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  1. Toward a pluralism of perspectives on AI – A book review of “Imagining AI: How the World Sees Intelligent Machines”. [REVIEW]Manh-Tung Ho & Tung-Duong Hoang - manuscript
    Imagining AI: How the World Sees Intelligent Machines edited by Stephen Cave and Kanta Dihal (2023) was published as a result of the Global AI Narratives (GAIN) project of the Leverhulme Center for the Future of Intelligence, University of Cambridge. The book has 25 chapters grouped into four parts, corresponding to different geographical regions: Europe; the Americas and Pacific; Africa, Middle East, and South Asia; East and South East Asia. All chapters contributed comprehensively to the mission of showing “the imaginary (...)
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  2. Responsibility Gaps and Retributive Dispositions: Evidence from the US, Japan and Germany.Markus Kneer & Markus Christen - manuscript
    Danaher (2016) has argued that increasing robotization can lead to retribution gaps: Situation in which the normative fact that nobody can be justly held responsible for a harmful outcome stands in conflict with our retributivist moral dispositions. In this paper, we report a cross-cultural empirical study based on Sparrow’s (2007) famous example of an autonomous weapon system committing a war crime, which was conducted with participants from the US, Japan and Germany. We find that (i) people manifest a considerable willingness (...)
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  3. Human Perception and The Artificial Gaze.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - forthcoming - In Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich (eds.), Artificial Aesthetics.
  4. Understanding Moral Responsibility in Automated Decision-Making: Responsibility Gaps and Strategies to Address Them.Andrea Berber & Jelena Mijić - forthcoming - Theoria: Beograd.
    This paper delves into the use of machine learning-based systems in decision-making processes and its implications for moral responsibility as traditionally defined. It focuses on the emergence of responsibility gaps and examines proposed strategies to address them. The paper aims to provide an introductory and comprehensive overview of the ongoing debate surrounding moral responsibility in automated decision-making. By thoroughly examining these issues, we seek to contribute to a deeper understanding of the implications of AI integration in society.
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  5. Deontology and Safe Artificial Intelligence.William D’Alessandro - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-24.
    The field of AI safety aims to prevent increasingly capable artificially intelligent systems from causing humans harm. Research on moral alignment is widely thought to offer a promising safety strategy: if we can equip AI systems with appropriate ethical rules, according to this line of thought, they'll be unlikely to disempower, destroy or otherwise seriously harm us. Deontological morality looks like a particularly attractive candidate for an alignment target, given its popularity, relative technical tractability and commitment to harm-avoidance principles. I (...)
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  6. Just Probabilities.Chad Lee-Stronach - forthcoming - Noûs.
    I defend the thesis that legal standards of proof are reducible to thresholds of probability. Many have rejected this thesis because it seems to entail that defendants can be found liable solely on the basis of statistical evidence. I argue that this inference is invalid. I do so by developing a view, called Legal Causalism, that combines Thomson's (1986) causal analysis of evidence with recent work in formal theories of causal inference. On this view, legal standards of proof can be (...)
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  7. The Heart of an AI: Agency, Moral Sense, and Friendship.Evandro Barbosa & Thaís Alves Costa - 2024 - Unisinos Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):01-16.
    The article presents an analysis centered on the emotional lapses of artificial intelligence (AI) and the influence of these lapses on two critical aspects. Firstly, the article explores the ontological impact of emotional lapses, elucidating how they hinder AI’s capacity to develop a moral sense. The absence of a moral emotion, such as sympathy, creates a barrier for machines to grasp and ethically respond to specific situations. This raises fundamental questions about machines’ ability to act as moral agents in the (...)
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  8. Synthetic Socio-Technical Systems: Poiêsis as Meaning Making.Piercosma Bisconti, Andrew McIntyre & Federica Russo - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (3):1-19.
    With the recent renewed interest in AI, the field has made substantial advancements, particularly in generative systems. Increased computational power and the availability of very large datasets has enabled systems such as ChatGPT to effectively replicate aspects of human social interactions, such as verbal communication, thus bringing about profound changes in society. In this paper, we explain that the arrival of generative AI systems marks a shift from ‘interacting through’ to ‘interacting with’ technologies and calls for a reconceptualization of socio-technical (...)
