Results for 'Elliott Lieb'

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  1.  64
    Probabilistic Coherence and Proper Scoring Rules.Joel Predd, Robert Seiringer, Elliott Lieb, Daniel Osherson, H. Vincent Poor & Sanjeev Kulkarni - 2009 - IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 55 (10):4786-4792.
    We provide self-contained proof of a theorem relating probabilistic coherence of forecasts to their non-domination by rival forecasts with respect to any proper scoring rule. The theorem recapitulates insights achieved by other investigators, and clarifi es the connection of coherence and proper scoring rules to Bregman divergence.
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  2.  10
    I–Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):237-280.
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  3.  27
    An Interview by Irwin C. Lieb: Charles Hartshorne's Recollections of Editing the Peirce Papers.Irwin C. Lieb & Charles Hartshorne - 1970 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 6 (3/4):149 - 159.
  4.  73
    Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science.Elliott Sober - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent (...)
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  5.  29
    Explanation in Biology: Let's Razor Ockham's Razor: Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:73-93.
    When philosophers discuss the topic of explanation, they usually have in mind the following question: given the beliefs one has and some proposition that one wishes to explain, which subset of the beliefs constitutes an explanation of the target proposition? That is, the philosophical ‘problem of explanation’ typically has bracketed the issue of how one obtains the beliefs; they are taken as given. The problem of explanation has been the problem of understanding the relation ‘x explains y’. Since Hempel did (...)
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  6.  23
    Replies to Kristin Andrews’s, Gordon Belot’s, and Patrick Forber’s Reviews: Elliott Sober: Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, 322pp, $29.99 PB, $99.99 HB.Elliott Sober - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):393-403.
  7.  16
    Reconstructing The Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference.Elliott Sober - 1988 - MIT Press.
    Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and help resolve the vexing methodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether human beings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case for considering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluating taxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships. For the past two decades, evolutionists have been vigorously debating the appropriate methods that should be used in systematics, the field that (...)
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  8. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Elliott Sober - 1984 - University of Chicago Press.
    The Nature of Selection is a straightforward, self-contained introduction to philosophical and biological problems in evolutionary theory. It presents a powerful analysis of the evolutionary concepts of natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and clarifies controversial issues concerning altruism, group selection, and the idea that organisms are survival machines built for the good of the genes that inhabit them. "Sober's is the answering philosophical voice, the voice of a first-rate philosopher and a knowledgeable student of contemporary evolutionary theory. His book merits (...)
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  9.  5
    Outline of Greek Art. By J. R. Elliott. Pp. 107; 12 Pls. New Zealand: Whitcombe and Tombs, Ltd.1939. 7s. 6d.A. D. Trendall & J. R. Elliott - 1940 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 60:103-104.
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  10.  25
    Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual.Elliott Sober - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Ockham's razor, the principle of parsimony, states that simpler theories are better than theories that are more complex. It has a history dating back to Aristotle and it plays an important role in current physics, biology, and psychology. The razor also gets used outside of science - in everyday life and in philosophy. This book evaluates the principle and discusses its many applications. Fascinating examples from different domains provide a rich basis for contemplating the principle's promises and perils. It is (...)
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  11. The impossibility of a satisfactory population prospect axiology (independently of Finite Fine-Grainedness).Elliott Thornley - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (11):3671-3695.
    Arrhenius’s impossibility theorems purport to demonstrate that no population axiology can satisfy each of a small number of intuitively compelling adequacy conditions. However, it has recently been pointed out that each theorem depends on a dubious assumption: Finite Fine-Grainedness. This assumption states that there exists a finite sequence of slight welfare differences between any two welfare levels. Denying Finite Fine-Grainedness makes room for a lexical population axiology which satisfies all of the compelling adequacy conditions in each theorem. Therefore, Arrhenius’s theorems (...)
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  12. Philosophy of Biology.Elliott Sober - 1993 - Westview Press.
