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  1. Meta-Metasemantics, or the Quest for the One True Metasemantics.Ethan Nowak & Eliot Michaelson - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (1):135-154.
    What determines the meaning of a context-sensitive expression in a context? It is standardly assumed that, for a given expression type, there will be a unitary answer to this question; most of the literature on the subject involves arguments designed to show that one particular metasemantic proposal is superior to a specific set of alternatives. The task of the present essay will be to explore whether this is a warranted assumption, or whether the quest for the one true metasemantics might (...)
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  2. Same-Tracking Real Kinds in the Social Sciences.Theodore Bach - forthcoming - Synthese.
    The kinds of real or natural kinds that support explanation and prediction in the social sciences are difficult to identify and track because they change through time, intersect with one another, and they do not always exhibit their properties when one encounters them. As a result, conceptual practices directed at these kinds will often refer in ways that are partial, equivocal, or redundant. To improve this epistemic situation, it is important to employ open-ended classificatory concepts, to understand when different research (...)
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  3. Getting a Moral Thing Into a Thought: Metasemantics for Non-Naturalists.Preston J. Werner - 2020 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 140-169.
    Non-naturalism is the view that normative properties are response-independent, irreducible to natural properties, and causally inefficacious. An underexplored question for non-naturalism concerns the metasemantics of normative terms. Ideally, the non-naturalist could remain ecumenical, but it appears they cannot. Call this challenge the metasemantic challenge. This chapter suggests that non-naturalists endorse an epistemic account of reference determination of the sort recently defended by Imogen Dickie, with some modifications. An important implication of this account is that, if correct, a fully fleshed out (...)
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  4. Theory of Reference.Heimir Geirsson - 2021 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
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  5. No Context, No Content, No Problem.Ethan Nowak - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (2):189-220.
    Recently, philosophers have offered compelling reasons to think that demonstratives are best represented as variables, sensitive not to the context of utterance, but to a variable assignment. Variablists typically explain familiar intuitions about demonstratives—intuitions that suggest that what is said by way of a demonstrative sentence varies systematically over contexts—by claiming that contexts initialize a particular assignment of values to variables. I argue that we do not need to link context and the assignment parameter in this way, and that we (...)
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  6. Blockchain et l'arbre causal de la référence.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Dans un article précédent, The Philosophy of blockchain technology - Ontologies, j'ai parlé de l'application de la théorie narrative de Paul Ricœur dans le développement d'une ontologie de la technologie blockchain. Dans cette section, j'ai l'intention de mettre en évidence l'idée d'une analogie entre la technologie blockchain et les théories causales de la référence. Dans la mesure où la poursuite de l'élaboration de cette idée se révélera viable, je vais essayer de développer une théorie basée sur cette analogie. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24843.21282 (...)
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  7. Referential Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  8. Numerals, Positionality, and Reference Fixing. Reply to Vivanco.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 2020 - Manuscrito 43 (4):59-73.
    Filipe Martone argues that reference-fixing intentions where the intended object is represented by means of a description can never fix the reference of a demonstrative, and that a speaker, as a matter of empirical fact, never has simultaneous perceptual and non-perceptual reference-fixing intentions that she can intend as fixing the reference of a demonstrative. In this note I reject Martone’s arguments for these claims.
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  9. Numerals, Positionality, and Reference Fixing. Reply to Vivanco.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 2020 - Manuscrito 43 (4):35-48.
    Eleonora Orlando argues that one must understand some descriptivist theories of names that I criticize in my book Roads to Reference as ceteris paribus generalizations, and that on this understanding they survive my criticisms; she also introduces some doubts about my views on the knowledge speakers have of the reference-fixing conventions I postulate for proper names. In this note I argue against Orlando’s suggestion about ceteris paribus provisos and explain my view of the epistemology of reference-fixing conventions.
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  10. Context-Sensitive Reference Fixing and Objectivity. Reply to Barceló.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 2020 - Manuscrito 43 (4):13-21.
    Axel Barceló has extended the objectivist apparatus for handling color terms that I develop in my book Roads to Reference, so that the extension covers also some aesthetic predicates. In this note I argue that Barceló’s extension probably attempts to go too far.
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  11. Constructing a Naturalistic Theory of Intentionality.J. H. van Hateren - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (1):473-493.