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  9. ChatGPT and the Technology-Education Tension: Applying Contextual Virtue Epistemology to a Cognitive Artifact.Guido Cassinadri - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (14):1-28.
    According to virtue epistemology, the main aim of education is the development of the cognitive character of students (Pritchard, 2014, 2016). Given the proliferation of technological tools such as ChatGPT and other LLMs for solving cognitive tasks, how should educational practices incorporate the use of such tools without undermining the cognitive character of students? Pritchard (2014, 2016) argues that it is possible to properly solve this ‘technology-education tension’ (TET) by combining the virtue epistemology framework with the theory of extended cognition (...)
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  10. Sora: The Dawn of Digital Dreams.David Côrtes Cavalcante - 2024 - Takk™ Innovate Studio. Edited by David Côrtes Cavalcante. Translated by David Côrtes Cavalcante.
    In "Sora: The Dawn of Digital Dreams", humanity stands on the brink of a new epoch, where the OpenAI Sora technology interweaves the fabric of reality and imagination into a tapestry of digital dreams. Set against the backdrop of a futuristic metropolis, this narrative explores the duality of technological advancement—its power to create and to corrupt. As society navigates the blurred lines between the authentic and the artificial, "Sora: The Dawn of Digital Dreams" invites readers to ponder the essence of (...)
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  11. Real Feeling and Fictional Time in Human-AI Interactions.Krueger Joel & Tom Roberts - 2024 - Topoi 43 (3).
    As technology improves, artificial systems are increasingly able to behave in human-like ways: holding a conversation; providing information, advice, and support; or taking on the role of therapist, teacher, or counsellor. This enhanced behavioural complexity, we argue, encourages deeper forms of affective engagement on the part of the human user, with the artificial agent helping to stabilise, subdue, prolong, or intensify a person’s emotional condition. Here, we defend a fictionalist account of human/AI interaction, according to which these encounters involve an (...)
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  12. Chess AI does not know chess - The death of Type B strategy and its philosophical implications.Spyridon Kakos - 2024 - Harmonia Philosophica Articles.
    Playing chess is one of the first sectors of human thinking that were conquered by computers. From the historical win of Deep Blue against chess champion Garry Kasparov until today, computers have completely dominated the world of chess leaving no room for question as to who is the king in this sport. However, the better computers become in chess the more obvious their basic disadvantage becomes: Even though they can defeat any human in chess and play phenomenally great and intuitive (...)
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  13. Personalized Patient Preference Predictors Are Neither Technically Feasible nor Ethically Desirable.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (7):62-65.
    Except in extraordinary circumstances, patients' clinical care should reflect their preferences. Incapacitated patients cannot report their preferences. This is a problem. Extant solutions to the problem are inadequate: surrogates are unreliable, and advance directives are uncommon. In response, some authors have suggested developing algorithmic "patient preference predictors" (PPPs) to inform care for incapacitated patients. In a recent paper, Earp et al. propose a new twist on PPPs. Earp et al. suggest we personalize PPPs using modern machine learning (ML) techniques. In (...)
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  14. A Comparative Defense of Self-initiated Prospective Moral Answerability for Autonomous Robot harm.Marc Champagne & Ryan Tonkens - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (4):1-26.
    As artificial intelligence becomes more sophisticated and robots approach autonomous decision-making, debates about how to assign moral responsibility have gained importance, urgency, and sophistication. Answering Stenseke’s (2022a) call for scaffolds that can help us classify views and commitments, we think the current debate space can be represented hierarchically, as answers to key questions. We use the resulting taxonomy of five stances to differentiate—and defend—what is known as the “blank check” proposal. According to this proposal, a person activating a robot could (...)
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  15. Philosophers Ought to Develop, Theorize About, and Use Philosophically Relevant AI.Graham Clay & Caleb Ontiveros - 2023 - Metaphilosophy 54 (4):463-479.
