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David Hunter [94]David G. Hunter [11]D. Hunter [10]Daniel Hunter [7]
Dianne Hunter [4]David A. Hunter [4]Dan Hunter [3]Duncan Hunter [2]

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  1. Lacking, needing, and wanting.David Hunter - 2023 - Analytic Philosophy 64 (2):143-160.
    I offer a novel conception of the nature of wanting. According to it, wanting is lacking something one needs. Lacking is not a normative notion but needing is, and that is how goodness figures in to wanting. What a thing needs derives from what it is to be a good thing of its kind. In people, wanting is connected to both knowledge and the will. A person can know that she wants something and can act on that knowledge. When she (...)
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  2. Are Generational Welfare Trades Always Unjust?Walter Veit, Julian Savulescu, David Hunter, Brian D. Earp & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):70-72.
    In their thoughtful article, Malm and Navin (2020) raise concerns about a potentially unjust generational welfare tradeoff between children and adults when it comes to chicken pox. We share their c...
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  3. The Nature of Belief.David Hunter - forthcoming - In What is Belief?
    Philosophical accounts of the nature of belief, at least in the western tradition, are framed in large part by two ideas. One is that believing is a form of representing. The other is that a belief plays a causal role when a person acts on it. The standard picture of belief as a mental entity with representational properties and causal powers merges these two ideas. We are to think of beliefs as things that are true or false and that interact (...)
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  4. Research Exceptionalism.James Wilson & David Hunter - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):45-54.
    Research involving human subjects is much more stringently regulated than many other nonresearch activities that appear to be at least as risky. A number of prominent figures now argue that research is overregulated. We argue that the reasons typically offered to justify the present system of research regulation fail to show that research should be subject to more stringent regulation than other equally risky activities. However, there are three often overlooked reasons for thinking that research should be treated as a (...)
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  5. Alienated Belief.David Hunter - 2011 - Dialectica 65 (2):221-240.
    This paper argues that it is possible to knowingly believe something while judging that one ought not to believe it and (so) viewing the belief as manifesting a sort of failure. I offer examples showing that such ‘alienated belief’ has several potential sources. I contrast alienated belief with self-deception, incontinent (or akratic) belief and half-belief. I argue that the possibility of alienated belief is compatible with the so-called ‘transparency’ of first-person reflection on belief, and that the descriptive and expressive difficulties (...)
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  6. Understanding and belief.David Hunter - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):559-580.
    A natural view is that linguistic understanding is a source of justification or evidence: that beliefs about the meaning of a text or speech act are prima facie justified when based on states of understanding. Neglect of this view is largely due to the widely held assumption that understanding a text or speech act consists in knowledge or belief. It is argued that this assumption rests, in part, on confusing occurrent states of understanding and dispositions to understand. It is then (...)
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  7.  38
    Understanding and Belief.David Hunter - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):559-580.
    A natural view is that linguistic understanding is a source of justification or evidence: that beliefs about the meaning of a text or speech act are prima facie justified when based on states of understanding. Neglect of this view is largely due to the widely held assumption that understanding a text or speech act consists in knowledge or belief. It is argued that this assumption rests, in part, on confusing occurrent states of understanding and dispositions to understand. It is then (...)
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  8.  98
    On the relation between categorical and probabilistic belief.Daniel Hunter - 1996 - Noûs 30 (1):75-98.
  9.  41
    Proportional ethical review and the identification of ethical issues.D. Hunter - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4):241-245.
    Presently, there is a movement in the UK research governance framework towards what is referred to as proportional ethical review. Proportional ethical review is the notion that the level of ethical review and scrutiny given to a research project ought to reflect the level of ethical risk represented by that project. Relatively innocuous research should receive relatively minimal review and relatively risky research should receive intense scrutiny. Although conceptually attractive, the notion of proportional review depends on the possibility of effectively (...)
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  10. Directives for Knowledge and Belief.David Hunter - 2018 - In Daniel Whiting, Conor McHugh & Jonathan Way (eds.), Normativity: Epistemic and Practical. Oxford:
     
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  11.  70
    Precis of: On Believing (OUP 2022).David Hunter - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This is a précis of my book for an author-meets-critics session forthcoming in Inquiry. The commenters are Daniel Drucker, Miriam Schleifer McCormick, and Mark Richard.
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  12.  64
    On Believing: Being Right in a World of Possibilities.David A. Hunter - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Developing original accounts of the many aspects of belief, On Believing puts the believer at the heart of the story. Developing a novel account of the normativity of belief, Hunter argues that the ethics of belief concern how a believer ought to be positioned in a world of possibilities.
