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David Hunter [91]David G. Hunter [12]D. Hunter [10]Daniel Hunter [7]
Dianne Hunter [4]Dan Hunter [3]David A. Hunter [3]Duncan Hunter [2]

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David Hunter
Toronto Metropolitan University
David Leslie Harold Hunter
University of Birmingham
  1.  86
    Research Exceptionalism.James Wilson & David Hunter - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):45-54.
    Research involving human subjects is much more stringently regulated than many other nonresearch activities that appear to be at least as risky. A number of prominent figures now argue that research is overregulated. We argue that the reasons typically offered to justify the present system of research regulation fail to show that research should be subject to more stringent regulation than other equally risky activities. However, there are three often overlooked reasons for thinking that research should be treated as a (...)
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  2. Alienated Belief.David Hunter - 2011 - Dialectica 65 (2):221-240.
    This paper argues that it is possible to knowingly believe something while judging that one ought not to believe it and (so) viewing the belief as manifesting a sort of failure. I offer examples showing that such ‘alienated belief’ has several potential sources. I contrast alienated belief with self-deception, incontinent (or akratic) belief and half-belief. I argue that the possibility of alienated belief is compatible with the so-called ‘transparency’ of first-person reflection on belief, and that the descriptive and expressive difficulties (...)
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  3. Inference as a Mental Act.David Hunter - forthcoming - In Michael Brent (ed.), Mental Action.
    I will argue that a person is causally responsible for believing what she does. Through inference, she can sustain and change her perspective on the world. When she draws an inference, she causes herself to keep or to change her take on things. In a literal sense, she makes up her own mind as to how things are. And, I will suggest, she can do this voluntarily. It is in part because she is causally responsible for believing what she does (...)
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  4.  46
    Are Generational Welfare Trades Always Unjust?Walter Veit, Julian Savulescu, David Hunter, Brian D. Earp & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):70-72.
    Volume 20, Issue 9, September 2020, Page 70-72.
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  5. Understanding and Belief.David Hunter - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):559-580.
    A natural view is that linguistic understanding is a source of justification or evidence: that beliefs about the meaning of a text or speech act are prima facie justified when based on states of understanding. Neglect of this view is largely due to the widely held assumption that understanding a text or speech act consists in knowledge or belief. It is argued that this assumption rests, in part, on confusing occurrent states of understanding and dispositions to understand. It is then (...)
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  6.  80
    On the Relation Between Categorical and Probabilistic Belief.Daniel Hunter - 1996 - Noûs 30 (1):75-98.
  7. Directives for Knowledge and Belief.David Hunter - 2018 - In Daniel Whiting, Conor McHugh & Jonathan Way (eds.), Normativity: Epistemic and Practical. Oxford:
     
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  8.  32
    Proportional Ethical Review and the Identification of Ethical Issues.D. Hunter - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4):241-245.
    Presently, there is a movement in the UK research governance framework towards what is referred to as proportional ethical review. Proportional ethical review is the notion that the level of ethical review and scrutiny given to a research project ought to reflect the level of ethical risk represented by that project. Relatively innocuous research should receive relatively minimal review and relatively risky research should receive intense scrutiny. Although conceptually attractive, the notion of proportional review depends on the possibility of effectively (...)
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  9.  33
    Understanding and Belief.David Hunter - 1998 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):559-580.
    A natural view is that linguistic understanding is a source of justification or evidence: that beliefs about the meaning of a text or speech act are prima facie justified when based on states of understanding. Neglect of this view is largely due to the widely held assumption that understanding a text or speech act consists in knowledge or belief. It is argued that this assumption rests, in part, on confusing occurrent states of understanding and dispositions to understand. It is then (...)
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  10.  50
    Rule-Following and Realism. [REVIEW]David Hunter - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (3):425.
    Ebbs’s aim is to “come to terms with and move beyond currently entrenched ways of looking at central topics in the philosophy of language and mind”. The entrenched perspectives are Metaphysical Realism, the view that “we can make ‘objective’ assertions only if we can ‘grasp’ metaphysically independent ‘truth conditions”’, and Scientific Naturalism, “Quine’s view that ‘it is within science itself that reality is to be identified and described”’. Ebbs intends to replace these with what he calls the “Participant Perspective,” from (...)
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  11. Soames and Widescopism.David Hunter - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 123 (3):231 - 241.
    Widescopism, as I call it, holds that names are synonymous with descriptions that are required to take wide scope over modal adverbs. Scott Soames has recently argued that Widescopism is false. He identifies an argument that is valid but which, he claims, a defender of Widescopism must say has true premises and a false conclusion. I argue, first, that a defender of Widescopism need not in fact say that the target arguments conclusion is false. Soames argument that she must confuses, (...)