    The transformative power of artificial intelligence (AI) is coming to philosophy—the only question is the degree to which philosophers will harness it. In this paper, we argue that the application of AI tools to philosophy could have an impact on the field comparable to the advent of writing, and that it is likely that philosophical progress will significantly increase as a consequence of AI. The role of philosophers in this story is not merely to use AI but also to help (...)
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  16. Humans in the meta-human era (Meta-philosophical analysis).Spyridon Kakos - 2023 - Harmonia Philosophica Papers.
    Humans are obsolete. In the post-ChatGPT era, artificial intelligence systems have replaced us in the last sectors of life that we thought were our personal kingdom. Yet, humans still have a place in this life. But they can find it only if they forget all those things that we believe make us unique. Only if we go back to doing nothing, can we truly be alive and meet our Self. Only if we stop thinking can we accept the Cosmos as (...)
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  17. Ethical Issues with Artificial Ethics Assistants.Elizabeth O'Neill, Michal Klincewicz & Michiel Kemmer - 2023 - In Carissa Véliz (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the possibility of using AI technologies to improve human moral reasoning and decision-making, especially in the context of purchasing and consumer decisions. We characterize such AI technologies as artificial ethics assistants (AEAs). We focus on just one part of the AI-aided moral improvement question: the case of the individual who wants to improve their morality, where what constitutes an improvement is evaluated by the individual’s own values. We distinguish three broad areas in which an individual might think (...)
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  18. GOLEMA XIV prognoza rozwoju ludzkiej cywilizacji a typologia osobliwości technologicznych.Rachel Palm - 2023 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 13 (1):75–89.
    The GOLEM XIV’s forecast for the development of the human civilisation and a typology of technological singularities: In the paper, a conceptual analysis of technological singularity is conducted and results in the concept differentiated into convergent singularity, existential singularity, and forecasting singularity, based on selected works of Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, and Vernor Vinge respectively. A comparison is made between the variants and the forecast of GOLEM XIV (a quasi-alter ego and character by Stanisław Lem) for the possible development of (...)
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  19. Algorithmic Nudging: The Need for an Interdisciplinary Oversight.Christian Schmauder, Jurgis Karpus, Maximilian Moll, Bahador Bahrami & Ophelia Deroy - 2023 - Topoi 42 (3):799-807.
    Nudge is a popular public policy tool that harnesses well-known biases in human judgement to subtly guide people’s decisions, often to improve their choices or to achieve some socially desirable outcome. Thanks to recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) methods new possibilities emerge of how and when our decisions can be nudged. On the one hand, algorithmically personalized nudges have the potential to vastly improve human daily lives. On the other hand, blindly outsourcing the development and implementation of nudges to (...)
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  20. Bare statistical evidence and the legitimacy of software-based judicial decisions.Eva Schmidt, Maximilian Köhl & Andreas Sesing-Wagenpfeil - 2023 - Synthese 201 (4):1-27.
    Can the evidence provided by software systems meet the standard of proof for civil or criminal cases, and is it individualized evidence? Or, to the contrary, do software systems exclusively provide bare statistical evidence? In this paper, we argue that there are cases in which evidence in the form of probabilities computed by software systems is not bare statistical evidence, and is thus able to meet the standard of proof. First, based on the case of State v. Loomis, we investigate (...)
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  21. The future won’t be pretty: The nature and value of ugly, AI-designed experiments.Michael T. Stuart - 2023 - In Milena Ivanova & Alice Murphy (eds.), The Aesthetics of Scientific Experiments. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Can an ugly experiment be a good experiment? Philosophers have identified many beautiful experiments and explored ways in which their beauty might be connected to their epistemic value. In contrast, the present chapter seeks out (and celebrates) ugly experiments. Among the ugliest are those being designed by AI algorithms. Interestingly, in the contexts where such experiments tend to be deployed, low aesthetic value correlates with high epistemic value. In other words, ugly experiments can be good. Given this, we should conclude (...)