    Perhaps because of it implications for our understanding of human nature, recent philosophy of biology has seen what might be the most dramatic work in the philosophies of the ”special” sciences. This drama has centered on evolutionary theory, and in the second edition of this textbook, Elliott Sober introduces the reader to the most important issues of these developments. With a rare combination of technical sophistication and clarity of expression, Sober engages both the higher level of theory and the (...)
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  13. Introduction to Mathematical Logic.Elliott Mendelson - 1964 - Princeton: Van Nostrand.
    The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in ...
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  14. A Dilemma for Lexical and Archimedean Views in Population Axiology.Elliott Thornley - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    According to lexical views in population axiology, there are good lives x and y such that some number of lives equally good as x is not worse than any number of lives equally good as y. Such views can avoid the Repugnant Conclusion without violating Transitivity or Separability, but they imply a dilemma: either some good life is better than any number of slightly worse lives, or else the ‘at least as good as’ relation on populations is radically incomplete, in (...)
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  15. Critical Levels, Critical Ranges, and Imprecise Exchange Rates in Population Axiology.Elliott Thornley - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    According to Critical-Level Views in population axiology, an extra life improves a population only if that life’s welfare exceeds some fixed ‘critical level.’ An extra life at the critical level leaves the new population equally good as the original. According to Critical-Range Views, an extra life improves a population only if that life’s welfare exceeds some fixed ‘critical range.’ An extra life within the critical range leaves the new population incommensurable with the original. -/- In this paper, I sharpen some (...)
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  16.  74
    Deterministic Chaos and the Evolution of Meaning.Elliott O. Wagner - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):547-575.
    Common wisdom holds that communication is impossible when messages are costless and communicators have totally opposed interests. This article demonstrates that such wisdom is false. Non-convergent dynamics can sustain partial information transfer even in a zero-sum signalling game. In particular, I investigate a signalling game in which messages are free, the state-act payoffs resemble rock–paper–scissors, and senders and receivers adjust their strategies according to the replicator dynamic. This system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos and trajectories do not converge to equilibria. This persistent (...)
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  17.  27
    The Design Argument.Elliott Sober - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element analyzes the various forms that design arguments for the existence of God can take, but the main focus is on two such arguments. The first concerns the complex adaptive features that organisms have. Creationists who advance this argument contend that evolution by natural selection cannot be the right explanation. The second design argument - the argument from fine-tuning - begins with the fact that life could not exist in our universe if the constants found in the laws of (...)
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  18.  73
    From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy.Elliott Sober - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Elliott Sober is one of the leading philosophers of science and is a former winner of the Lakatos Prize, the major award in the field. This new collection of essays will appeal to a readership that extends well beyond the frontiers of the philosophy of science. Sober shows how ideas in evolutionary biology bear in significant ways on traditional problems in philosophy of mind and language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Amongst the topics addressed are psychological egoism, solipsism, and the interpretation (...)
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  19.  9
    Naive Set Theory.Axiomatic Set Theory.Elliott Mendelson - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (15):512-513.
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  20.  9
    Current Controversies in Values and Science.Kevin C. Elliott & Daniel Steel (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    _Current Controversies in Values and Science_ asks ten philosophers to debate five questions that are driving contemporary work in this important area of philosophy of science. The book is perfect for the advanced student, building up her knowledge of the foundations of the field while also engaging its most cutting-edge questions. Introductions and annotated bibliographies for each debate, preliminary descriptions of each chapter, study questions, and a supplemental guide to further controversies involving values in science help provide clearer and richer (...)
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  21.  14
    From “Longshot” to “Fantasy”: Obligations to Pediatric Patients and Families When Last-Ditch Medical Efforts Fail.Elliott Mark Weiss & Autumn Fiester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (1):3-11.
