Results for 'Analogy'

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  1. Sam Shpall, University of Sydney.Dworkin'S. Literary Analogy - 2019 - In Toh Kevin, Plunkett David & Shapiro Scott (eds.), Dimensions of Normativity: New Essays on Metaethics and Jurisprudence. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  2. Marie-laure Ryan.Creative Analogies - 1998 - Semiotica 118 (1/2):147-164.
     
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  3.  3
    Reply to Devolder.On Reasoning Analogy - 2014 - In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary debates in bioethics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 101.
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  4.  11
    Should we agree to disagree? Pragmatism and peer disagreement.Susan Dieleman & Steven W. Visual Analogies and Arguments - unknown
    In this paper, I take up the conciliatory-steadfast debate occurring within social epistemology in regards to the phenomenon of peer disagreement. I will argue, because the conciliatory perspective al-lows us to understand argumentation pragmatically—as a method of problem-solving within a community rather than as a method for obtaining the truth—that in most cases, we should not simply agree to disagree.
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  5. Kant on Vital Forces and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 961-972.
    In this essay I examine Kant's analogy with life from §65 of the Critique of the power of Judgment. I argue that this analogy is central for understanding his notion of a natural end, for his account of the formative power of organisms in the third Critique, and for situating Kant's account of this power in relation to the Lebenskräfte of the vitalists.
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  6. Donald L. Martin.Democracy Analogy Falters - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics.
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  7. Franz Bretano’s Theory of Intentionality and Analogy of the Experience of Hearing to Voices.Maria de Nazareth Rodrigues Malcher de Oliveira Silva - 2022 - Revista de Filosofia Moderna E Contemporânea 10 (2):143-155.
    Brentano’s theory of Intentionality gave rise to empirical psychology, considered by the mental acts of external objects and consciousness. In this sense, the purpose of this essay is to reflect on the phenomenon of auditory hallucinations, from the perspective of Franz Brentano’s intentionality, as a representative psychic phenomenon of internal experience. Auditory hallucinations, under a phenomenological approach, are considered as an experience of the relational process of a historical person. In analogy to the theory of the intentionality of mental (...)
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  8.  9
    Skinner's environmentalism: The analogy with natural selection.Terry L. Smith - 1983 - Behaviorism 11 (2):133-153.
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  9. Kant's First Analogy.Laird C. Addis - 1963 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 54 (3):237.
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  10.  8
    Elements of Moral Cognition: Rawls' Linguistic Analogy and the Cognitive Science of Moral and Legal Judgment.John Mikhail - 2009 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Is the science of moral cognition usefully modelled on aspects of Universal Grammar? Are human beings born with an innate 'moral grammar' that causes them to analyse human action in terms of its moral structure, with just as little awareness as they analyse human speech in terms of its grammatical structure? Questions like these have been at the forefront of moral psychology ever since John Mikhail revived them in his influential work on the linguistic analogy and its implications for (...)
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  11.  29
    Morality and Epistemic Judgement: The Argument From Analogy.Christopher Cowie - 2019 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Moral judgments attempt to describe a reality that does not exist, so they are all false. This troubling view is known as the moral error theory. Christopher Cowie defends it against the most compelling counter-argument, the argument from analogy: Cowie shows that moral error theory does not compromise the practice of making epistemic judgments.
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  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics: More Than an Analogy?John Dougherty & Craig Callender - unknown
    Black hole thermodynamics is regarded as one of the deepest clues we have to a quantum theory of gravity. It motivates scores of proposals in the field, from the thought that the world is a hologram to calculations in string theory. The rationale for BHT playing this important role, and for much of BHT itself, originates in the analogy between black hole behavior and ordinary thermodynamic systems. Claiming the relationship is “more than a formal analogy,” black holes are (...)
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  13.  3
    Functional organization, analogy, and inference.William Wimsatt - 2002 - In André Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 173--221.
  14. Vaccination, Risks, and Freedom: The Seat Belt Analogy.Alberto Giubilini & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phz014.
    We argue that, from the point of view public health ethics, vaccination is significantly analogous to seat belt use in motor vehicles and that coercive vaccination policies are ethically justified for the same reasons why coercive seat belt laws are ethically justified. We start by taking seriously the small risk of vaccines’ side effects and the fact that such risks might need to be coercively imposed on individuals. If millions of individuals are vaccinated, even a very small risk of serious (...)
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  15.  80
    Atoms and the ‘analogy of nature’: Newton's third rule of philosophizing.J. E. McGuire - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (1):3-58.
  16.  15
    Atoms and the 'Analogy of Nature': Newton's Third Rule of Philosophizing.J. E. Mcguire - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (1):3.
  17.  10
    The reaction against analogy.Alison Wylie - 1985 - Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8:63-111.