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  12. Counterfactuals and Newcomb's Paradox.Daniel Hunter & Reed Richter - 1978 - Synthese 39 (2):249 - 261.
    In their development of causal decision theory, Allan Gibbard and William Harper advocate a particular method for calculating the expected utility of an action, a method based upon the probabilities of certain counterfactuals. Gibbard and Harper then employ their method to support a two-box solution to Newcomb’s paradox. This paper argues against some of Gibbard and Harper’s key claims concerning the truth-values and probabilities of counterfactuals involved in expected utility calculations, thereby disputing their analysis of Newcomb’s Paradox. If we are (...)
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  13.  43
    The Metaphysics of Responsible Believing.David Hunter - 2018 - Manuscrito 41 (4):255-285.
    Contemporary philosophy of mind has tended to make the believer disappear. In response, Matt Boyle and Pamela Hieronymi have argued that believing is an act or activity, not a mental state. I argue that this response fails to fully critique contemporary accounts of believing. Such accounts assume that states of believing are particulars; with semantic properties; that we attend to in reflection and act on in inference; and with a rich causal life of their own. Together, these assumptions leave no (...)
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  14.  18
    The Experiences of Ethics Committee Members: Contradictions Between Individuals and Committees.L. Elliott & D. Hunter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):489-494.
    The current system of ethical review for medical research in the United Kingdom is changing from the current system involving large committees of 7–18 members reviewing every individual application to a system involving pre-review by small sub-committees of National Research Ethics Officers , who have a remit to approve studies if they believe there are no material ethical issues imposed by the research. The reliability of this new system depends on the reliability of the NREAs and in particular the ability (...)
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  15.  20
    Facebook Emotional Contagion Experiment Controversy.David Hunter & Nicholas Evans - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):2-3.
  16.  68
    Guidance and Belief.David Hunter - 2009 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (S1):63-90.
  17.  8
    The Roles of Research Ethics Committees: Implications for Membership.David Hunter - 2007 - Research Ethics 3 (1):24-26.
    In this brief paper I intend to make some distinctions between the activities that research ethics committees are required to undertake as part of their role in protecting research participants. These functions are, identifying ethical issues and risks within research projects, providing advice on how to resolve these issues and risks without compromising the validity of the research and finally, when this cannot be achieved, deciding whether the research should still be allowed to go ahead. Distinguishing these distinct functions allows (...)
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  18.  17
    How to Object to Radically New Technologies on the Basis of Justice: The Case of Synthetic Biology.David Hunter - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (8):426-434.
    A recurring objection to the exploration, development and deployment of radical new technologies is based on their implications with regards to social justice. In this article, using synthetic biology as an example, I explore this line of objection and how we ought to think about justice in the context of the development and introduction of radically new technologies. I argue that contrary to popular opinion, justice rarely provides a reason not to investigate, develop and introduce radical new technologies, although it (...)
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  19.  31
    Children, Gillick Competency and Consent for Involvement in Research.D. Hunter & B. K. Pierscionek - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):659-662.
    This paper looks at the issue of consent from children and whether the test of Gillick competency, applied in medical and healthcare practice, ought to extend to participation in research. It is argued that the relatively broad usage of the test of Gillick competency in the medical context should not be considered applicable for use in research. The question of who would and could determine Gillick competency in research raises further concerns relating to the training of the researcher to make (...)
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  20.  33
    The ESRC Research Ethics Framework and Research Ethics Review at UK Universities: Rebuilding the Tower of Babel REC by REC.D. L. H. Hunter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (11):815-820.
    The history of the National Health Service research ethics system in the UK and some of the key drivers for its change into the present system are described. It is suggested that the key drivers were the unnecessary delay of research, the complexity of the array of processes and contradictions between research ethics committee (REC) decisions. It is then argued that the primary drivers for this change are and will be replicated by the systems of research ethics review being put (...)
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  21.  42
    Davidson on Practical Knowledge.David Hunter - 2015 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 3 (9).
    Did Donald Davidson agree with G.E.M. Anscombe that action requires a distinctive form of agential awareness? The answer is No, at least according to the standard interpretation of Davidson’s account of action. A careful study of Davidson’s early writings, however, reveals a much more subtle conception of the role of agential belief in action. While the role of the general belief in Davidson’s theory is familiar and has been much discussed, virtually no attention has been paid to the singular belief. (...)
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  22. Knowledge and Understanding.David Hunter - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (5):542–546.
