The organic-rich Lower Silurian Longmaxi and Upper Ordovician Wufeng Shale is one of the most important marine shale gas plays in southern China, with relatively high thermal maturity and complex structural evolution. The delineation of the Jiaoshiba shale gas play has been highly successful for the LSLUOWS in the Fuling area of southeastern Sichuan Basin. The drilling targets the basal part of the LSLUOWS, where the approximately 38–45 m of organic-rich section corresponds to a maturity range around 2.2%–3.0% Ro, with (...) high brittle mineral content. The produced shale gas displays a clear reversal in the stable carbon isotopes. The shale gas play zone is between the overlain mudstone in the Middle-Upper Longmaxi Formation and the underlain Upper Ordovician tight limestone in the Jiancaogou Fm. The shale gas reservoir is overpressured, with an average pressure coefficient of 1.55. From December 2013 to late 2014, results of production tests determined relatively stable pressure and production curves. Fifty prolific gas wells have been completed to date in the Jiaoshiba Shale Gas Field in Fuling. Preliminary study revealed several characteristics of this structurally complex shale play that are distinctly different from those in the United States, including an anticlinal structure with mild deformation, abundant free gas, and very short gas migration through microfractures, the natural fracture network formed by the two fault systems, and the slip parallel to the layer in the basal LSLUOWS. Movement along strike-slip faults has gone through up into the Quaternary, which is considered to be a significant factor in the establishment and preservation of the overpressured region in the LSLUOWS. (shrink)
The prediction of seismic reservoirs in marine carbonate areas in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is very challenging because the target zone is deeply buried, with multiphase tectonic movements, complex diagenesis, and low porosity, and the incident angle of the seismic data is finite. We developed reliable hydrocarbon indicators of a marine carbonate deposit based on prestack elastic impedance and well observations. Although the hydrocarbon indicators can be calculated from elastic parameters, the inversion for EI-driven elastic attributes is usually unstable. (...) To constrain the inversion process, we discovered a new strategy to recover the elastic properties from EIs within a Bayesian framework. We applied the strategy to a carbonate reef identified at the center of a study line based on the geologic context and the seismic reflection patterns. We then used rock-physics analyses to classify the lithologies and the reservoir at a well location. Rock-physics modeling quantified the hydrocarbon sensitivity of the elastic attributes. Fluid substitution was used to investigate the effects of pore fluids on the elastic properties. A comparison of two synthetic amplitude-versus-angle responses with real seismic data showed that the reservoir was gas charged. Using well-based crossplot analyses, reliable direct hydrocarbon indicators can be constructed for a deeply buried gas reservoir and were effective for interpretation in an area of marine carbonates in the Sichuan Basin. (shrink)
Qingping åæ¸ å¹³ has published a series of articles criticizing Confucian ethics in its modern context (see various articles by Liu), which has drawn the attention of many scholars. My friends and I have debated with him and his allies on this issue (See Guo 2002, Yang Haiwen 2002, Yang Zebo 2003, 2004a, 2004b, Ding 2003, 2005a, 2005b, Gong 2004, Guo and Gong 2004, and Wen 2005). Most of the important articles in the debate are now collected in a volume (...) I edited, A Collection of Contentions about Confucian Ethics: Focusing on the Mutual Concealment among Family Members (Guo 2005 [ed.]). In the following, I attempt to respond to some of Liuâs criticisms of Confucian ethics. (shrink)
Facing an increasingly competitive market, enterprises need correct decisions to solve operational problems in a timely manner to maintain their competitive advantages. In this context, insufficient information may lead to an overfitting phenomenon in general mathematical modeling methods, making it difficult to ensure good analytical performance. Therefore, it is important for enterprises to be able to effectively analyze and make predictions using small data sets. Although various approaches have been developed to solve the problem of prediction, their application is often (...) limited by insufficient observations. To further enforce the effectiveness of data uncertainty processing, this study proposed an aggregating prediction model for management decision analysis using small data sets. Compared with six popular approaches, the results from the experiments show that the proposed method can effectively deal with the small data set prediction problem and is thus an appropriate decision analysis tool for managers. (shrink)
This study purposed to provide a bibliometric overview of child language research from 1900 to 2021 and identify major trends in CL. A total of 48,453 research articles related to the CL were identified from the Web of Science. Co-authorship, co-word, and co-citation analysis was conducted by using VOSviewer and CiteSpace. The following was analyzed: annual distribution of related papers; related disciplines; mainstream journals; geographical and institutional distribution; hot topics; keyword burst detection; and co-citation analysis of journals, authors, and references. (...) Results showed that, under the impact of new empirical methods and new theories, the field of CL is undergoing great changes. Research hotspot and the research trends mainly concentrated on autism spectrum disorder, school readiness, oral language, reading comprehension, exposure, bilingualism, vocabulary, input, skills, kindergarten, cochlear implants, and intervention. More and more pieces of research focus on the individual difference in CL development and the importance of intervention in language education by typically developing children and some children with disabilities or language disorders. Besides, child second language acquisition also attracted a lot of attention. This bibliometric analysis is of great reference significance for researchers to understand the progress and discipline development trend in this field. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThe perspective on zhi 知 is often identified as a key distinction between the Zhuangzi 莊子 and its most famous commentator, Guo Xiang 郭象. Many scholars who recognize this distinction observe that zhi almost always has negative connotations in Guo Xiang’s writing, whereas certain types of knowledge can be positive in the Zhuangzi In this way, Guo Xiang’s comments on zhi seem to stray from the ‘original meaning’ of the Zhuangzi, and are often dismissed as inaccurate mis-readings, imbued with mysticism (...) and relativism. However, by taking into consideration some aspects of Guo Xiang’s socio-historical context, and the larger structure of his complex philosophical system, we find a project quite distinct from that of the Zhuangzi. Like many other Wei-Jin period thinkers, Guo aims bridging some of the gaps the Daoist classic creates between itself and the Confucian tradition. This exposes Guo Xiang’s first goal, which,... (shrink)