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  22. Teogonia technologiczna. Nominalistyczna koncepcja bóstwa dla transhumanizmu i posthumanizmu.Rachel 'Preppikoma' Palm - 2022 - In Kamila Grabowska-Derlatka, Jakub Gomułka & Rachel 'Preppikoma' Palm (eds.), PhilosophyPulp: Vol. 2. Kraków, Poland: Wydawnictwo Libron. pp. 129–143.
  23. AI-aesthetics and the Anthropocentric Myth of Creativity.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - 2022 - NODES 1 (19-20).
    Since the beginning of the 21st century, technologies like neural networks, deep learning and “artificial intelligence” (AI) have gradually entered the artistic realm. We witness the development of systems that aim to assess, evaluate and appreciate artifacts according to artistic and aesthetic criteria or by observing people’s preferences. In addition to that, AI is now used to generate new synthetic artifacts. When a machine paints a Rembrandt, composes a Bach sonata, or completes a Beethoven symphony, we say that this is (...)
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  24. Posthuman to Inhuman: mHealth Technologies and the Digital Health Assemblage.Jack Black & Jim Cherrington - 2022 - Theory and Event 25 (4):726--750.
    In exploring the intra-active, relational and material connections between humans and non- humans, proponents of posthumanism advocate a questioning of the ‘human’ beyond its traditional anthropocentric conceptualization. By referring specifically to controversial developments in mHealth applications, this paper critically diverges from posthuman accounts of human/non-human assemblages. Indeed, we argue that, rather than ‘dissolving’ the human subject, the power of assemblages lie in their capacity to highlight the antagonisms and contradictions that inherently affirm the importance of the subject. In outlining this (...)
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  25. The Algorithmic Leviathan: Arbitrariness, Fairness, and Opportunity in Algorithmic Decision-Making Systems.Kathleen Creel & Deborah Hellman - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (1):26-43.
    This article examines the complaint that arbitrary algorithmic decisions wrong those whom they affect. It makes three contributions. First, it provides an analysis of what arbitrariness means in this context. Second, it argues that arbitrariness is not of moral concern except when special circumstances apply. However, when the same algorithm or different algorithms based on the same data are used in multiple contexts, a person may be arbitrarily excluded from a broad range of opportunities. The third contribution is to explain (...)
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  26. Medical AI and human dignity: Contrasting perceptions of human and artificially intelligent (AI) decision making in diagnostic and medical resource allocation contexts.Paul Formosa, Wendy Rogers, Yannick Griep, Sarah Bankins & Deborah Richards - 2022 - Computers in Human Behaviour 133.
    Forms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are already being deployed into clinical settings and research into its future healthcare uses is accelerating. Despite this trajectory, more research is needed regarding the impacts on patients of increasing AI decision making. In particular, the impersonal nature of AI means that its deployment in highly sensitive contexts-of-use, such as in healthcare, raises issues associated with patients’ perceptions of (un) dignified treatment. We explore this issue through an experimental vignette study comparing individuals’ perceptions of being (...)
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  27. A Fuzzy-Cognitive-Maps Approach to Decision-Making in Medical Ethics.Alice Hein, Lukas J. Meier, Alena Buyx & Klaus Diepold - 2022 - 2022 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE).
    Although machine intelligence is increasingly employed in healthcare, the realm of decision-making in medical ethics remains largely unexplored from a technical perspective. We propose an approach based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), which builds on Beauchamp and Childress’ prima-facie principles. The FCM’s weights are optimized using a genetic algorithm to provide recommendations regarding the initiation, continuation, or withdrawal of medical treatment. The resulting model approximates the answers provided by our team of medical ethicists fairly well and offers a high degree (...)
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  28. Algorithms for Ethical Decision-Making in the Clinic: A Proof of Concept.Lukas J. Meier, Alice Hein, Klaus Diepold & Alena Buyx - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (7):4-20.