    Some philosophical proposals seem to die hard. In a recent paper, Jason Stanley has worked to resurrect the description theory of reference, at least as it might apply to natural kind terms like ‘elm’ (Stanley, 1999). The theory’s founding idea is that to understand ‘elm’ one must know a uniquely identifying truth about elms. Famously, Hilary Putnam showed that ordinary users of ‘elm’ may understand it while lacking such knowledge, and may even be unable to distinguish elms from beeches (Putnam, (...)
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  23.  63
    Reference and Meinongian Objects.Daniel Hunter - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 14 (1):23-36.
    Terence Parsons has recently given a consistent formahzation of Meinong's Theory of Objects. The interest in this theory lies in its postulation of nonexistent objects. An important implication of the theory is that we commonly refer to nonexistent objects. In particular, the theory is committed to taking fictional entities as objects of reference. Yet it is difficult to see how reference to fictional entities can be estabHshed if Parsons' theory is correct. This difficulty diminishes the attractiveness of the theory and (...)
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  24. Lacking, Needing, and Wanting.David Hunter - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
    In this paper I offer a novel conception of the nature of wanting. According to it, wanting is simply lacking something one needs. Lacking has no direct connection to goodness but needing does, and that is how goodness figures in to wanting. What a thing needs derives from what it is to be a good thing of its kind. In people, wanting is connected to both knowledge and choice, since a person can know that she wants something and can act (...)
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  25.  63
    Introduction.David Hunter & Gurpreet Rattan - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (5-6):515-517.
    (2013). Introduction. Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 43, Essays on the Nature of Propositions, pp. 515-517.
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  26. Is Thinking an Action?David Hunter - 2003 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (2):133-148.
    I argue that entertaining a proposition is not an action. Such events do not have intentional explanations and cannot be evaluated as rational or not. In these respects they contrast with assertions and compare well with perceptual events. One can control what one thinks by doing something, most familiarly by reciting a sentence. But even then the event of entertaining the proposition is not an action, though it is an event one has caused to happen, much as one might cause (...)
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  27. Is There a Need for Global Health Ethics? For and Against.D. Hunter, A. J. Dawson, S. Benatar & G. Brock - 2011 - In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  28. Finding True Love Online.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (2):71-71.
  29.  10
    Belief and Agency.David Hunter (ed.) - 2011 - University of Calgary Press.
    "Most of the papers in this volume (all except for those by Steinberg, Haase, and Street) were presented at a conference...at Ryerson University in October of 2010."--p. xvii.
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  30.  15
    Is There a Nocebo Response That Results From Disease Awareness Campaigns and Advertising in Australia, and Can This Effect Be Mitigated?Stuart Benson & David Hunter - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):621-625.
    Direct-to-consumer advertising is banned in Australia, and instead pharmaceutical companies use disease awareness campaigns as a strategy to raise public awareness of conditions for which the company produces a treatment. This practice has been justified by promoting individual autonomy and public health, but it has attracted criticism regarding medicalisation of normal health and ageing, and exaggeration of the severity of the condition in question, imbalanced reporting of risks and benefits, and damaging the patient–clinician relationship. While there are benefits of disease (...)
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  31.  87
    Act Utilitarianism and Dynamic Deliberation.Daniel Hunter - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (1):1 - 35.
    Coordination problems, problems in which each agent's expected utility depends upon what other agents do, pose a problem for act utilitarianism. When the agents are act utilitarians and know of each other that they are so, they seem unable to achieve optimal outcomes in certain coordination problems. I examine various ways the act utilitarian might attempt to solve this problem, where act utilitarianism is interpreted within the framework of subjective expected utility theory. In particular, a new method for computing expected (...)
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  32.  83
    Belief Ascription and Context Dependence.David Hunter - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (12):902-911.
    This article considers the question whether belief ascriptions exhibit context dependence. I first distinguish two potential forms of context dependence in belief ascription. Propositional context dependence concerns what the subject believes, whereas attitudinal context dependence concerns what it is to believe a proposition. I then discuss three potential sources of PCD and two potential sources of ACD. Given the nature of this article, my discussion will provide only an overview of these various forms and sources of context dependence. Along the (...)
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  33. Are New Genetic Technologies Unlucky for Luck Egalitarianism.David Hunter - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):33-54.
    New genetic technologies can not only be used to ‘cure’ many significant healthcare conditions, but at least potentially they can be used in ways that either change the user’s identity significantly and/or cause a different person to come into existence. It might be argued that these technologies present a challenge for Luck Egalitarians – the essence of this challenge being the claim that, given a commitment towards luck neutralisation, a Luck Egalitarian ought to be committed to equalisation of talent using (...)
     
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  34.  21
    Practical Reasoning and the First Person.David Hunter - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):677-700.