This book discusses issues like the characteristics of Chinese cultural spirit, life wisdom of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, the management wisdom of traditional Chinese culture, features of Chinese philosophy, as well as the definition of guoxue, or Chinese studies. Referring to previous research, the author defines the characteristics of the traditional Chinese cultural spirit as creating harmony amid diversity and viewing the outside world with a broad mind; being vigorous and self-motivated with tenacious vitality; taking benevolence and righteousness as supreme (...) and being independent; considering people as the basis of the nation; thinking systematically and dialectically; and being pragmatic and thrifty. This book is beneficial to studies on cultural awareness, civilization comparison, as well as civilization exchange. (shrink)
The present article illustrates the well-known affinity between Whitehead’s process philosophy and Chinese thought by mapping the category of the ultimate and the categories of existence in Whitehead’s categoreal scheme onto the Taiji and Bagua diagrams as developed in The Book of Changes, or I Ching. The Taiji-Bagua diagrams are models of organic unity that provide a framework and structure to better understand the category of the ultimate and the categories of existence—particularly how these categories are related to each other. (...) They illustrate more clearly the coherent nature of Whitehead’s speculative philosophy as stated in Process and Reality. (shrink)
ABSTRACT There are three competing theories to account for our affective responses to fictional events. The proponents of imagination + i-desire argue that the alternative accounts imply that consumers of fiction are irrational. In Imagination, Desire and Rationality, Spaulding challenges this claim and argues that the imagination + desire and desire + desire accounts do not imply that consumers of fiction are irrational. In this paper, I attempt to rebut Spaulding’s arguments.
Huanxian area is in the west of the Ordos Basin and contains a widely distributed Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone. Due to the lack of a systematic summary of the influencing factors of the Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone in this location, oilfield engineers have not established a logging rapid identification method, increasing the complexity of oilfield exploration and development. Therefore, we reveal the main influencing factors and propose a corresponding logging identification method. Through a groundwater chemical composition test, phase permeability experiment, (...) cast thin-section analysis, seismic data, and logging data, we have obtained the groundwater salinity, irreducible water saturation, clay mineral content, tectonic amplitude, and resistivity and apparent resistivity index of sandstone. The results of the correlation analysis indicated that the groundwater salinity is the main control factor for the development of the Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone in the study area, whereas other factors are secondary influencing factors. We have created a crossplot for groundwater salinity versus sandstone resistivity to identify the Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone based on clarifying the main control factor. The identification accuracy of this crossplot has reached approximately 65% through oil testing conclusions in the study area. To further improve the application, we have replaced sandstone resistivity with an apparent resistivity index in the crossplot. As a result, we have improved the identification accuracy of the Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone to more than 80%, which can meet the production demand. The results of this study can provide technical support for the exploration and development of the Jurassic low-resistivity pay zone, which is significant for optimizing various oil and gas resource production structures and coproduction methods in this location. (shrink)
This review explored the investigations on the role of teacher immediacy in English as a Foreign Language learners’ foreign language enjoyment. Earlier investigations have proved that teacher immediacy, such as posture, body language, vocal variety, gestures, and smile, can significantly affect learners’ positive emotions like foreign language enjoyment. It means that teachers should try both to control the feelings of their learners and manage their feelings to enhance enjoyment among learners. Moreover, studies have shown that teacher immediacy is significantly related (...) to learner motivation which is a basis for increasing foreign language enjoyment among learners. However, specific strategies can be employed to increase learner motivation, which in return increases learner foreign language enjoyment. Furthermore, the study presented the implications and future directions of this line of research for different people, such as EFL teachers, teacher educators, and foreign language scholars. The ideas can improve their awareness of teacher-student relationships, in particular, teacher immediacy and its role in learners’ foreign language enjoyment. (shrink)
Editor’sGuo Qiyong is one of China's leading scholars of Confucianism, and in this essay proposes a distinctive way of thinking about Mainland New Confucianism that is notable for excluding Jiang Qing, Chen Ming, and some other self-identified Mainland New Confucians. Guo says that the fundamental political goal of all New Confucians has been “liberalism”; he argues that values like democracy and human rights can be both universally shared and yet retain distinctive, local differentiations.