    A naturalistic theory of intentionality is proposed that differs from previous evolutionary and tracking theories. Full-blown intentionality is constructed through a series of evolvable refinements. A first, minimal version of intentionality originates from a conjectured internal process that estimates an organism’s own fitness and that continually modifies the organism. This process produces the directedness of intentionality. The internal estimator can be parsed into intentional components that point to components of the process that produces fitness. It is argued that such intentional (...)
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  12. Reference and Intuitions.Daniel Cohnitz & Jussi Haukioja - 2021 - In Stephen Biggs & Heimir Geirsson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Reference. Routledge. pp. 551-559.
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  13. David, Some Davids, and All Davids: Reference, Category Change, and Bearerhood of Real-Life Names.Laura Delgado - 2018 - Dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona
    This essay is devoted to the study of proper names. Although the view that sees proper names as referential singular terms is widely considered orthodoxy, there is a growing popularity to the view that proper names are predicates. This is partly because the orthodoxy faces two anomalies that Predicativism can solve: on the one hand, proper names can have multiple bearers. But multiple bearerhood is prima facie a problem to the idea that proper names have just one individual as referent. (...)
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  14. Reference and Descriptions.Andrea Bianchi - 2011 - In Marina Sbisà, Jan-Ola Ostman & Jef Verschueren (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives for Pragmatics. Amsterdam: pp. 253-279.
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  15. Two Ways of Being a (Direct) Referentialist.Andrea Bianchi - 2012 - In Joseph Almog & Paolo Leonardi (eds.), Having in Mind: The Philosophy of Keith Donnellan. New York, Stati Uniti: pp. 79-92.
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  16. Inferential and Referential Lexical Semantic Competence: A Critical Review of the Supporting Evidence.Fabrizio Calzavarini - 2017 - Journal of Neurolinguistic 44:163-189.
    In philosophical semantics, a distinction has been proposed between inferential and referential lexical semantic competence. The former accounts for the relationship of words to the world, the latter for the relationship of words among themselves. Recent neuroscience research suggests that the distinction might be actually neurally implemented. That is, that inferential and referential abilities might be underpinned by two functionally independent cognitive architectures, with partly different neural realizations. This hypothesis is consistent with brain patient data, supporting the notion of a (...)
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  17. A Metarepresentational Theory of Intentional Identity.Alexander Sandgren - 2019 - Synthese 196 (9):3677-3695.
    Geach points out that some pairs of beliefs have a common focus despite there being, apparently, no object at that focus. For example, two or more beliefs can be directed at Vulcan even though there is no such planet. Geach introduced the label ‘intentional identity’ to pick out the relation that holds between attitudes in these cases; Geach says that ’[w]e have intentional identity when a number of people, or one person on different occasions, have attitudes with a common focus, (...)
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  18. Uma solução artefactual para o problema da referência de objetos fictícios.Francisco Lages - 2017 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
    Nosso trabalho pretende traçar um percurso teórico sobre a referência de objetos fictícios. Para tanto, apresentamos o tratamento de Frege, Russell e Meinong com o intuito de fornecer o pano de fundo clássico sobre o qual nosso tema se encontra. Tentamos mostrar a insuficiência desse quadro clássico de teses tendo em vista suas soluções para a referência de objetos fictícios e o resultado esperado por nós. Por isso, sugerimos a linha argumentativa delineada por Kripke a partir de Naming and Necessity, (...)
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  19. In Defense of Historical Chain-Descriptivism.David DeMatteo - forthcoming - Logos: The Undergraduate Journal of Philosophy at Cornell.
    This paper makes an intervention into the debate between descriptivist and causal theories of reference-fixing by arguing that the two aren’t necessarily exclusive. One can formulate a theory of reference-fixing which closely mimics Kripke’s causal theory but which frames the relation between speakers in terms of descriptions rather than intentions. When a speaker utters the name, they associate the following description with the name: “the object/name that is referred to by the person I heard/read/learned the name from when they utter/write (...)
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  20. Race and Reference.Adam Hochman - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):32.
    The biological race debate is at an impasse. Issues surrounding hereditarianism aside, there is little empirical disagreement left between race naturalists and anti-realists about biological race. The disagreement is now primarily semantic. This would seem to uniquely qualify philosophers to contribute to the biological race debate. However, philosophers of race are reluctant to focus on semantics, largely because of their worries about the ‘flight to reference’. In this paper, I show how philosophers can contribute to the debate without taking the (...)