  18.  27
    From Greenwashing to Machinewashing: A Model and Future Directions Derived from Reasoning by Analogy.Peter Seele & Mario D. Schultz - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 178 (4):1063-1089.
    This article proposes a conceptual mapping to outline salient properties and relations that allow for a knowledge transfer from the well-established greenwashing phenomenon to the more recent machinewashing. We account for relevant dissimilarities, indicating where conceptual boundaries may be drawn. Guided by a “reasoning by analogy” approach, the article addresses the structural analogy and machinewashing idiosyncrasies leading to a novel and theoretically informed model of machinewashing. Consequently, machinewashing is defined as a strategy that organizations adopt to engage in (...)
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  19.  25
    Structure‐Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy.Dedre Gentner - 1983 - Cognitive Science 7 (2):155-170.
    A theory of analogy must describe how the meaning of an analogy is derived from the meanings of its parts. In the structure‐mapping theory, the interpretation rules are characterized as implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a target domain. Two important features of the theory are (a) the rules depend only on syntactic properties of the knowledge representation, and not on the specific content of the domains; and (b) the theoretical framework allows analogies to (...)
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  20. What's Wrong With Testimony? Defending the Epistemic Analogy between Testimony and Perception.Peter Graham - 2024 - In Jennifer Lackey & Aidan McGlynn (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter states the contrast between presumptivism about testimonial warrant (often called anti-reductionism) and strict reductionism (associated with Hume) about testimonial warrant. Presumptivism sees an analogy with modest foundationalism about perceptual warrant. Strict reductionism denies this analogy. Two theoretical frameworks for these positions are introduced to better formulate the most popular version of persumptivism, a competence reliabilist account. Seven arguments against presumptivism are then stated and critiqued: (1) The argument from reliability; (2) The argument from reasons; (3) the (...)
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  21.  11
    Similarity, precedent and argument from analogy.Douglas Walton - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (3):217-246.
    In this paper, it is shown (1) that there are two schemes for argument from analogy that seem to be competitors but are not, (2) how one of them is based on a distinctive type of similarity premise, (3) how to analyze the notion of similarity using story schemes illustrated by some cases, (4) how arguments from precedent are based on arguments from analogy, and in many instances arguments from classification, and (5) that when similarity is defined by (...)
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  22.  7
    Gearing up for Lagrangian dynamics: The flywheel analogy in Maxwell’s 1865 paper on electrodynamics.Cameron Lazaroff-Puck - 2015 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 69 (5):455-490.
    James Clerk Maxwell’s 1865 paper, “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,” is usually remembered as replacing the mechanical model that underpins his 1862 publication with abstract mathematics. Up to this point historians have considered Maxwell’s usage of Lagrangian dynamics as the sole important feature that guides Maxwell’s analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in his 1865 publication. This paper offers an account of the often ignored mechanical analogy that Maxwell used to guide him and his readers in the construction of (...)
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  23.  27
    Valid reasoning by analogy.Julian S. Weitzenfeld - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (1):137-149.
    Reasoning that compares two objects or situations to draw conclusions about previously unknown properties of one of them has traditionally been taken to be ampliative and probabilistic. I propose that it is apodeictic reasoning from a premise about isomorphic structures that is often uncertain, but which we may have good reasons to believe. I characterize the structures and their isomorphism, describe patterns of reasoning appropriate to them, and discuss some complications not immediately obvious.
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  24. Kant and the scope of analogy in the life sciences.Hein van den Berg - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 71:67-76.
    In the present paper I investigate the role that analogy plays in eighteenth-century biology and in Kant’s philosophy of biology. I will argue that according to Kant, biology, as it was practiced in the eighteenth century, is fundamentally based on analogical reflection. However, precisely because biology is based on analogical reflection, biology cannot be a proper science. I provide two arguments for this interpretation. First, I argue that although analogical reflection is, according to Kant, necessary to comprehend the nature (...)
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  25.  58
    Aquinas and Analogy.Ralph McInerny - 1992 - Philosophical Topics 20 (2):103-124.
  26.  11
    Deconstructing the Brain Disconnection–Brain Death Analogy and Clarifying the Rationale for the Neurological Criterion of Death.Melissa Moschella - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):279-299.
    This article explains the problems with Alan Shewmon’s critique of brain death as a valid sign of human death, beginning with a critical examination of his analogy between brain death and severe spinal cord injury. The article then goes on to assess his broader argument against the necessity of the brain for adult human organismal integration, arguing that he fails to translate correctly from biological to metaphysical claims. Finally, on the basis of a deeper metaphysical analysis, I offer a (...)
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  27.  16
    Conceiving Prime Matter in the Middle Ages: Perception, Abstraction and Analogy.Nicola Polloni - 2023 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 105 (3):414-443.