    Clinicians at quaternary centers see part of their mission as providing hope when others cannot. They tend to see sicker patients with more complex disease processes. Part of this mission is offering longshot treatment modalities that are unlikely to achieve their stated goal, but conceivably could. When patients embark on such a treatment plan, it may fail. Often treatment toward an initial goal continues beyond the point at which such a goal is feasible. We explore the progression of care from (...)
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  22.  41
    Conventional Semantic Meaning in Signalling Games with Conflicting Interests.Elliott O. Wagner - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):751-773.
    Lewis signalling games are often used to explain how it is possible for simple agents to develop systems of conventional semantic meaning. In these games, all players obtain identical payoffs in every outcome. This is an unrealistic payoff structure, but it is often employed because it is thought that semantic meaning will not emerge if interests conflict. Here it is shown that not only is conventional meaning possible when interests conflict, but it is the most likely outcome in a finite (...)
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  23.  42
    Communication and Structured Correlation.Elliott Wagner - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):377-393.
    Philosophers and social scientists have recently turned to Lewis sender–receiver games to provide an account of how lexical terms can acquire meaning through an evolutionary process. However, the evolution of meaning is contingent on both the particular sender–receiver game played and the choice of evolutionary dynamic. In this paper I explore some differences between models that presume an infinitely large and randomly mixed population and models in which a finite number of agents communicate with their neighbors in a social network. (...)
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  24.  40
    Evolving to Divide the Fruits of Cooperation.Elliott O. Wagner - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (1):81-94.
    Cooperation and the allocation of common resources are core features of social behavior. Games idealizing both interactions have been studied separately. But here, rather than examining the dynamics of the individual games, the interactions are combined so that players first choose whether to cooperate, and then, if they jointly cooperate, they bargain over the fruits of their cooperation. It is shown that the dynamics of the combined game cannot simply be reduced to the dynamics of the individual games and that (...)
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  25.  61
    Reply to Alexander Rosenberg's Review of The Nature of Selection.Elliott Sober - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (1):77-88.
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  26.  26
    Agent-Based Models of Dual-Use Research Restrictions.Elliott Wagner & Jonathan Herington - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (2):377-399.
    Scientific research that could cause grave harm, either through accident or intentional malevolence, is known as dual-use research. Recent high-profile cases of dual-use research in the life sciences have led to debate about the extent to which restrictions on the conduct and dissemination of such research may impede scientific progress. We adapt formal models of scientific networks to systematically explore the effects that different regulatory schemes may have on a community’s ability to learn about the world. Our results suggest that, (...)
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  27.  35
    Author Responds to "Review of Carl Elliott, Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream" by Paul Root Wolpe.Carl Elliott - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):38-38.
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  28. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less A D Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm R. Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  29. Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism.Elliott Sober - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383.
    Ernst Mayr has argued that Darwinian theory discredited essentialist modes of thought and replaced them with what he has called "population thinking". In this paper, I characterize essentialism as embodying a certain conception of how variation in nature is to be explained, and show how this conception was undermined by evolutionary theory. The Darwinian doctrine of evolutionary gradualism makes it impossible to say exactly where one species ends and another begins; such line-drawing problems are often taken to be the decisive (...)
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  30. Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don 'Ts'.Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober - 2007 - In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Thinking About Causes: From Greek Philosophy to Modern physics. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 235-264.
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann’s experimental arguments against the inheritance of acquired characters. This conception of how epiphenomenalism ought to be developed helps clarify some mistakes in two recent epiphenomenalist positions – Jaegwon Kim’s (1993) arguments against mental causation, and the arguments developed by Walsh (2000), Walsh, Lewens, and Ariew (2002), and Matthen and Ariew (2002) that natural selection (...)
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  31.  29
    Imagination in the Experience of Art: R. K. Elliott.R. K. Elliott - 1972 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 6:88-105.
    In this paper I shall not be concerned with the imagination as insight, but only with certain aspects of ‘magical’ imagination, that division of the concept which centres upon the notion of an image. In the Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein makes the extremely interesting remark that when a printed triangle is seen, for instance, as a mountain, it is as if an image came into contact, and for a time remained in contact, with the visual impression. He goes on to say (...)