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  21. How to Hintikkize a Frege.Fabien Schang - 2016 - In Amirouche Moktefi, Alessio Moretti & Fabien Schang (eds.), Let’s be Logical (Studies in the Philosophy and History of Logic). Londres, Royaume-Uni: pp. 161-172.
    The paper deals with the main contribution of the Finnish logician Jaakko Hintikka: epistemic logic, in particular the 'static' version of the system based on the formal analysis of the concepts of knowledge and belief. I propose to take a different look at this philosophical logic and to consider it from the opposite point of view of the philosophy of logic. At first, two theories of meaning are described and associated with two competing theories of linguistic competence. In a second (...)
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  22. The Reference of Proper Names, Semantic Intuitions, and Experimental Philosophy.Adrian Ziółkowski - 2017 - Studia Semiotyczne - English Supplement 29:201-247.
    This paper is a contribution to the debate concerning the kind of philosophical conclusions that can (or cannot) be derived from systematic empirical studies of intuitions about the reference of proper names. The focus of the paper is the famous study by Machery et al. (2004) in which intercultural differences in semantic intuitions between American and Chinese participants were observed. Machery et al. used the obtained results to question the usefulness of intuitions in philosophical discussions concerning the reference of proper (...)
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  23. Arbitrary Reference, Numbers, and Propositions.Michele Palmira - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (3):1069-1085.
    Reductionist realist accounts of certain entities, such as the natural numbers and propositions, have been taken to be fatally undermined by what we may call the problem of arbitrary identification. The problem is that there are multiple and equally adequate reductions of the natural numbers to sets (see Benacerraf, 1965), as well as of propositions to unstructured or structured entities (see, e.g., Bealer, 1998; King, Soames, & Speaks, 2014; Melia, 1992). This paper sets out to solve the problem by canvassing (...)
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  24. Inexistência e Obstinação.João Branquinho - 2013 - In Adriana V. Serrão, Carla M. Simões, Elisabete M. De Sousa, Filipa Afonso, Maria Luísa Ribeiro Ferreira & Ubirajara Rancan de Azevedo Marques (eds.), Poética da razão: homenagem a Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos. Lisboa, Portugal: pp. 385-397.
    Queremos neste ensaio introduzir um esboço de uma semântica simples e adequada para uma classe importante de predicações singulares de inexistência, ou frases existenciais singulares negativas. Frases deste género, como “Sócrates (já) não existe” e “O pássaro Dódó não existe”, são usualmente tidas como de algum modo paradoxais e semanticamente problemáticas. O modelo semântico que vamos delinear para tais frases, que desejavelmente se caracteriza pela simplicidade e pela economia, depende no entanto de duas importantes e substantivas suposições de partida, e, (...)
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  25. The Ontology of Reference: Studies in Logic and Phenomenology.Barry Smith - 1976 - Dissertation, Manchester
    Abstract: We propose a dichotomy between object-entities and meaning-entities. The former are entities such as molecules, cells, organisms, organizations, numbers, shapes, and so forth. The latter are entities such as concepts, propositions, and theories belonging to the realm of logic. Frege distinguished analogously between a ‘realm of reference’ and a ‘realm of sense’, which he presented in some passages as mutually exclusive. This however contradicts his assumption elsewhere that every entity is a referent (even Fregean senses can be referred to (...)
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  26. Une théorie unifiée de la vérité et de la référence.Barry Smith & Berit Brogaard - 2004 - In J. M. Monnoyer (ed.), La Structure du Monde: Objets, Propriétés, États du Choses. Paris: Vrin. pp. 141-184.
    The truthmaker theory rests on the thesis that the link between a true judgment and that in the world to which it corresponds is not a one-to-one but rather a one-to-many relation. An analogous thesis in relation to the link between a singular term and that in the world to which it refers is already widely accepted. This is the thesis to the effect that singular reference is marked by vagueness of a sort that is best understood in supervaluationist terms. (...)
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  27. X—Reference and the Permutation Argument.Richard Gaskin - 2011 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (2pt2):295-309.