    In its formlessness and potentiality, prime matter is a problematic entity of medieval metaphysics and its ontological limitations drastically affect human possibility of conceiving it. In this article, I analyse three influential strategies elaborated to justify an epistemic access to prime matter. They are incidental perception, negative abstraction, and analogy. Through a systematic and historical analysis of these procedures, the article shows the richness of interpretations and theoretical stakes implied by the conundrum of how prime matter can be known (...)
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  28.  8
    Kant and the Construction of Pure Reason: An Analogy with a Chemical Experiment.Joel Thiago Klein - 2023 - Manuscrito 46 (1):29-76.
    This paper defends a constructive interpretation of the Critique of Pure Reason, which is built in analogy with an experimental construction that Kant believes to characteristic of chemistry. I also argue for a way to reconcile the methodological perspective of the constructivist method with that of transcendental reflection. I therefore provide a constructive explanation for what Kant describes as being pure reason and the argument of the transcendental deduction. I propose to frame the different perspectives in such a way (...)
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  29.  8
    Darwin’s analogy between artificial and natural selection: how does it go?Susan G. Sterrett - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (1):151-168.
    View/download or read postprint via a streaming viewer with the turning page feature in SOAR, or click on the DOI link to access the publisher's copy of this article.
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  30. Revelation: From Metaphor to Analogy.R. G. Swinburne - 1993 - Religious Studies 29 (3):381-394.
     
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  31.  5
    Revelation: From Metaphor to Analogy.Richard Swinburne - 1991 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
    Christianity and other religions claim that their books and creeds contain truths revealed by God. How can we know whether they do? Revelation investigates the claim of the Christian religion to have such revealed truths; and so considers which parts of the Bible are to be regarded as literal history, and which as metaphorical truth. This entirely rewritten second edition contains a long new chapter examining whether traditional Christian claims about personal morality can be regarded as revealed truths.
  32.  18
    Polarity and Analogy.D. W. Hamlyn & G. E. R. Lloyd - 1968 - Philosophical Review 77 (2):242.
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  33.  8
    The use of analogy and symbolism in traditional chinese philosophy.Shu-Hsien Liu - 1974 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 1 (3-4):313-338.
  34.  47
    Moral Epistemology: The Mathematics Analogy.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2012 - Noûs 48 (2):238-255.
    There is a long tradition comparing moral knowledge to mathematical knowledge. In this paper, I discuss apparent similarities and differences between knowledge in the two areas, realistically conceived. I argue that many of these are only apparent, while others are less philosophically significant than might be thought. The picture that emerges is surprising. There are definitely differences between epistemological arguments in the two areas. However, these differences, if anything, increase the plausibility of moral realism as compared to mathematical realism. It (...)
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  35.  13
    Peirce on Analogy.Rory Misiewicz - 2020 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 56 (3):299-325.
  36.  71
    Berkeley's Rejection of Divine Analogy.Stephen H. Daniel - 2011 - Science Et Esprit 63 (2):149-161.
    Berkeley argues that claims about divine predication (e.g., God is wise or exists) should be understood literally rather than analogically, because like all spirits (i.e., causes), God is intelligible only in terms of the extent of his effects. By focusing on the harmony and order of nature, Berkeley thus unites his view of God with his doctrines of mind, force, grace, and power, and avoids challenges to religious claims that are raised by appeals to analogy. The essay concludes by (...)
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  37.  6
    The μέγιστα γένη and the Vowel Analogy of Plato, "Sophist" 253.J. R. Trevaskis - 1966 - Phronesis 11 (2):99-116.
  38. Cognition by analogy and the possibility of metaphysics.Samantha Matherne - 2021 - In Peter Thielke (ed.), Kant's Prolegomena: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  39.  17
    Cognizing Coexistence: Perceptions and their Synthetic Unity in Kant’s 3rd Analogy.Andrew Werner - forthcoming - Journal of Modern Philosophy 5 (1):6.
    In the 3rd Analogy, Kant claims that I can perceive that things coexist by synthesizing my perceptions in an order-indifferent way. Reigning orthodoxy holds that I first successively perceive different things, and then (through some further act) determine that the things I perceive coexist. Focusing on prominent examples of this approach, I argue that these accounts fail to do justice to the order-indifferent synthesis that Kant describes: Strawson explains the synthesis in a way which renders Kant’s argument in the (...)
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  40.  61
    An Argument for Compulsory Vaccination: The Taxation Analogy.Alberto Giubilini - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (3):446-466.
    I argue that there are significant moral reasons in addition to harm prevention for making vaccination against certain common infectious diseases compulsory. My argument is based on an analogy between vaccine refusal and tax evasion. First, I discuss some of the arguments for compulsory vaccination that are based on considerations of the risk of harm that the non‐vaccinated would pose on others; I will suggest that the strength of such arguments is contingent upon circumstances and that in order to (...)