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  32.  20
    The Aim of This Chapter is to Help Readers Understand Their Responsibilities as Persons and as Journalists, and to Provide Them with a Framework for Addressing the Ethical Issues That Routinely Arise in the Practice of Journalism. Our Approach, Which is Informed by the Basic Tenets of Western Ethical Tradi-Tions and Which Borrows From Ozar's and Elliott's Previous Works, Develops From the Abstract to the Concrete. 1 That is, We Move From a Discussion of the Purpose of Journalism, and the Specific Values ... [REVIEW]Deni Elliott - 2010 - In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. pp. 9.
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  33.  20
    Emotionality and Perceptual Defense.Elliott McGinnies - 1949 - Psychological Review 56 (5):244-251.
  34.  99
    Research on Fair Trade Consumption—A Review.Veronika A. Andorfer & Ulf Liebe - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):415-435.
    An overview and assessment of the current state of research on individual consumption of Fair Trade (FT) products is given on the basis of 51 journal publications. Arranging this field of ethical consumption research according to key research objectives, theoretical approaches, methods, and study population, the review suggests that most studies apply social psychological approaches focusing mainly on consumer attitudes. Fewer studies draw on economic approaches focusing on consumers’ willingness to pay ethical premia for FT products or sociological approaches relying (...)
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  35.  22
    A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2017 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how (...)
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  36. Simplicity.Elliott Sober - 1975 - Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
    Attempts to show that the simplicity of a hypothesis can be measured by attending to how well it answers certain kinds of questions.
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  37. The Multiple Realizability Argument Against Reductionism.Elliott Sober - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (4):542-564.
    Reductionism is often understood to include two theses: (1) every singular occurrence that the special sciences can explain also can be explained by physics; (2) every law in a higher-level science can be explained by physics. These claims are widely supposed to have been refuted by the multiple realizability argument, formulated by Putnam (1967, 1975) and Fodor (1968, 1975). The present paper criticizes the argument and identifies a reductionistic thesis that follows from one of the argument's premises.
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  38. Book Review: Journalistic Truth: An Essay Review by Deni Elliott[REVIEW]Deni Elliott - 1994 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (3):184 – 186.
     
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  39.  30
    Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology.Elliott Sober (ed.) - 1994 - The Mit Press. Bradford Books.
    Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the-chapters are ...
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  40. Romantische Liebe und die Freiheit zu gehen.Michael Kühler - 2019 - In Simone Dietz, Hannes Foth & Svenja Wiertz (eds.), Die Freiheit Zu Gehen: Ausstiegsoptionen in Politischen, Sozialen Und Existenziellen Kontexten. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 195-222.
    Dass wir romantische Liebesbeziehungen im Alltag freiwillig beenden können, indem wir beispielsweise aus der gemeinsamen Wohnung ausziehen oder gar den Kontakt gänzlich abbrechen, scheint eine Trivialität zu sein. Können wir uns aber auch frei entscheiden, nicht mehr zu lieben? Während die alltagspraktische Ebene „nur“ die Handlungsfreiheit liebender Personen betrifft, führt die Frage nach dem Lieben auf eine zweite, tieferliegende Ebene. Diese betrifft die Frage, inwiefern liebende Personen als autonom mit Blick auf ihr eigenes Lieben angesehen werden können, d. h. ob (...)
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  41.  16
    Newton's Early Metaphysics of Body: Impenetrability, Action at a Distance, and Essential Gravity.Elliott D. Chen - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 72:192-204.
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  42.  6
    Drinking Termination: Interactions Among Hydrational, Orogastric, and Behavioral Controls in Rats.Elliott M. Blass & Warren G. Hall - 1976 - Psychological Review 83 (5):356-374.
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  43. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Elliott Sober - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):397-399.
