of value and rights to all forms of intelligence, regardless of physical form; enthusiasm for technology; and social and economic libertarianism. This suggests that consumers with these socio-ethical views would be attracted to the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  65
    The Post-Dystopian Technorealism of Ted Chiang.James Hughes & Nir Eisikovits - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 32 (1):1-14.
    In this article, we argue that Ted Chiang’s short stories offer a realist philosophy of technology, one that charts a third course between the techno-pessimism and techno-optimism that characterize the history of philosophizing about technology and much of the speculative fiction about it. We begin by surveying the history of utopian and skeptical approaches to technology in philosophy and speculative fiction. We then move to discuss two of Chiang’s recent stories and use them to articulate the author’s techno-realism. Chiang’s view, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Beyond the Medical Model of Gender Dysphoria to Morphological Self-determination.James Hughes - 2006 - Lahey Clinic Medical Ethics Journal 13 (1):10.
    Gender dysphoria is better understood within the right to morphological self-determination than as a medical condition.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25.  33
    Guest Editorial: How Moral is Moral Enhancement?Vojin Rakić & James Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):3-6.
    Moral bioenhancement is a topic that will only increase in controversy as neuroscience advances.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26. Social Pressures for Technological Mood Management.James Hughes - 2009 - Free Inquiry 29:28-32.
    The prospect of neurotechnologies for mood manipulation alarms some people who worry about the pernicious effects they might have. In particular there is a concern that individuals will be pressured to make themselves inauthentically happy, and tolerant of things that should make them sad or angry. The most common result of social pressures to adjust mood will likely be far more beneficial both for the individual and society. This essay reviews research on the stresses of "emotion work" and the personality (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Utilitarianism, And The Genetic Welfare Of Future Generations: A Reply To Salvi.James Hughes - 1997 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (2):38-39.
    The utilitarian calculators of genetic therapy would do well to reflect again on Mills' liberal democratic rules of thumb: utility will generally be maximized when people are free to make choices, with good information, good instruments of collective action (democracy), and relative equality. My rule of thumb is that if we give future generations genetic choices, they will generally choose health, happiness, intelligence, and longevity, for themselves and their descendants.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Global technology regulation and potentially apocalyptic technological threats.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor, John Weckert & Mihail C. Roco (eds.), Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology. Wiley. pp. 201-214.
    In 2000 Bill Joy proposed that the best way to prevent technological apocalypse was to "relinquish" emerging bio-, info- and nanotechnologies. His essay introduced many watchdog groups to the dangers that futurists had been warning of for decades. One such group, ETC, has called for a moratorium on all nanotechnological research until all safety issues can be investigated and social impacts ameliorated. In this essay I discuss the differences and similarities of regulating bio- and nanotechnological innovation to the efforts to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29.  41
    Commentary: Freedom Means Self-Awareness and Self-Control: Bioenhancement Can Help.James Hughes - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (3):394-397.
    The manipulation of sentiments and capacities for self-control can be combined in a program of posthuman character development that enhances flourishing and the subjective sense of free will. Indeed the faculties of self-awareness, deliberation, and self-control are the only referents this illusory concept of free will can be based on.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  6
    From human-racism to personhood.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Paul Kurtz & David Richard Koepsell (eds.), Science and ethics: can science help us make wise moral judgments? Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. pp. 24--4.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  8
    How Conscience Apps and Caring Computers will Illuminate and Strengthen Human Morality.James J. Hughes - 2014-08-11 - In Russell Blackford & Damien Broderick (eds.), Intelligence Unbound. Wiley. pp. 26–34.
    The biopolitics of intervening directly in the body with drugs, genes, and wires have always been far more fraught than the issues surrounding the use of gadgets. This chapter explores the way that conscience apps and morality software are an underexplored bridge between the traditional forms of moral enhancement and the more invasive methods that we will develop eventually. It discusses the core elements such as self‐control, caring, moral cognition, mindfulness, and wisdom or intelligence. Critics of morality apps point to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  37
    Human vs. posthuman.James Hughes - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (5):4-7.
    Agar is inadvertently pointing to two more subtle problems with transhumanist ethics however, ones with which many of us are grappling. The first is the problem of balancing beneficent solidarism with strict non-interventionist liberalism. When, for instance, is someone's choice to modify their brain equivalent to selling themselves into slavery? Transhumanists need to articulate "the good life," inevitably shaped by local values, to ensure that we are in fact enhancing and not simply changing. Second and related, transhumanists need to be (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  15
    Introduction.James Hughes - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):i-vi.
    In the Spring of 2006, the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies and the Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics organized a conference on Human Enhancement Technologies and Human Rights with the co-sponsorship of the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, GeneForum, the ExtraLife Foundation and the Stanford Program in Ethics in Society. The conference was held May 26-28, 2006 at the Stanford Law School and more than fifty people, representing a frothy mix of philosophers, lawyers and political scientists, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  34
    Moral Reconstruction.James Ryan Hughes - 1937 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 13:181-185.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  1
    New Scientist.James Hughes (ed.) - 1981 - London:
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Technoprogressive Biopolitics and Human.James J. Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press. pp. 163.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Unitarian universalists as critical transhumanists.James Hughes - 2022 - In Arvin M. Gouw, Brian Patrick Green & Ted Peters (eds.), Religious Transhumanism and Its Critics. Lanham: Lexington Books.
    Transhumanism and Unitarian Universalism are both the result of filtering ancient religious aspirations through the sieve of Enlightenment rationalism, humanism and individualism. The transhumanists aspire to transcendence through individual adoption of human enhancing technologies, while the UUs encourage transcendence through the critical, selective construction of personal spiritualities. Today, most religious reject the promises of human enhancement and transhumanism. But Unitarian Universalists are in the unusual position to be interlocutors between faith and science, between spirituality and techno-transcendence, between liberal religion and (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  12
    Unitarian universalists as critical transhumanists.James Hughes (ed.) - 2022 - Rowman and Littlefield.
    Transhumanism and Unitarian Universalism are both the result of filtering ancient religious aspirations through the sieve of Enlightenment rationalism, humanism and individualism. The transhumanists aspire to transcendence through individual adoption of human enhancing technologies, while the UUs encourage transcendence through the critical, selective construction of personal spiritualities. Today, most religious reject the promises of human enhancement and transhumanism. But Unitarian Universalists are in the unusual position to be interlocutors between faith and science, between spirituality and techno-transcendence, between liberal religion and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  14
    What Comes After Homo Sapiens?James Hughes - 1981 - In New Scientist. London: pp. 70-72.
  40.  16
    The Biopolitics of Human Enhancement.Steven Umbrello, Cristiano Calì & James J. Hughes (eds.) - 2024 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    The study of the social implications of human enhancement is an interdisciplinary work that draws from the fields of political science, sociology, philosophy, and bioethics, among others. It is also a complex and rapidly evolving subject that raises important questions about the potential benefits and risks of these technologies, as well as how society should govern and regulate their development and use. -/- An in-depth exploration of current and future human enhancement technologies,this book delves into the specifics of current and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  20
    Empathy Is Just One Component of Moral Character.James J. Hughes - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (3):49-55.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  37
    Review of Limitless. 105 mins. Relativity Media, USA, 2011 and Rise of the Planet of the Apes. 105 min, 20th Century Fox, USA, 2011. [REVIEW]James J. Hughes - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):42 - 43.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 10, Page 42-43, October 2011.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. The Psychology of Human Thought ROBERT J. STERNBERG & EDWARD E. SMITH. [REVIEW]James M. Hughes - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2 (3):345.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark