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  1. Working experience of nurse anesthetists with beneficence for patients.Chontira Panaso - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics.
    Background Nowadays, patients in Thailand have easier access to public health services, resulting in an increased number of patients undergoing surgery. Therefore, the Royal College of Anesthesiologists produces nurse anesthetists to reduce the shortage of anesthesiologists who can perform general anesthesia under the physician’s supervision. As a result, nurse anesthetists must have the consciousness to work on the basis of ethics and professional standards. Nurse anesthetists have work experience that aims to benefit patients and make them as safe as possible. (...)
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  2. How should institutions help clinicians to practise greener anaesthesia: first-order and second-order responsibilities to practice sustainably.Joshua Parker, Nathan Hodson, Paul Young & Clifford Shelton - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    There is a need for all industries, including healthcare, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In anaesthetic practice, this not only requires a reduction in resource use and waste, but also a shift away from inhaled anaesthetic gases and towards alternatives with a lower carbon footprint. As inhalational anaesthesia produces greenhouse gas emissions at the point of use, achieving sustainable anaesthetic practice involves individual practitioner behaviour change. However, changing the practice of healthcare professionals raises potential ethical issues. The purpose of (...)
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  3. Chemical Restraints for Obstetric Violence: Anesthesiology Professionals, Moral Courage, and the Prevention of Forced and Coerced Surgeries.Alyssa Burgart & Caitlin Sutton - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (2):4-7.
    Once anesthetized, patients are inherently “compliant” with surgical interventions because they can no longer intervene on their own behalf. In their target article, Minkoff et al. (2024) reasonabl...
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  4. Doctors’ knowledge regarding decision-making capacity: A survey of anesthesiologists.Alastair Moodley & Ames Dhai - 2023 - Clinical Ethics 18 (2):224-229.
    Informed consent for anesthesia is an ethical and legal requirement. A patient must have adequate decision-making capacity (DMC) as a prerequisite to informed consent. In determining whether a patient has sufficient DMC, anesthesiologists must draw on their knowledge of DMC. Knowledge gaps regarding DMC may result in incorrect assessments of patients’ capacity. This could translate to an informed consent process that is ethically and legally unsound. This study examined the DMC-related knowledge of anesthesiologists in a group of four university-affiliated hospitals. (...)
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  5. Organ donation after euthanasia starting with anesthesia at home is legal in The Netherlands, Belgium, Canada and Spain.Johannes Mulder & Hans Sonneveld - 2023 - BMC Medical Ethics 24 (1):1-2.
    We would like to respond to the article “Organ donation after euthanasia starting at home in a patient with multiple system atrophy Tajaâte et al., [2021] 22:120” on organ donation after euthanasia from home [ODEH]. Although we welcome the performance of ODEH, we would like to make some critical comments regarding the article, both in relation to factual inaccuracies and in terms of the vision expressed on this subject. In this letter we stress the protection of autonomy of vulnerable euthanasia (...)
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  6. Presumed Consent for Pelvic Exams Under Anesthesia Is Medical Sexual Assault.Stephanie Tillman - 2023 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 16 (1):1-20.
    Unconsented pelvic exams under anesthesia are assaults cloaked in defense of healthcare education. Preemptive linguistic qualifiers “presumed” or “implied” attempt to justify such violations with flippancy toward their oxymoronic implications: to suggest a priori that consent can be assumed undermines its otherwise standalone social, ethical, and medico-legal reverence. In this paper I conceptualize “medical sexual assault” and argue that presumed consent for intimate exams exemplifies its definition. By bluntly describing pelvic exams as “penetration,” this work aims to reify the intimate (...)
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  7. Should medical students perform pelvic exams on anaesthetised patients without explicit consent?Chloe Bell & Nathan Emmerich - 2022 - Clinical Ethics 17 (3):230-234.
    There have been many reports of medical students performing pelvic exams on anaesthetised patients without the necessary consent being provided or even sought. These cases have led to an ongoing discussion regarding the need to ensure informed consent has been secured and furthermore, how it might be best obtained. We consider the importance of informed consent, the potential harm to both the patient and medical student risked by the suboptimal consent process, as well as alternatives to teaching pelvic examinations within (...)
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  8. Alteration of Consciousness by Anaesthetics: A Multiscale Modulation from the Molecular to the Systems Level.Marco Cavaglià, Eric A. Zizzi, Stephen Dombrowski, Marco A. Deriu & Jack A. Tuszynski - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (5-6):21-49.
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  9. Effect of Anesthetics on Functional Connectivity of Developing Brain.Xu Chen, Xuemei Zheng, Jianghui Cai, Xiao Yang, Yonghong Lin, Mengjun Wu, Xiaofan Deng & Yong G. Peng - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    The potential anesthetic neurotoxicity on the neonate is an important focus of research investigation in the field of pediatric anesthesiology. It is essential to understand how these anesthetics may affect the development and growth of neonatal immature and vulnerable brains. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has suggested that using anesthetics result in reduced functional connectivity may consider as core sequence for the neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative changes in the developed brain. Anesthetics either directly impact the primary structures and functions of the brain (...)