    I argue that while practical reasoning is essentially first personal it does not require having essentially first personal thoughts. I start with an example of good practical reasoning. Because there is debate about what practical reasoning is, I discuss how different sides in those debates can accommodate my example. I then consider whether my example involves essentially first personal thoughts. It is not always clear what philosophers who would claim that it must have in mind. I identify two features of (...)
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  35.  12
    Can Research Ethics Committees Stop Unethical International Trials?David Hunter - 2014 - Research Ethics 10 (2):66-68.
  36.  14
    Is There a Case for a Distinction Between Ethics and Policy?David Hunter - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):24-25.
  37.  19
    Editorial: The Publication of Unethical Research.David Hunter - 2012 - Research Ethics 8 (2):67-70.
  38. Mind-Brain Identity and the Nature of States.David Hunter - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (3):366 – 376.
  39.  30
    A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates.Rex E. Jung, Ranee A. Flores & Dan Hunter - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  40.  13
    How Not to Argue Against Mandatory Ethics Review.David Hunter - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):521-524.
    There is considerable controversy about the mandatory ethics review of research. This paper engages with the arguments offered by Murray Dyck and Gary Allen against mandatory review, namely, that this regulation fails to reach the standards that research ethics committees apply to research since it is harmful to the ethics of researchers, has little positive evidence base, leads to significant harms (through delaying valuable research) and distorts the nature of research. As these are commonplace arguments offered by researchers against regulation (...)
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  41.  14
    Efficiency and the Proposed Reforms to the NHS Research Ethics System.D. Hunter - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):651-654.
    Significant changes are proposed for the research ethics system governing the review of the conduct of medical research in the UK. This paper examines these changes and whether they will meet the aimed-for goal of improving the efficiency of the research ethics system. The author concludes that, unfortunately, they will not and thus should be rejected.
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  42.  16
    Special Issue in Memory of Donald H. Berman.Edwina Rissland, Kevin Ashley, Marc Lauritsen, Patricia Hassett, Jc Smith, John Zeleznikow, Andrew Stranieri, Dan Hunter & George Vossos - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):309-310.
    In this short note, we discuss several aspectsof “dimensions” and the related constructof “factors”. We concentrate on those aspectsthat are relevant to articles in this specialissue, especially those dealing with the analysisof the wild animal cases discussed inBerman and Hafner's 1993 ICAIL article. We reviewthe basic ideas about dimensions,as used in HYPO, and point out differences withfactors, as used in subsequent systemslike CATO. Our goal is to correct certainmisconceptions that have arisen over the years.
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  43.  75
    Belief and Self‐Consciousness.David Hunter - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (5):673 – 693.
    This paper is about what is distinctive about first-person beliefs. I discuss several sets of puzzling cases of first-person belief. The first focus on the relation between belief and action, while the second focus on the relation of belief to subjectivity. I argue that in the absence of an explanation of the dispositional difference, individuating such beliefs more finely than truth conditions merely marks the difference. I argue that the puzzles reveal a difference in the ways that I am disposed (...)
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  44.  34
    The IKBALS Project: Multi-Modal Reasoning in Legal Knowledge Based Systems. [REVIEW]John Zeleznikow, George Vossos & Daniel Hunter - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 2 (3):169-203.
    In attempting to build intelligent litigation support tools, we have moved beyond first generation, production rule legal expert systems. Our work integrates rule based and case based reasoning with intelligent information retrieval.When using the case based reasoning methodology, or in our case the specialisation of case based retrieval, we need to be aware of how to retrieve relevant experience. Our research, in the legal domain, specifies an approach to the retrieval problem which relies heavily on an extended object oriented/rule based (...)
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  45.  14
    Rationing and Evidence‐Based Medicine.David J. Hunter - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (1):5-8.
  46. Editor's Choice: Issue 3, 2011.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (3):81-81.
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  47. Risks Versus Benefits is Like Apples Versus Oranges.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (3):79-80.
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  48. Facebook Recruitment: A Hypothetical Study.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (1):28-28.
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  49. New Beginnings — Part Two.David Hunter - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (4):119-119.
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  50.  68
    Out of Their Minds: Legal Theory in Neural Networks. [REVIEW]Dan Hunter - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):129-151.
    This paper examines the use of connectionism (neural networks) in modelling legal reasoning. I discuss how the implementations of neural networks have failed to account for legal theoretical perspectives on adjudication. I criticise the use of neural networks in law, not because connectionism is inherently unsuitable in law, but rather because it has been done so poorly to date. The paper reviews a number of legal theories which provide a grounding for the use of neural networks in law. It then (...)
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