  13.  56
    Attitudes, Objects, and Norms: replies to Drucker, Schleifer McCormick, and Richard.David Hunter - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    These are my replies to comments on my book *On Believing* (OUP 2022) by Daniel Drucker, Miriam Schleifer McCormick, and Mark Richard.
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  14. Davidson on Practical Knowledge.David Hunter - 2015 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 3 (9).
    Did Donald Davidson agree with G.E.M. Anscombe that action requires a distinctive form of agential awareness? The answer is No, at least according to the standard interpretation of Davidson’s account of action. A careful study of Davidson’s early writings, however, reveals a much more subtle conception of the role of agential belief in action. While the role of the general belief in Davidson’s theory is familiar and has been much discussed, virtually no attention has been paid to the singular belief. (...)
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  15. Soames and widescopism.David Hunter - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 123 (3):231 - 241.
    Widescopism, as I call it, holds that names are synonymous with descriptions that are required to take wide scope over modal adverbs. Scott Soames has recently argued that Widescopism is false. He identifies an argument that is valid but which, he claims, a defender of Widescopism must say has true premises and a false conclusion. I argue, first, that a defender of Widescopism need not in fact say that the target arguments conclusion is false. Soames argument that she must confuses, (...)
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  16.  25
    The experiences of ethics committee members: contradictions between individuals and committees.L. Elliott & D. Hunter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):489-494.
    The current system of ethical review for medical research in the United Kingdom is changing from the current system involving large committees of 7–18 members reviewing every individual application to a system involving pre-review by small sub-committees of National Research Ethics Officers , who have a remit to approve studies if they believe there are no material ethical issues imposed by the research. The reliability of this new system depends on the reliability of the NREAs and in particular the ability (...)
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  17. Inference as a Mental Act.David Hunter - forthcoming - In Michael Brent (ed.), Mental Action.
    I will argue that a person is causally responsible for believing what she does. Through inference, she can sustain and change her perspective on the world. When she draws an inference, she causes herself to keep or to change her take on things. In a literal sense, she makes up her own mind as to how things are. And, I will suggest, she can do this voluntarily. It is in part because she is causally responsible for believing what she does (...)
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  18. Counterfactuals and newcomb's paradox.Daniel Hunter & Reed Richter - 1978 - Synthese 39 (2):249 - 261.
    In their development of causal decision theory, Allan Gibbard and William Harper advocate a particular method for calculating the expected utility of an action, a method based upon the probabilities of certain counterfactuals. Gibbard and Harper then employ their method to support a two-box solution to Newcomb’s paradox. This paper argues against some of Gibbard and Harper’s key claims concerning the truth-values and probabilities of counterfactuals involved in expected utility calculations, thereby disputing their analysis of Newcomb’s Paradox. If we are (...)
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  19.  10
    The Roles of Research Ethics Committees: Implications for Membership.David Hunter - 2007 - Research Ethics 3 (1):24-26.
    In this brief paper I intend to make some distinctions between the activities that research ethics committees are required to undertake as part of their role in protecting research participants. These functions are, identifying ethical issues and risks within research projects, providing advice on how to resolve these issues and risks without compromising the validity of the research and finally, when this cannot be achieved, deciding whether the research should still be allowed to go ahead. Distinguishing these distinct functions allows (...)
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  20.  11
    Lacking, needing, and wanting.David Hunter - 2023 - Analytic Philosophy 64 (2):143-160.
    I offer a novel conception of the nature of wanting. According to it, wanting is lacking something one needs. Lacking is not a normative notion but needing is, and that is how goodness figures in to wanting. What a thing needs derives from what it is to be a good thing of its kind. In people, wanting is connected to both knowledge and the will. A person can know that she wants something and can act on that knowledge. When she (...)
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  21.  12
    Lacking, needing, and wanting.David Hunter - 2023 - Analytic Philosophy 64 (2):143-160.
    I offer a novel conception of the nature of wanting. According to it, wanting is lacking something one needs. Lacking is not a normative notion but needing is, and that is how goodness figures in to wanting. What a thing needs derives from what it is to be a good thing of its kind. In people, wanting is connected to both knowledge and the will. A person can know that she wants something and can act on that knowledge. When she (...)
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  22.  23
    How to Object to Radically New Technologies on the Basis of Justice: The Case of Synthetic Biology.David Hunter - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (8):426-434.
    A recurring objection to the exploration, development and deployment of radical new technologies is based on their implications with regards to social justice. In this article, using synthetic biology as an example, I explore this line of objection and how we ought to think about justice in the context of the development and introduction of radically new technologies. I argue that contrary to popular opinion, justice rarely provides a reason not to investigate, develop and introduce radical new technologies, although it (...)
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  23.  47
    The ESRC research ethics framework and research ethics review at UK universities: rebuilding the Tower of Babel REC by REC.D. L. H. Hunter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (11):815-820.