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  10. Educational Pelvic Examinations Under Anesthesia: Recommendations for Clinicians and Learners.Julie Chor & Stephanie Tillman - 2022 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 33 (4):347-351.
    Professional directives are unwavering: educational intimate exams should only ever occur with patients’ explicit consent. This article describes the current clinical, educational, and ethical landscape of educational pelvic examinations under anesthesia, underscores the imperative that these exams only ever occur with patients’ explicit consent, and offers accessible modifications to students’ involvement in these exams.
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  11. Book Review: Anaesthetics of Existence: Essays on Experience at the Edge, by Cressida J. Heyes. [REVIEW]Lauren Guilmette - 2022 - Political Theory 50 (5):820-825.
  12. From philosophy to anaesthesiology and back: an interdisciplinary reflection on the neural correlates of state consciousness.Hjalmar Hansen & James Grayot - 2022 - Biology and Philosophy 37 (1):1-24.
    Philosophy and anaesthesiology are disciplines that are rarely associated despite their respective interests in human consciousness. In this paper, we consider the advantages of integrating anaesthesiology and philosophy in the endeavour of discovering the neural correlates of state consciousness. We venture the following twopart argument. First, we argue that philosophical debates about the correlation conditions for state consciousness can be improved by focusing on how anaesthesiologists actually measure and study consciousness in practice. We present Integrated Information Theory as a promising (...)
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  13. The Thailand Cave Rescue: General Anaesthesia in Unique Circumstances Presents Ethical Challenges for the Rescue Team.Mark A. Irwin - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):265-271.
    In 2018, the remarkable rescue of twelve young boys and their football coach trapped in a flooded cave in Thailand captured worldwide attention. The rescue required the boys to be dived out of the cave system while fully anaesthetized which presented unique practical and ethical challenges for the rescue team. Major departures from normal anaesthetic practice were required. Taking anaesthetized children underwater was unprecedented, complex, and dangerous. To do this underground in a flooded cave meant the risks were extreme. Using (...)
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  14. Nursing Ethics and Advanced Practice in the Anesthesia and Perioperative Period.Allan C. Thomas, Gregory Sheedy & Pamela J. Grace - 2022 - In Pamela June Grace & Melissa K. Uveges (eds.), Nursing Ethics and Professional Responsibility in Advanced Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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  15. Anaesthetics of Existence: Essays on Experience at the Edge by Cressida J. Heyes, and: Experience, Caste and the Everyday Social by Gopal Guru and Sundar Sarukkai, and: When Time Warps: The Lived Experience of Gender, Race, and Sexual Violence by Megan Burke.Drishadwati Bargi - 2021 - Philosophia 11 (1-2):258-266.
  16. Cressida J. Heyes, Anaesthetics of Existence: Essays on Experience at the Edge; Gopal Guru and Sundar Sarukkai, Experience, Caste, and the Everyday Social; Megan Burke, When Time Warps: The Lived Experience of Gender, Race, and Sexual Violence. [REVIEW]Drishadwati Bargi - 2021 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 11 (1-2):258-266.
  17. Les publications des experts médicaux : l’exemple de l’anesthésie-réanimation.Jean Xavier Mazoit & Hervé Bouaziz - 2021 - Médecine et Droit 2021 (169):59-63.
  18. A Strong Emergence Hypothesis of Conscious Integration and Neural Rewiring.Eric LaRock, Jeffrey Schwartz, Iliyan Ivanov & David Carreon - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (1):97-115.
    In this paper we discuss the two-system framework, examine its strengths, point out a fundamental weakness concerning the unity of conscious experience, and then propose a new hypothesis that avoids that weakness and other related concerns. According to our strong emergence hypothesis, what emerges are not merely mental properties in specialized, distributed neural areas, but also a new, irreducibly singular entity that functions in a recurrent manner to integrate its mental properties and to rewire its brain. We argue that the (...)
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  19. Anesthesia and Consciousess.Rocco J. Gennaro - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 5 (1):49-69.
    For patients under anesthesia, it is extremely important to be able to ascertain from a scientific, third person point of view to what extent consciousness is correlated with specific areas of brain activity. Errors in accurately determining when a patient is having conscious states, such as conscious perceptions or pains, can have catastrophic results. Here, I argue that the effects of (at least some kinds of) anesthesia lend support to the notion that neither basic sensory areas nor the prefrontal cortex (...)
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  20. William James, Nitrous Oxide, and the Anaesthetic Revelation.Jane S. Moon, Catherine M. Kuza & Manisha S. Desai - 2018 - Journal of Anesthesia History 4 (1).
