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Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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  1. Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act by Can Laurens Löwe. [REVIEW]Thomas M. Osborne Jr - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):152-154.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act by Can Laurens LöweThomas M. Osborne Jr.Can Laurens Löwe. Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021. Pp. 225. Hardback, $99.99.This book is about the way in which Thomas Aquinas understands the human act to be composed of form and matter. It provides a fresh reading of many central texts from Thomas and (...)
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  2. Trinity and Mystery. Three Models for the Contemporary Debate in Analytic Philosophy of Religion.Damiano Migliorini - 2022 - Dialegesthai. Rivista Telematica di Filosofia 24.
    There is a lively debate in contemporary Analytic Philosophy of Religion about the consistency of the Trinitarian doctrine. In this context, the notion of ‘mystery’ has become crucial. However, although it is currently considered the main challenge of Trinitarian theology, its definition remains rather partial and superficial. After a brief description of today’s Mysterianism, I analyse three ‘emblematic’ positions in light of the current debate: Aquinas, Leibniz and Hegel present three ways to believe in a mysterious Trinity. I will point (...)
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  3. El Papa cuestionado: manuscritos inéditos de F. Peña sobre las tesis de Alcalá (1601-1602).David Torrijos Castrillejo - 2022 - Cauriensia 17:609-635.
    The “theses of Alcalá” were two controversial statements defended by certain Jesuits at the University of Alcalá de Henares in 1601. One of them was perceived by the Pope as particularly offensive: “It does not belong to Faith that this concrete man, for example, Clement VIII, is the Roman Pontiff”. When Pope Clement learned of this theological act, the Spanish Inquisition intervened, since it attempted to prevent the Supreme Pontiff from reserving the cause for himself. In this article, we delve (...)
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  4. Resurrection, Reassembly, and Reconstitution: Aquinas on the Soul.Eleonore Stump - 2006 - In Bruno Niederberger & Edmund Runggaldier (eds.), Die menschliche Seele: Brauchen wir den Dualismus? Frankfurt, Germany: pp. 151-172.
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  5. The Oxford Handbook of the Reception of Aquinas. [REVIEW]Robert McNamara - 2023 - Journal of Jesuit Studies 10 (1):164-6.
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  6. On the Question of the Distinction of Intellectual and Moral Virtues in Aristotle´s and Thomas Aquinas´ Ethics and their Significance for the Present.Karol Pavlovkin - 2019 - Filozofia 74 (3).
  7. The Non-Aristotelian character of Aquinas's ethics.Eleonore Stump - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 42 (1):27-50.
    Although Thomistic philosophy has often been equaled to a Christianized Aristotelianism, Eleonore Stump weakens this common conception through the unraveling of the notions of virtue and passion within the Thomistic ethics, and comparing these with their Aristotelian counterparts.The exposition of the Thomistic theory of virtue serves as a starting point to the development of the classification of the passions that Thomas Aquinas presents. Given their different cultures, one pagan and the other Christian, Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas construct two different theoretical (...)
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  8. Intricate Readings: Machiavelli, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas.Carlo Ginzburg - 2015 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 78 (1):157-172.
  9. Aquinas on Friendship. [REVIEW]Jennifer Hart Weed - 2008 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (1):136-137.
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  10. Beauty as a Guide to Truth: Aquinas, Fittingness, and Explanatory Virtues.Levi Durham - forthcoming - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association.
    Many scientists and philosophers of science think that beauty should play a role in theory selection. Physicists like Paul Dirac and Steven Weinberg explicitly claim that the ultimate explanations of the physical world must be beautiful. And philosophers of science like Peter Lipton say that we should expect the loveliest theory to also be the most likely. In this paper, I contend that these arguments from loveliness bear a striking similarity to Thomas Aquinas’ arguments from fittingness; both seem to presume (...)
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  11. Chapter 12 Encountering Others in Medieval Ethics: The Case of Thomas Aquinas.Isabelle Mandrella - 2022 - In Nicolas Faucher & Virpi Mäkinen (eds.), Encountering Others, Understanding Ourselves in Medieval and Early Modern Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 231-244.
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  12. Chapter 13 Justice, Dignity, and the Care of the Others: Pedro de Ledesma, True Interpreter of Thomas Aquinas.Emanuele Lacca - 2022 - In Nicolas Faucher & Virpi Mäkinen (eds.), Encountering Others, Understanding Ourselves in Medieval and Early Modern Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 245-260.
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  13. Aquinas’s Principle of Misericordia in Corporations: Implications for Workers and other Stakeholders.Angus Robson - 2022 - Humanistic Management Journal 7 (2):233-257.
    Despite its central position in the history of European and Christian thought on the protection of human dignity, the virtue of mercy is currently a problematic and under-developed concept in business ethics, compared to related ideas of care, compassion or philanthropy. The aim of this article is to argue for its revival as a core principle of ethical business practice. The article is conceptual in method. An overview is provided of the scope of contemporary business ethics research on related topics (...)
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  14. The Praiseworthy Passion of Shame. An Historical and Philosophical Elucidation of Aquinas's Thought on the Nature and Role of Shame in the Moral Life.Heribertus Dwi Kristanto - 2019 - Rome: Biblical and Gregorian Press.