    The history of the National Health Service research ethics system in the UK and some of the key drivers for its change into the present system are described. It is suggested that the key drivers were the unnecessary delay of research, the complexity of the array of processes and contradictions between research ethics committee (REC) decisions. It is then argued that the primary drivers for this change are and will be replicated by the systems of research ethics review being put (...)
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  24.  21
    A note on dimensions and factors.Edwina Rissland, Kevin Ashley, Marc Lauritsen, Patricia Hassett, Jc Smith, John Zeleznikow, Andrew Stranieri, Dan Hunter & George Vossos - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):65-77.
    In this short note, we discuss several aspectsof “dimensions” and the related constructof “factors”. We concentrate on those aspectsthat are relevant to articles in this specialissue, especially those dealing with the analysisof the wild animal cases discussed inBerman and Hafner's 1993 ICAIL article. We reviewthe basic ideas about dimensions,as used in HYPO, and point out differences withfactors, as used in subsequent systemslike CATO. Our goal is to correct certainmisconceptions that have arisen over the years.
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  25.  24
    Facebook emotional contagion experiment controversy.David Hunter & Nicholas Evans - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):2-3.
  26.  38
    Children, Gillick competency and consent for involvement in research.D. Hunter & B. K. Pierscionek - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):659-662.
    This paper looks at the issue of consent from children and whether the test of Gillick competency, applied in medical and healthcare practice, ought to extend to participation in research. It is argued that the relatively broad usage of the test of Gillick competency in the medical context should not be considered applicable for use in research. The question of who would and could determine Gillick competency in research raises further concerns relating to the training of the researcher to make (...)
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  27.  57
    The metaphysics of responsible believing.David Hunter - 2018 - Manuscrito 41 (4):255-285.
    Contemporary philosophy of mind has tended to make the believer disappear. In response, Matt Boyle and Pamela Hieronymi have argued that believing is an act or activity, not a mental state. I argue that this response fails to fully critique contemporary accounts of believing. Such accounts assume that states of believing are particulars; with semantic properties; that we attend to in reflection and act on in inference; and with a rich causal life of their own. Together, these assumptions leave no (...)
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  28. Knowledge and understanding.David Hunter - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (5):542–546.
    Some philosophical proposals seem to die hard. In a recent paper, Jason Stanley has worked to resurrect the description theory of reference, at least as it might apply to natural kind terms like ‘elm’ (Stanley, 1999). The theory’s founding idea is that to understand ‘elm’ one must know a uniquely identifying truth about elms. Famously, Hilary Putnam showed that ordinary users of ‘elm’ may understand it while lacking such knowledge, and may even be unable to distinguish elms from beeches (Putnam, (...)
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  29.  38
    Practical Reasoning and the First Person.David Hunter - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):677-700.
    I argue that while practical reasoning is essentially first personal it does not require having essentially first personal thoughts. I start with an example of good practical reasoning. Because there is debate about what practical reasoning is, I discuss how different sides in those debates can accommodate my example. I then consider whether my example involves essentially first personal thoughts. It is not always clear what philosophers who would claim that it must have in mind. I identify two features of (...)
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  30.  79
    Guidance and Belief.David Hunter - 2009 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (S1):63-90.
  31.  91
    Act utilitarianism and dynamic deliberation.Daniel Hunter - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (1):1 - 35.
    Coordination problems, problems in which each agent's expected utility depends upon what other agents do, pose a problem for act utilitarianism. When the agents are act utilitarians and know of each other that they are so, they seem unable to achieve optimal outcomes in certain coordination problems. I examine various ways the act utilitarian might attempt to solve this problem, where act utilitarianism is interpreted within the framework of subjective expected utility theory. In particular, a new method for computing expected (...)
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  32.  75
    Reference and Meinongian Objects.Daniel Hunter - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 14 (1):23-36.
    Terence Parsons has recently given a consistent formahzation of Meinong's Theory of Objects. The interest in this theory lies in its postulation of nonexistent objects. An important implication of the theory is that we commonly refer to nonexistent objects. In particular, the theory is committed to taking fictional entities as objects of reference. Yet it is difficult to see how reference to fictional entities can be estabHshed if Parsons' theory is correct. This difficulty diminishes the attractiveness of the theory and (...)
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  33. Is there a need for global health ethics? For and against.D. Hunter, A. J. Dawson, S. Benatar & G. Brock - 2011 - In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
  34.  11
    Précis of on believing: being right in a world of possibilities.David Hunter - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This is a précis of David Hunter’s On Believing: being right in a world of possibilities, which is the topic of an author-meets-critics symposium with comments by Daniel Drucker, Miriam Schleifer McCormick, and Mark Richard.