    Machine intelligence already helps medical staff with a number of tasks. Ethical decision-making, however, has not been handed over to computers. In this proof-of-concept study, we show how an algorithm based on Beauchamp and Childress’ prima-facie principles could be employed to advise on a range of moral dilemma situations that occur in medical institutions. We explain why we chose fuzzy cognitive maps to set up the advisory system and how we utilized machine learning to train it. We report on the (...)
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  29. Deep learning and synthetic media.Raphaël Millière - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-27.
    Deep learning algorithms are rapidly changing the way in which audiovisual media can be produced. Synthetic audiovisual media generated with deep learning—often subsumed colloquially under the label “deepfakes”—have a number of impressive characteristics; they are increasingly trivial to produce, and can be indistinguishable from real sounds and images recorded with a sensor. Much attention has been dedicated to ethical concerns raised by this technological development. Here, I focus instead on a set of issues related to the notion of synthetic audiovisual (...)
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  30. Manipulative Machines.Jessica Pepp, Rachel Sterken, Matthew McKeever & Eliot Michaelson - 2022 - In Michael Klenk & Fleur Jongepier (eds.), The Philosophy of Online Manipulation. Routledge. pp. 91-107.
    The aim of this chapter is to explore various ways of thinking about the concept of manipulation in order to capture both current and potentially future instances of machine manipulation, manipulation on the part of everything from the Facebook advertising algorithm to super-intelligent AGI. Three views are considered: a conservative one, which slightly tweaks extant influence-based theories of manipulation; a dismissive view according to which it doesn't matter much if machines are literally manipulative, provided we can classify them as so (...)
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  31. Musical agency and collaboration in the digital age.Tom Roberts & Joel Krueger - 2022 - In Kath Bicknell & John Sutton (eds.), Collaborative Embodied Performance: Ecologies of Skill. Methuen Drama. pp. 125-140.
  32. Designing AI for Explainability and Verifiability: A Value Sensitive Design Approach to Avoid Artificial Stupidity in Autonomous Vehicles.Steven Umbrello & Roman Yampolskiy - 2022 - International Journal of Social Robotics 14 (2):313-322.
    One of the primary, if not most critical, difficulties in the design and implementation of autonomous systems is the black-boxed nature of the decision-making structures and logical pathways. How human values are embodied and actualised in situ may ultimately prove to be harmful if not outright recalcitrant. For this reason, the values of stakeholders become of particular significance given the risks posed by opaque structures of intelligent agents (IAs). This paper explores how decision matrix algorithms, via the belief-desire-intention model for (...)
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  33. AI & democracy, and the importance of asking the right questions.Ognjen Arandjelović - 2021 - AI Ethics Journal 2 (1):2.
    Democracy is widely praised as a great achievement of humanity. However, in recent years there has been an increasing amount of concern that its functioning across the world may be eroding. In response, efforts to combat such change are emerging. Considering the pervasiveness of technology and its increasing capabilities, it is no surprise that there has been much focus on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to this end. Questions as to how AI can be best utilized to extend the (...)
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  34. É Possível Evitar Vieses Algorítmicos?Carlos Barth - 2021 - Revista de Filosofia Moderna E Contemporânea 8 (3):39-68.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are used to model human activities and predict behavior. Such systems have shown race, gender and other kinds of bias, which are typically understood as technical problems. Here we try to show that: 1) to get rid of such biases, we need a system that can understand the structure of human activities and;2) to create such a system, we need to solve foundational problems of AI, such as the common-sense problem. Additionally, when informational platforms uses these (...)
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  35. From Specialized to Hyper-Specialized Labour: Future Labor Markets as Helmed by Advanced Computer Intelligence.Tyler Jaynes - 2021 - In Pritika Nehra (ed.), Loneliness and the Crisis of Work. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 159-175.
    With the transition of the pandemic-gripped labor market en masse to remote capabilities to avert from a national or international economic meltdown, a concern arises that many job seekers simply cannot fit into the new roles being developed and implemented. Beyond the loss of on-site work, the market is unable to reverse the loss of many roles that are, and have been, taken over by artificial (computer) intelligence systems. The “business-as-usual” mentality that many have come to associate with pre-pandemic life (...)