     
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  44.  14
    Liebe und Gerechtigkeit. Eine Ethik der Erkenntnis.Chiara Piazzesi - 2010 - Nietzsche Studien 39 (1):352-381.
    Der Problemrahmen des Konflikts zwischen Liebe und Gerechtigkeit beschäftigt Nietzsche von der zweiten Unzeitgemässen Betrachtung bis zu Also Sprach Zarathustra. Die aktuelle philosophische Debatte ist hauptsächlich auf soziale Gerechtigkeit forkussiert. Nietzsche geht aber darüber hinaus und setzt sich mit jenen Aspekten dieser fragestellung auseinander, die auf ihrem Verstädnis als ethisches Problem in der individuellen Einstellung zur Erkenntnis beruben. Die Spannung zwischen Liebe und Gerechtigkeit erscheint als Grundgestal des inneren Konflikts einer Lebensform, die dem Streben nach Erkenntnis Verpflichtet ist. in diesem (...)
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  45.  18
    The Experiences of Ethics Committee Members: Contradictions Between Individuals and Committees.L. Elliott & D. Hunter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):489-494.
    The current system of ethical review for medical research in the United Kingdom is changing from the current system involving large committees of 7–18 members reviewing every individual application to a system involving pre-review by small sub-committees of National Research Ethics Officers , who have a remit to approve studies if they believe there are no material ethical issues imposed by the research. The reliability of this new system depends on the reliability of the NREAs and in particular the ability (...)
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  46.  16
    Quine.Elliott Sober & Peter Hylton - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 74:237-299.
    [Elliott Sober] In 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism', Quine attacks the analytic/synthetic distinction and defends a doctrine that I call epistemological holism. Now, almost fifty years after the article's appearance, what are we to make of these ideas? I suggest that the philosophical naturalism that Quine did so much to promote should lead us to reject Quine's brief against the analytic/synthetic distinction; I also argue that Quine misunderstood Carnap's views on analyticity. As for epistemological holism, I claim that this thesis (...)
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  47.  7
    Liebe Als Prinzip Sozialer Einheit: Bedingungen Für Ihren Status Als Tugend Bei Aristoteles Und Thomas von Aquin.Falk Hamann - 2017 - In Winfried Rohr (ed.), Liebe – eine Tugend? Das Dilemma der modernen Ethik und der verdrängte Status der Liebe. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. pp. 147–68.
    Ein Verständnis der Caritas als Tugend ist nicht unabhängig davon möglich, wie der allgemeine Begriff menschlicher Liebe bestimmt wird. Im Rückgriff auf die aristotelische Behandlung der Freundschaft lässt sich zeigen, dass bereits die Liebe im zwischenmenschlichen Bereich Züge einer Tugend trägt. Von zentraler Bedeutung sind dabei vor allem zwei Akte der Freundschaft, Wohltätigkeit und Eintracht, welche ontologisch auf verschiedene Formen sozialer Einheit verweisen. Auf Grundlage des Begriffs der Freundschaftsliebe lässt sich die Caritas in ihrem Charakter als Tugend erhellen, nämlich insofern (...)
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  48.  6
    Comment: Well-Being Can Improve Health by Shaping Stress Appraisals.Elliott Kruse & Kate Sweeny - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (1):63-65.
    In this brief comment, we bring together two articles that appear in this special section. Jamieson et al. provide an overview of the biopsychosocial model of threat and challenge and suggest that stress-related arousal can be reappraised as a coping resource to facilitate challenge appraisals. Hernandez et al. review evidence for the link between well-being and health. We see a connection between these seemingly unrelated reviews: Well-being may improve health in part by shaping appraisals of stressors’ demands and appraisals of (...)
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  49.  29
    Journalistic Truth: An Essay Review by Deni Elliott.Deni Elliott - 1994 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (3):184 – 186.
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  50.  53
    Six Problems with Pharma-Funded Bioethics.Carl Elliott - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (1):125-129.
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