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  35.  20
    Is There a Case for a Distinction Between Ethics and Policy?David Hunter - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):24-25.
  36.  15
    Can research ethics committees stop unethical international trials?David Hunter - 2014 - Research Ethics 10 (2):66-68.
  37. Is thinking an action?David Hunter - 2003 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (2):133-148.
    I argue that entertaining a proposition is not an action. Such events do not have intentional explanations and cannot be evaluated as rational or not. In these respects they contrast with assertions and compare well with perceptual events. One can control what one thinks by doing something, most familiarly by reciting a sentence. But even then the event of entertaining the proposition is not an action, though it is an event one has caused to happen, much as one might cause (...)
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  38.  23
    Reference and Meinongian Objects.Daniel Hunter - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 14 (1):23-36.
    Terence Parsons has recently given a consistent formahzation of Meinong's Theory of Objects. The interest in this theory lies in its postulation of nonexistent objects. An important implication of the theory is that we commonly refer to nonexistent objects. In particular, the theory is committed to taking fictional entities as objects of reference. Yet it is difficult to see how reference to fictional entities can be estabHshed if Parsons' theory is correct. This difficulty diminishes the attractiveness of the theory and (...)
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  39.  13
    SUPPORT Case Commentary.David Hunter - 2014 - Research Ethics 10 (1):60-61.
  40.  77
    Introduction.David Hunter & Gurpreet Rattan - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (5-6):515-517.
    (2013). Introduction. Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 43, Essays on the Nature of Propositions, pp. 515-517.
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  41.  21
    How not to argue against mandatory ethics review.David Hunter - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):521-524.
    There is considerable controversy about the mandatory ethics review of research. This paper engages with the arguments offered by Murray Dyck and Gary Allen against mandatory review, namely, that this regulation fails to reach the standards that research ethics committees apply to research since it is harmful to the ethics of researchers, has little positive evidence base, leads to significant harms (through delaying valuable research) and distorts the nature of research. As these are commonplace arguments offered by researchers against regulation (...)
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  42.  16
    Belief and Agency.David Hunter (ed.) - 2011 - Calgary: University of Calgary Press.
    "Most of the papers in this volume (all except for those by Steinberg, Haase, and Street) were presented at a conference...at Ryerson University in October of 2010."--p. xvii.
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  43.  18
    Efficiency and the proposed reforms to the NHS research ethics system.D. Hunter - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):651-654.
    Significant changes are proposed for the research ethics system governing the review of the conduct of medical research in the UK. This paper examines these changes and whether they will meet the aimed-for goal of improving the efficiency of the research ethics system. The author concludes that, unfortunately, they will not and thus should be rejected.
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  44.  24
    Is there a nocebo response that results from disease awareness campaigns and advertising in Australia, and can this effect be mitigated?Stuart Benson & David Hunter - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):621-625.
    Direct-to-consumer advertising is banned in Australia, and instead pharmaceutical companies use disease awareness campaigns as a strategy to raise public awareness of conditions for which the company produces a treatment. This practice has been justified by promoting individual autonomy and public health, but it has attracted criticism regarding medicalisation of normal health and ageing, and exaggeration of the severity of the condition in question, imbalanced reporting of risks and benefits, and damaging the patient–clinician relationship. While there are benefits of disease (...)
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  45. Are New Genetic Technologies Unlucky for Luck Egalitarianism.David Hunter - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):33-54.
    New genetic technologies can not only be used to ‘cure’ many significant healthcare conditions, but at least potentially they can be used in ways that either change the user’s identity significantly and/or cause a different person to come into existence. It might be argued that these technologies present a challenge for Luck Egalitarians – the essence of this challenge being the claim that, given a commitment towards luck neutralisation, a Luck Egalitarian ought to be committed to equalisation of talent using (...)
     
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  46.  24
    Editorial: The publication of unethical research.David Hunter - 2012 - Research Ethics 8 (2):67-70.
  47. Finding True Love Online.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (2):71-71.
  48.  93
    Belief Ascription and Context Dependence.David Hunter - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (12):902-911.
    This article considers the question whether belief ascriptions exhibit context dependence. I first distinguish two potential forms of context dependence in belief ascription. Propositional context dependence concerns what the subject believes, whereas attitudinal context dependence concerns what it is to believe a proposition. I then discuss three potential sources of PCD and two potential sources of ACD. Given the nature of this article, my discussion will provide only an overview of these various forms and sources of context dependence. Along the (...)
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  49. Mind-brain identity and the nature of states.David Hunter - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (3):366 – 376.
  50.  19
    Rationing and evidence‐based medicine.David J. Hunter - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (1):5-8.
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