||The topic of Animal Minds is a broad interdisciplinary area with contributions by philosophers, psychologists, behavioral biologists, neuroscientists, and anthropologists. Because the notion of "mind" predates science and because the scientific definition of "cognition" is itself contested, the exact range of capacities attributable to animals and capable of empirical investigation is also contested, but these capacities include general reasoning, reasoning in specific domains such as causal inference or social hierarchies, tool use, problem solving, communicative and proto-linguistic abilities, episodic and semantic memory, spatial navigation (including cognitive maps), metacognition, self-recognition and self-awareness, and various capacities related to social cognition such as "mind reading" or "theory of mind", imitation and emulation. Questions about the existence, distribution and forms of animal consciousness, along with feelings, emotions and affective states such as pain, are also debated in this area. All of these topics also bear on the moral status of animals, both as subjects of moral concern and possibly as moral agents themselves. Comparative approaches to animal mind and cognition have contributed importantly to debates about evolution.