    William James greatly influenced the fields of psychology, philosophy, and religion during the late 19 and early 20 centuries. This was the era of Modernism, a time when many writers rejected the certainty of Enlightenment ideals. Positivism, which rose to prominence in the early 19th century, had emphasized physical phenomena, empirical evidence, and the scientific method. Darwin's On the Origin of Species, with its theory of natural selection, provided an explanation for the evolution of species apart from a divine Creator. (...)
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  21. Anesthesia and Consciousness.John F. Kihlstrom & Randall C. Cork - 2017 - In Susan Schneider & Max Velmans (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Chichester, UK: Wiley. pp. 682–694.
    In general anesthesia, a “cocktail” of drugs renders a patient unconscious, in what has been called a “controlled coma”. Various measures of patient awareness involve overt behavior, autonomic nervous system activity, processed EEG, and event‐related potentials. The incidence of intraoperative awareness is very low, but anecdotal reports suggest that patients might process surgical events unconsciously, leading to unconscious postoperative memories. Careful experimental studies show that priming effects, similar to those observed in implicit memory, can be spared even in the absence (...)
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  22. Is cortex necessary?Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2016 - Animal Sentience 1 (3).
    A key contention of Klein & Barron (2016) is that consciousness does not depend on cortical structures. A critical appraisal suggests they have overestimated the strength of their evidence.
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  23. What is unconsciousness in a fly or a worm? A review of general anesthesia in different animal models.Oressia Zalucki & Bruno van Swinderen - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:72-88.
  24. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: ‘Dysanaesthesia’ – The uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.Jaideep J. Pandit - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:194-212.
  25. Jure Dohnal-Operation Without Anesthesia.Robert Bogešić - 2013 - Kairos: Evangelical Journal of Theology 7 (1):100-102.
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  26. Surgery Without Anesthesia.Jure Dohnal - 2013 - Kairos: Evangelical Journal of Theology 1:129-131.
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  27. Anesthesiological Ethics: Can Informed Consent Be Implied?Jeffrey P. Spike - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):68-70.
    Surgical ethics is a well-recognized field in clinical ethics, distinct from medical ethics. It includes at least a dozen important issues common to surgery that do not exist in internal medicine simply because of the differences in their practices. But until now there has been a tendency to include ethical issues of anesthesiology as a part of surgical ethics. This may mask the importance of ethical issues in anesthesiology, and even help perpetuate an unfortunate view that surgeons are “captain of (...)
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  28. Comparison of Haemodynamic Changes with Propofol and Sevoflurane Anaesthesia During Laparoscopic Surgery.Alka Shah & R. N. Adaroja - 2011 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 4 (5):6.
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  29. Anaesthetists' and surgeons' attitudes towards informed consent in the UK: an observational study.Aimun AB Jamjoom, Stuart M. White, Simon M. Walton, Jonathan G. Hardman & Iain K. Moppett - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):2.
    The attitudes of patients' to consent have changed over the years, but there has been little systematic study of the attitudes of anaesthetists and surgeons in this process. We aimed to describe observations made on the attitudes of medical professionals working in the UK to issues surrounding informed consent.
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  30. Memory formation during general anesthesia.Chantal Kerssens & Michael Alkire - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47.
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  31. The Philosophical Implications of Awareness during General Anesthesia, In Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia (edited by George Mashour).Eric LaRock - 2010 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Edited by George Mashour.
    Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia is a multidisciplinary approach to both the scientific problem of consciousness and the clinical problem of awareness during general anesthesia.
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  32. Dreaming during anesthesia.Kate Leslie - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 74--89.
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  33. Monitoring Anesthetic Depth.Gerhard Schneider - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114.
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  34. Feedback suppression in anesthesia. Is it reversible?Anthony G. Hudetz - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1079-1081.
    Information processing that subserves conscious cognitive functions is thought to involve recurrent signaling through feedforward and feedback loops among hierarchically arranged functional regions of the cerebral cortex. In the current issue of Consciousness and Cognition, Lee et al. report that loss of consciousness, as produced by a bolus injection of the general anesthetic propofol to human volunteers, was accompanied by a decrease in wide-band EEG feedback connectivity from frontal cortex to parietal cortex, confirming a prediction from previous experimental studies. Interestingly, (...)
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  35. The directionality and functional organization of frontoparietal connectivity during consciousness and anesthesia in humans.UnCheol Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Byung-Moon Choi, Eunjin Hwang & George A. Mashour - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1069-1078.
    Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and functional organization of frontoparietal connectivity in 10 human subjects anesthetized with propofol on two separate occasions. Multichannel electroencephalography and a computational method of assessing directed functional connectivity were employed. We demonstrate that directed (...)