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  41.  14
    The Structure of Arguments by Analogy in Law.Luís Duarte D’Almeida & Cláudio Michelon - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (2):359-393.
    Successful accounts of analogy in law have two burdens to discharge. First, they must reflect the fact that the conclusion of an argument by analogy is a normative claim about how to decide a certain case. Second, they must not fail to accord relevance to the fact that the source case was authoritatively decided in a certain way. We argue in the first half of this paper that the common view of the structure of analogical arguments in law (...)
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  42.  17
    “Perfect in Humanity”: The Analogy of Perfection in the Person of Christ.Anthony D. Baker - 2022 - Christian Bioethics 28 (3):164-174.
    I. INTRODUCTIONIs Jesus the perfect human being? An affirmative response seems unavoidable for classical Christology. Indeed, at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the gathered bishops and representatives of the church across Africa, Asia, and Europe agreed that Jesus Christ was “perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity”: teleion…en Theótæti kai teleion…en anthropótæti.Theologians and patristics scholars alike often sort through the second part of this formula in the way that the remainder of the conciliar definition itself seems to indicate, interpreting (...)
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  43. A Method for Evaluation of Arguments from Analogy.Bo R. Meinertsen - 2016 - Cogency: Journal of Reasoning and Argumentation 7 (2):109-123.
    It is a common view that arguments from analogy can only be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. However, while this reflects an important insight, I propose instead a relatively simple method for their evaluation based on just (i) their general form and (ii) four core questions. One clear advantage of this proposal is that it does not depend on any substantial (and controversial) view of similarity, unlike influential current alternative methods, such as Walton’s. Following some initial clarification of the (...)
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  44.  83
    Deductive Reasoning Under Uncertainty: A Water Tank Analogy.Guy Politzer - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (3):479-506.
    This paper describes a cubic water tank equipped with a movable partition receiving various amounts of liquid used to represent joint probability distributions. This device is applied to the investigation of deductive inferences under uncertainty. The analogy is exploited to determine by qualitative reasoning the limits in probability of the conclusion of twenty basic deductive arguments (such as Modus Ponens, And-introduction, Contraposition, etc.) often used as benchmark problems by the various theoretical approaches to reasoning under uncertainty. The probability bounds (...)
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  45. What's in the Apartheid Analogy? Palestine/Israel Refracted.Raef Zreik & Azar Dakwar - 2020 - Theory and Event 23 (3):664-705.
    This article engages the analogy of Palestine/Israel to apartheid South Africa, and probes the political imaginary that contours this discussion while explicating the circumstances of its emergence. Accordingly, it contends that apartheid is not merely a system of institutionalized separation; rather, it organizes the facts and reality of separation(s) within a frame and against a background unity that effectively allows it to be perceived as such. To that end, the article explores four key factors that created background unity in (...)
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  46.  20
    Compensation and hazard pay for key workers during an epidemic: an argument from analogy.Doug McConnell & Dominic Wilkinson - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):784-787.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created unusually challenging and dangerous workplace conditions for key workers. This has prompted calls for key workers to receive a variety of special benefits over and above their normal pay. Here, we consider whether two such benefits are justified: a no-fault compensation scheme for harm caused by an epidemic and hazard pay for the risks and burdens of working during an epidemic. Both forms of benefit are often made available to members of the armed forces for (...)
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  47.  27
    Bases are Not Letters: On the Analogy between the Genetic Code and Natural Language by Sequence Analysis.Dan Faltýnek, Vladimír Matlach & Ľudmila Lacková - 2019 - Biosemiotics 12 (2):289-304.
    The article deals with the notion of the genetic code and its metaphorical understanding as a “language”. In the traditional view of the language metaphor of the genetic code, combinations of nucleotides are signs of amino acids. Similarly, words combined from letters represent certain meanings. The language metaphor of the genetic code, 171–200, 2011) assumes that the nucleotides stay in the analogy to letters, triples to words and genes to sentences. We propose an application of mathematical linguistic methods on (...)
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  48.  8
    From Exemplar to Grammar: A Probabilistic Analogy‐Based Model of Language Learning.Rens Bod - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):752-793.
    While rules and exemplars are usually viewed as opposites, this paper argues that they form end points of the same distribution. By representing both rules and exemplars as (partial) trees, we can take into account the fluid middle ground between the two extremes. This insight is the starting point for a new theory of language learning that is based on the following idea: If a language learner does not know which phrase‐structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s/he allows (...)
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  49. Method, Order, and Analogy in Trinitarian Theology. Karl Rahner's Critique of the „Psychological” Approach.Jeremy D. Wilkins - 2010 - The Thomist 74 (4):563-592.
     
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  50. On Kant's Second Analogy and his Reply to Hume.A. Ward - 1986 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 77 (4):409.
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