    I argue that fidelity to the context principle requires us to construe reference as a theoretical relation. This point helps us understand the bearing of Putnam's permutation argument on the idea of a systematic theory of meaning. Notwithstanding objections that have been made against Putnam's deployment of that argument, it shows the reference relation to be indeterminate. But since the indeterminacy of reference arises from a metalinguistic perspective, our ability, as object‐language speakers, to talk about the ordinary features of our (...)
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  28. Reference and Reflexivity.Eros Corazza - 2003 - Mind 112 (445):171-175.
  29. On Theories of Reference.Paui Yu - 1981 - NTU Philosophical Review 4:77-103.
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  30. Reference and Description. [REVIEW]Juan José Acero - 2011 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 26 (2):258-261.
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  31. Singular Thought.Tim Crane & Jody Azzouni - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):21-43.
    A singular thought can be characterized as a thought which is directed at just one object. The term ‘thought’ can apply to episodes of thinking, or to the content of the episode (what is thought). This paper argues that episodes of thinking can be just as singular, in the above sense, when they are directed at things that do not exist as when they are directed at things that do exist. In this sense, then, singular thoughts are not object-dependent.
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  32. "The Reference Book" by John Hawthorne and David Manley. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2012 - The Times Literary Supplement 1.
    ‘Why does language matter to philosophy?’ is the name of a minor classic by Ian Hacking published in 1975. It’s a good question. Among the many charges laid against academic philosophy, one of the more familiar is that it concerns itself excessively with verbal or ‘merely semantic’ questions, at the expense of the real questions of philosophy. And yet those who have made a serious attempt to engage with philosophical problems quite soon finds themselves grappling with the very words they (...)
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  33. Proper Names, Names, and Fictive Objects.Avrum Stroll - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):522.
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  34. What Is It to Know Someone?David Lauer - 2014 - Philosophical Topics 42 (1):321-344.
    Ordinary language makes a distinction between knowing a person by having seen her before and knowing her “personally,” that is, by having interacted with her. The aim of my paper is to substantiate this distinction between knowledge by interaction and knowledge by acquaintance, that is, knowledge acquired by way of the senses. According to my view, knowledge of a person by interaction is the kind of knowledge sustained by addressing her as “you.” I claim that this second-person knowledge is essentially (...)
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  35. Ambiguous Reference.Shaun Nichols, N. Ángel Pinillos & Ron Mallon - 2016 - Mind 125 (497):145-175.
    One of the central debates in the philosophy of language is that between defenders of the causal-historical and descriptivist theories of reference. Most philosophers involved in the debate support one or the other of the theories. Building on recent experimental work in semantics, we argue that there is a sense in which both theories are correct. In particular, we defend the view that natural kind terms can sometimes take on a causal-historical reading and at other times take on a descriptivist (...)
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  36. Reference and Reflexivity.John Perry - 2001 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    Following his recently expanded _The Problem of the Essential Indexical and Other Essays,_ John Perry develops a reflexive-referential' account of indexicals, demonstratives and proper names. On these issues the philosophy of language in the twentieth century was shaped by two competing traditions, descriptivist and referentialist. Oddly, the classic referentialist texts of the 1970s by Kripke, Donnellan, Kaplan and others were seemingly refuted almost a century earlier by co-reference and no-reference problems raised by Russell and Frege. Perry's theory, borrowing ideas from (...)
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  37. Russell Vs. Meinong: The Legacy of "on Denoting".Nicholas Griffin & Dale Jacquette (eds.) - 2008 - London and New York: Routledge.
    A century after ‘On Denoting’ was published, the debate it initiated continues to rage. On the one hand, there is a mass of new historical scholarship, about both Russell and Meinong, which has not circulated very far beyond specialist scholars. On the other hand, there are continuing problems and controversies concerning contemporary Russellian and Meinongian theories, many of them involving issues that simply did not occur to the original protagonists. This work provides an overview of the latest historical scholarship on (...)
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  38. Deictic Codes, Demonstratives, and Reference: A Step Toward Solving the Grounding Problem.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. Müller - 2002 - In Wayne D. Gray & Christian D. Schunn (eds.), Cogsci 2002, 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 762-767.