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  36. Propofol induction reduces the capacity for neural information integration: Implications for the mechanism of consciousness and general anesthesia.UnCheol Lee, George A. Mashour, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh & Byung-Moon Choi - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):56-64.
    The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing induction of general anesthesia with propofol. We quantified changes in mean information integration capacity in each band of the EEG. After induction with propofol, mean information integration capacity was reduced most prominently in the γ band (...)
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  37. Incidence of awareness and memory priming in paediatric surgery with general anaesthesia.Jackie Andrade, Catherine Deeprose & Ian Barker - 2008 - British Journal of Anaesthesia.
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  38. Contraception and Anesthesia: A Reply to James DuBois.Joseph Boyle - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):217-225.
    This is a response to James Dubois’ “Is anesthesia intrinsically wrong?” I do not address many of the claims in this article but only DuBois’ use of the moral evaluation of the medical use of anesthesia as a counter example to two lines of reasoning developed to defend the traditional Catholic prohibition of contraception. Elizabeth Anscombe's dialectical defense of this teaching does not imply that such a defense must logically apply to the use of anesthesia. John Finnis’ defense of this (...)
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  39. Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology.James M. Dubois - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition, and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. This article uses (...)
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  40. Toward a General Theory of Unconscious Processes in Psychoanalysis and Anesthesiology.George A. Mashour - 2008 - Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 56 (1):203-222.
  41. Inverse zombies, anesthesia awareness, and the hard problem of unconsciousness.George A. Mashour & Eric LaRock - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1163-1168.
    Philosophical (p-) zombies are constructs that possess all of the behavioral features and responses of a sentient human being, yet are not conscious. P-zombies are intimately linked to the hard problem of consciousness and have been invoked as arguments against physicalist approaches. But what if we were to invert the characteristics of p-zombies? Such an inverse (i-) zombie would possess all of the behavioral features and responses of an insensate being yet would nonetheless be conscious. While p-zombies are logically possible (...)
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  42. Le suivi postopératoire : le chirurgien, l’anesthésiste et la clinique.Gérard Mémeteau - 2008 - Médecine et Droit 2008 (90):93-93.
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  43. Anesthesia: A Brief Reflection on Contemporary Aesthetics.Tripp York - 2008 - Seaburn Press.
    Amidst competing claims of beauty, truth and goodness, Trajan, a young man named after a once celebrated Roman Emperor, attempts to decipher why it is that Kant is wrong, love is capricious, and why you should never take advice from a puppet.
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  44. Subcortical consciousness: Implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia.Roland R. Brusseau & George A. Mashour - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):86-87.
    In this commentary we discuss the possibility of subcortical consciousness and its implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia. We review the neural development of structural and functional elements that may participate in conscious representation, with a particular focus on the experience of pain. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  45. Anaesthesia and Ethics.Antonio Grossi - 2007 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 13 (1):7.
    Grossi, Antonio This article discusses anaesthesia, the role of the anaesthetist and its ethical challenges. In the current political climate of task substitution and de-professionalisation, it is worth considering the role of the anaesthetist and the relevant ethical issues pertaining to this endeavour.
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  46. Consciousness and anesthesia.John F. Kihlstrom & Randall C. Cork - 2007 - In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. pp. 628--639.
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  47. Neural pathways associated with loss of consciousness caused by intracerebral microinjection of GABA-sub(A)-active anesthetics.I. Sukhotinsky, V. Zalkind, J. Lu, D. A. Hopkins, B. Saper & M. Devor - 2007 - European Journal of Neuroscience 25 (5):1417-1436.
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  48. General anesthesia and the neural correlates of consciousness.M. T. Alkire & Jeff G. Miller - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  49. A starting point for consciousness research: Reply to Thomas Schmidt.Jackie Andrade & Catherine Deeprose - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):28-30.
    Anesthesia research has focused on showing learning in the absence of awareness for good practical reasons. Crucially, continued learning during otherwise clinically adequate anesthesia may affect patients’ well-being on recovery. Theoretically, preserved perceptual priming during anesthesia offers a useful starting point for consciousness research by determining the limits of memory function during minimal consciousness. The big question for consciousness research is not to demonstrate absolutely unconscious processing, but rather to map out the cognitive and neurobiological processes that enable conscious experience (...)
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  50. Is priming during anesthesia unconscious?Catherine Deeprose & Jackie Andrade - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):1-23.
    General anesthesia provides an alternative to typical laboratory paradigms for investigating implicit learning. We assess the evidence that a simple type of learning—priming—can occur without consciousness. Although priming has been shown to be a small but persistent phenomenon in surgical patients there is reason to question whether it occurs implicitly due to problems in detecting awareness using typical clinical signs. This paper reviews the published studies on priming during anesthesia that have included a measure of awareness or of anesthetic depth. (...)
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