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  36. A Citizen's Guide to Artificial Intelligence.James Maclaurin, John Danaher, John Zerilli, Colin Gavaghan, Alistair Knott, Joy Liddicoat & Merel Noorman - 2021 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    A concise but informative overview of AI ethics and policy. -/- Artificial intelligence, or AI for short, has generated a staggering amount of hype in the past several years. Is it the game-changer it's been cracked up to be? If so, how is it changing the game? How is it likely to affect us as customers, tenants, aspiring homeowners, students, educators, patients, clients, prison inmates, members of ethnic and sexual minorities, and voters in liberal democracies? Authored by experts in fields (...)
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  37. The impact of artificial intelligence on jobs and work in New Zealand.James Maclaurin, Colin Gavaghan & Alistair Knott - 2021 - Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Law Foundation.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a diverse technology. It is already having significant effects on many jobs and sectors of the economy and over the next ten to twenty years it will drive profound changes in the way New Zealanders live and work. Within the workplace AI will have three dominant effects. This report (funded by the New Zealand Law Foundation) addresses: Chapter 1 Defining the Technology of Interest; Chapter 2 The changing nature and value of work; Chapter 3 AI and (...)
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  38. Automation, Basic Income and Merit.Katharina Nieswandt - 2021 - In Keith Breen & Jean-Philippe Deranty (eds.), Whither Work? The Politics and Ethics of Contemporary Work. Routledge. pp. 102–119.
    A recent wave of academic and popular publications say that utopia is within reach: Automation will progress to such an extent and include so many high-skill tasks that much human work will soon become superfluous. The gains from this highly automated economy, authors suggest, could be used to fund a universal basic income (UBI). Today's employees would live off the robots' products and spend their days on intrinsically valuable pursuits. I argue that this prediction is unlikely to come true. Historical (...)
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  39. Group Fairness: Independence Revisited.Tim Räz - 2021 - In Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Andrew Smart (eds.), ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT 21). pp. 129–137.
  40. AI Winter.Steven Umbrello - 2021 - In Michael Klein & Philip Frana (eds.), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence: The Past, Present, and Future of Ai. Abc-Clio. pp. 7-8.
    Coined in 1984 at the American Association of Artificial intelligence (now the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence or AAAI), the various boom and bust periods of AI research and funding lead AI researchers Marvin Minsky and Roger Schank to refer to the then-impending bust period as an AI Winter. Canadian AI researcher Daniel Crevier describes the phenomenon as a domino effect that begins with cynicism in the AI research community that then trickles to mass media and finally to (...)
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  41. CG-Art: demystifying the anthropocentric bias of artistic creativity.Leonardo Arriagada - 2020 - Connection Science 32 (4):398-405.
    The following aesthetic discussion examines in a philosophical-scientific way the relationship between computation and artistic creativity. Currently, there is a criticism about the possible artistic creativity that an algorithm could have. Supporting the above, the term computer-generated art (CG-Art) defined by Margaret Boden would seem to have no exponents yet. Moreover, it has been pointed out that, rather than a matter of primitive technological development, CG-Art would have in its very foundations the inability to exist. This, because art is considered (...)
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  42. The rise of artificial intelligence and the crisis of moral passivity.Berman Chan - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (4):991-993.
    Set aside fanciful doomsday speculations about AI. Even lower-level AIs, while otherwise friendly and providing us a universal basic income, would be able to do all our jobs. Also, we would over-rely upon AI assistants even in our personal lives. Thus, John Danaher argues that a human crisis of moral passivity would result However, I argue firstly that if AIs are posited to lack the potential to become unfriendly, they may not be intelligent enough to replace us in all our (...)
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  43. ヒューマノイドまたはAndroidは地球を破壊しますか? -「心を作成する方法」のレビュー (How to Create a mind) by Ray Kurzweil (2012) (レビュー改訂2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 地獄へようこそ : 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 145-157.