    In this paper we address the issue of grounding for experiential concepts. Given that perceptual demonstratives are a basic form of such concepts, we examine ways of fixing the referents of such demonstratives. To avoid ‘encodingism’, that is, relating representations to representations, we postulate that the process of reference fixing must be bottom-up and nonconceptual, so that it can break the circle of conceptual content and touch the world. For that purpose, an appropriate causal relation between representations and the world (...)
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  39. Language, Names and Information.Frank Jackson - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Language, Names, and Information_ is an important contribution to philosophy of language by one of its foremost scholars, challenging the pervasive view that the description theory of proper names is dead in the water, and defending a version of the description theory from a perspective on language that sees words as a wonderful source of information about the nature of the world we live in. Challenges current pervasive view that the description theory of reference for proper names has been refuted (...)
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  40. Names Are Predicates.Delia Graff Fara - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (1):59-117.
    One reason to think that names have a predicate-type semantic value is that they naturally occur in count-noun positions: ‘The Michaels in my building both lost their keys’; ‘I know one incredibly sharp Cecil and one that's incredibly dull’. Predicativism is the view that names uniformly occur as predicates. Predicativism flies in the face of the widely accepted view that names in argument position are referential, whether that be Millian Referentialism, direct-reference theories, or even Fregean Descriptivism. But names are predicates (...)
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  41. 9. Reference Theory.Nicholas Rescher - 2014 - In Philosophical Progress: And Other Philosophical Studies. De Gruyter. pp. 111-120.
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  42. Referenz Und Fallibilismus: Zu Hilary Putnams Pragmatischem Kognitivismus.Axel Mueller - 2001 - De Gruyter.
    This is a two tiered investigation. On the one hand, the author presents a systematic account of the philosophy of Hilary Putnam. Being the first comprehensive account to be published in the German-speaking world, the author traces the development of Putnam's realism and philosophy of language and their connections from the early 1950's to 2000. Contrary to the popular view of the discontinuity of Putnam's philosophy, he demonstrates that Putnam maintains certain semantic, pragmatic and epistemological foundations for the rational confirmability, (...)
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  43. Inostensible Terms: Epistemological and Semantical Issues in the Theory of Reference.H. Ilhan Inan - 1997 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    One of the most important features of natural language is that it enables its users to talk about an object before having experienced the object, or talk about an object without knowing which object it is. We can talk about the smallest island on earth before experiencing it, or we can talk about the smallest perfect number without knowing which number it is. I call terms that are used to make this kind of reference "inostensible." In this essay I discuss (...)
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  44. The Coherence and Historical Pictures of Reference on the Nature of Reference.La Verne Maria Shelton Leeb - 1975 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
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  45. Belief and the Reference of Proper Names.Richard Jeffrey De Rose - 1980 - Dissertation, Brown University
    Part II begins by sketching a pragmatic interpretation of the attributive/referential distinction based on the extent and nature of a person's beliefs. The crux of the distinction is seen to be the presence of a relation termed "epistemic privity." The discussion proceeds to extend the pragmatic distinction to propositions and reference across possible worlds. The apparatus thus developed will then be applied to the difficulties of contexts of propositional attitudes. ;A variation on the Single Description Theory is the "Cluster Theory." (...)
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  46. Kripke's Interpretation of Wittgenstein's Theory of Proper Names.Johanna Maria Bantjes - 1979 - Dissertation, Georgetown University
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  47. From Having in Mind to Direct Reference.Antonio Capuano - 2012 - In Kabasenche - O'Rourke - Slater (ed.), Reference and Referring. MIT Press. pp. 189-208.
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  48. Is There Room for Reference Borrowing in Donnellan’s Historical Explanation Theory?Andrea Bianchi & Alessandro Bonanini - 2014 - Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (3):175-203.
    Famously, both Saul Kripke and Keith Donnellan opposed description theories and insisted on the role of history in determining the reference of a proper name token. No wonder, then, that their views on proper names have often been assimilated. By focusing on reference borrowing—an alleged phenomenon that Kripke takes to be fundamental—we argue that they should not be. In particular, we claim that according to Donnellan a proper name token never borrows its reference from preceding tokens which it is historically (...)
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  49. Cognitive Significance and New Theories of Reference.John Perry - 1988 - Noûs 22 (1):1-18.
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  50. Descriptive Descriptive Names.Robin Jeshion - 2004 - In Marga Reimer & Anne Bezuidenhout (eds.), Descriptions and Beyond. Clarendon Press.
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