The representatives of modern Neo-Confucianism all greatly value Yi Zhuan and regard it as one of their spiritual resources, and give their own creative interpretations and transformations. Xiong Shili's ontological-cosmological theory takes "qian yuan" as its center; Ma Yifu has a theory of ontology-cultivation centered on "nature-principle"; Fang Dongmei has a metaphysics of production and reproduction; Mou Zongsan takes the view of "completely knowing the fathomless and understanding transformation" as a moral metaphysics; and in Tang Junyi there is a theory (...) of the harmony of doctrines on Heaven and man in which "the knowledge of divine understanding" is its key concept. They employ modern philosophical concepts and thinking to illustrate the cosmology, ontology, theory of life, theory of human nature, theory of spiritual worlds, axiology and their connections in Zhou Yi. They affirm that the characteristics of Chinese philosophy that are different from Western philosophy consist in a naturalist view of vital life, a harmonious view of totality, an axiological view that values exist in natural universe and the world of fact, the pursuit of Good and Beauty, and intuitive experience of inner world. (shrink)
Guo, Xiaodong 郭曉東, Comprehending Benevolence and Controlling Human Proclivity : A Study of Cheng Mingdao’s Philosophy from the Perspective of Moral Cultivation 識仁與定性 : 功夫論視域下的程明道哲學研究 Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11712-009-9143-8 Authors Tze-ki Hon, State University of New York, SUNY-Geneseo History Department 1 College Circle Geneseo NY 14454 USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009 Journal Volume Volume 9 Journal Issue Volume 9, Number 1.
The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...) people can implicitly learn to discriminate inversions from non-inversions, presenting a challenge to existing models of implicit learning. (shrink)
Consumers play an important role as one of the main actors in food safety social co-governance. To create a pattern of food safety social co-governance, the active and effective participation of consumers is critical. To encourage consumers to participate in food safety social co-governance voluntarily and positively, we attempted to develop and preliminarily validate a multidimensional questionnaire on consumer psychological capital that could be used to measure the degree of consumer participation in food safety social co-governance. The aim of the (...) initial sample and test sample 2 was to investigate the factor structure of a preliminary measure of consumer psychological capital. A 4-factor model with 23 items explained 61.05% of the total variance in item scores. The aim of test sample 3 was to measure the retest reliability. Test sample 4 was randomly allocated to the modeling sample and validation sample to verify questionnaire reliability and validity. Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and the internal inconsistency coefficients of the questionnaire were assessed in the modeling sample. While processing CFA, we deleted 9 items with small standardized factor loadings. The remaining 14 items in the final revised 4-factor model included self-efficacy, resilience, hope, and optimism. The fit indices of the revised four-factor model and second-order factor model in the modeling sample revealed an acceptable model fit. The convergent validity and discriminant validity of the revised model were good and acceptable, respectively. A cross-validation procedure confirmed the appropriateness of the revised four-factor model and second-order factor model in the validation sample. The cross-validation results confirmed that the fit indices of the revised four-factor model fitted the data well and the second-order factor model in the validation sample reached acceptable values. We concluded that the questionnaire developed in this study had good reliability and stable and acceptable construct validity. It could provide a theoretical basis for measuring psychological capital in food safety co-governance. (shrink)