    数年前、私は本のタイトルから、あるいは少なくとも章のタイトルから、どのような哲学的な間違いが起こり、どのくらいの頻度で分かることができるところまで達しました。名目上の科学的な研究の場合、これらは主に哲 学的なワックスや作品の意味または長期的な意義に関する一般的な結論を引き出そうとする特定の章に制限される可能性があります-。しかし、通常、事実の科学的な問題は、これらの事実が何を意味するのかについて、哲 学的なちんぷんかんぷんと寛大に絡み合っています。ヴィトゲンシュタインが約80年前に科学的な問題と様々な言語ゲームによる記述の間で述べた明確な区別はめったに考慮されないので、1つは交互に科学に驚き、その 支離滅裂な分析に失望しています。だから、このボリュームです。 多かれ少なかれ私たちのような心を作るのであれば、合理性と思考の2つのシステム(二重プロセス理論)の理解のための論理的な構造を持っている必要があります。このことについて哲学するならば、事実の科学的問題と 、問題となっている文脈における言語の仕組みの哲学的問題と、還元主義とサイエンティズムの落とし穴を避ける方法の区別を理解する必要がありますが、カーツワイルは、ほとんどの行動学生と同様に、ほとんど手がかり がない。彼はモデル、理論、概念、そして説明したいという衝動に魅了されていますが、ヴィトゲンシュタインは、私たちが記述する必要があり、理論、概念などは、明確なテストを持っている限り価値のある言語(言語ゲ ーム)を使用する方法にすぎないことを示しました(明確な真実主義者、またはジョン・サール(AIの最も有名な批評家)が言うのが好きです。私は最近の著作でこれに関するスタートを提供しようとしました。 現代の2つのシス・エムスの見解から人間の行動のための包括的な最新の枠組みを望む人は、私の著書「ルートヴィヒ・ヴィトゲンシュタインとジョン・サールの第2回(2019)における哲学、心理学、ミンと言語の論 理的構造」を参照することができます。私の著作の多くにご興味がある人は、運命の惑星における「話す猿--哲学、心理学、科学、宗教、政治―記事とレビュー2006-2019 第3回(2019)」と21世紀4日(2019年)の自殺ユートピア妄想st Century 4th ed (2019)などを見ることができます。 .
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  44. 民主主義は自殺です-アメリカと世界のための葬儀スピーチ(2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 地獄へようこそ : 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 277-323.
    アメリカと世界は、過去1世紀の人口過剰な人口増加から崩壊し、現在は第3世界の人々のために崩壊しています。資源の消費と40億ca.2100の追加は、産業文明を崩壊させ、驚異的な規模で飢餓、病気、暴力と戦 争をもたらすでしょう。地球は毎年表土の少なくとも1%を失うので、2100に近づくにつれて、その食糧栽培能力のほとんどはなくなりました。何十億人もの人が死んで、核戦争は確実です。アメリカでは、これは大規 模な移民と移民の生殖によって、民主主義によって可能になった虐待と相まって、非常に加速されています。堕落した人間性は、民主主義と多様性の夢を犯罪と貧困の悪夢に変えます。中国は、利己主義を制限する独裁政権 を維持する限り、アメリカと世界を圧倒し続けるだろう。崩壊の根本的な原因は、私たちの生来の心理学が現代世界に適応できないことであり、人々は無関係な人を共通の利益を持っているかのように扱う。人権の考え方は 、左翼が第三世界の母性によって地球の無慈悲な破壊から注意を引くために促進する邪悪なファンタジーです。これは、基本的な生物学と心理学の無知に加えて、民主的な社会を支配する部分的に教育を受けた人々のソーシ ャルエンジニアリングの妄想につながります。一人の人を助けた場合、誰かに危害を加える人はいませんが、無料のランチはなく、誰もが消費するアイテムが修復を超えて地球を破壊することを理解している人はほとんどい ません。その結果、至る所の社会政策は持続不可能であり、利己主義に対する厳格な統制なしに、すべての社会が一つ一つ無政府状態または独裁に崩壊する。最も基本的な事実は、ほとんど言及されていないが、貧困層のか なりの割合を貧困から引き上げ、そこに留めるのに十分な資源がアメリカや世界に存在しないことである。これを行う試みは、アメリカを破産させ、世界を破壊することです。私たちの遺伝的品質と同様に、食料を生産する 地球の能力は毎日低下します。そして今、いつものように、貧しい人々の最大の敵は他の貧しい人々であり、金持ちではありません。劇的かつ即時の変化がなければ、アメリカの崩壊や民主主義システムに続く国を防ぐ望み はありません。.
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  45. Transhumanism as a New Social Movement.Fabio Tollon - 2020 - Metapsychology Online Reviews.
    In his engaging book, James MacFarlane details the emergence of Technological Human Enhancement Advocacy (THEA) and provides a detailed ethnographic account of this phenomenon. Specifically, he aims to outline how transhumanism, as a specific offshoot of THEA, has “come to represent an enduring set of techno-optimistic ideas surrounding the future of humanity, with its advocates seeking to transcend limits of the body and mind according to an unwavering Enlightenment-derived faith in science, reason and individual freedom” (pg. 3).
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  46. Long-Term Trajectories of Human Civilization.Seth D. Baum, Stuart Armstrong, Timoteus Ekenstedt, Olle Häggström, Robin Hanson, Karin Kuhlemann, Matthijs M. Maas, James D. Miller, Markus Salmela, Anders Sandberg, Kaj Sotala, Phil Torres, Alexey Turchin & Roman V. Yampolskiy - 2019 - Foresight 21 (1):53-83.
    Purpose This paper aims to formalize long-term trajectories of human civilization as a scientific and ethical field of study. The long-term trajectory of human civilization can be defined as the path that human civilization takes during the entire future time period in which human civilization could continue to exist. -/- Design/methodology/approach This paper focuses on four types of trajectories: status quo trajectories, in which human civilization persists in a state broadly similar to its current state into the distant future; catastrophe (...)
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  47. Ethics of identity in the time of big data.James Brusseau - 2019 - First Monday 24 (5-6):00-11.
    Compartmentalizing our distinct personal identities is increasingly difficult in big data reality. Pictures of the person we were on past vacations resurface in employers’ Google searches; LinkedIn which exhibits our income level is increasingly used as a dating web site. Whether on vacation, at work, or seeking romance, our digital selves stream together. One result is that a perennial ethical question about personal identity has spilled out of philosophy departments and into the real world. Ought we possess one, unified identity (...)
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  48. What to Do When Privacy Is Gone.James Brusseau - 2019 - In D. E. Wittkower (ed.), Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings. Old Dominion. pp. 1 - 8.
    Today’s ethics of privacy is largely dedicated to defending personal information from big data technologies. This essay goes in the other direction; it considers the struggle to be lost, and explores two strategies for living after privacy is gone. First, total exposure embraces privacy’s decline, and then contributes to the process with transparency. All personal information is shared without reservation. The resulting ethics is explored through a big data version of Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine thought experiment. Second, transient existence responds (...)
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  49. Технологические предпосылки неразличимости человека и его компьютерной имитации.Albert Efimov - 2019 - Искусственные Общества 10.
    In the article, the author analyzes the problems of human-computer communication in the context of artificial intelligence, augmented reality and a Turing methodology for comparing the capabilities of artificial and natural intelligence in a dialogue. It is argued that the tool with which the computer and humans communicate is of no less importance than the computer program with which the dialogue is conducted. As an example of the implementation of such visualization, the project “E.LENA” of a digital television anchor created (...)
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  50. Computational beliefs.Jumbly Grindrod - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-22.
    In this paper, I outline and investigate the notion of computational beliefs: beliefs formed on the basis of a deliverance from a machine learning algorithm. Given the increased usage of such algorithms through smart devices, such beliefs are becoming increasingly common in everyday life. First, I argue that such beliefs can be successful by outlining particular examples that possess epistemic properties taken to be indicative of successful beliefs. I then outline how computational beliefs are best understood as a form of (...)
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