    Shame's moral status has puzzled philosophers since antiquity: is (a sense of) shame merely a passion or is it a moral virtue? Aquinas, influenced by Aristotle, claims that shame is, properly speaking, a passion, though it can be called, broadly speaking, a virtue, insofar as it is a praiseworthy passion. Through careful exegesis on key passages containing shame-related words verecundia, erubescentia, confusio, pudor, dan turpitudo in Thomas Aquinas's ouvre, this study shows that, despite its potential to demoralize, to lead to (...)
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  15. Aquinas on Shame, Virtue, and the Virtuous Person.Heribertus Dwi Kristanto - 2020 - The Thomist 84 (2):263-291.
    SOME SCHOLARS within the Aristotelian tradition, notably C. C. Raymond and K. Kristjánsson, have recently questioned the Stagirite’s denials that shame (aidōs) can be a moral virtue in the proper sense of the term and that a virtuous person needs a sense of shame in addition to other moral virtues. Aristotle famously claims that, although shame is the mean between bashfulness and shamelessness, shame is “more like a feeling than a state of character” and that “one is ashamed of what (...)
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  16. Metaphysics between Experience and Transcendence: Thomas Aquinas on Metaphysics as a Science by Rudi A. te Velde.Philip-Neri Reese - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):162-164.
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  17. The Christian Structure of Politics: On the De Regno of Thomas Aquinas by William McCormick.D. C. Schindler - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):150-152.
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  18. Aquinas and the Infused Moral Virtues by Angela McKay Knobel.Thomas M. Osborne - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):144-146.
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  19. Aquinas on Imitation of Nature: Source of Principles of Moral Action by Wojciech Golubiewski.Anthony T. Flood - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):139-141.
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  20. Aquinas, Original Sin, and the Challenge of Evolution by Daniel W. Houck.Marie I. George - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (3):408-409.
  21. The Light That Binds: A Study in Thomas Aquinas’s Metaphysics of Natural Law by Stephen L. Brock.David J. Klassen - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (3):399-401.
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  22. The Metaphysical Foundations of Love: Aquinas on Participation, Unity, and Union by Anthony Flood.Andrew J. Hayes - 2019 - Review of Metaphysics 73 (2):366-367.
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  23. Thomas Aquinas on the Virtues of Character and Virtuous Ends.Alexander Stöpfgeshoff & Christopher Bobier - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (1):21-41.
    Thomas Aquinas situates virtues of character in the noncognitive appetite. He also claims that virtues of character provide the ends in practical matters. Since providing proper ends seems to be a cognitive act, it is unclear how virtues of character, qua perfections of the noncognitive appetite, provide ends. After criticizing three approaches to this interpretive challenge, we suggest that Aquinas provides us with a theory of practical identity. We argue that that on Aquinas's view a practical identity is constituted both (...)
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  24. Thomas Aquinas and His Predecessors: Philosophers and the Church Fathers in His Works by Leo Elders.Jude P. Dougherty - 2018 - Review of Metaphysics 72 (2):378-380.
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  25. Aquinas and the Market: Toward a Humane Economy by Mary L Hirschfeld.Jude P. Dougherty - 2019 - Review of Metaphysics 72 (3):602-604.
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  26. Lessened by Addition: Procession by Diminution in Proclus and Aquinas.Eric D. Perl - 2019 - Review of Metaphysics 72 (4):685-716.
  27. The Ecstasy of Love in the Thought of Thomas Aquinas by Peter A. Kwasniewski.Heather M. Erb - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (3):597-599.
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  28. Non enim corpus sentit, sed anima per corpus. Tommaso d’Aquino lettore di Agostino.Fabrizio Amerini - 2016 - In Fabrizio Amerini & Stefano Caroti (eds.), Ipsum verum non videbis nisi in philosophiam totus intraveris. Studi in onore di Franco De Capitani. Parma: E-theca OnLineOpenAccess Edizioni. pp. 
25-76.
    The aim of this study is to illustrate the role played by Augustine’s Commentary on the Genesis in the writings of Thomas Aquinas. This work is of great importance for Aquinas, not only because it is the work where Augustine clarifies his interpretation of creation, but also because creation is, among the theological topics, perhaps the most philosophical, insofar as it gives the opportunity of elaborating on many philosophical issues. In particular, the goal of the study is to rethink the (...)
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  29. Presentation of the Aquinas Medal.Angela Knobel - 2020 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 94:23-25.
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  30. Aquinas on Bodily or Sensible Beauty.Michael J. Rubin - 2020 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 94:259-279.
    Thomas Aquinas consistently maintains that there are two kinds of beauty: bodily or sensible beauty and spiritual or intelligible beauty. Due to the lively debate over whether intelligible beauty is a transcendental for Thomas, discussions of his aesthetics have tended either to ignore his views on sensible beauty or to mention them only in passing. The present paper will therefore give a brief overview of Thomas’s thought on bodily beauty. The first section will discuss the objective aspects of sensible beauty (...)
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  31. Why There Wasn't, and How There Can Be, a Latin Social Trinity.Scott M. Williams - forthcoming - In Christine Helmer & Shannon Craigo-Snell (eds.), Claiming God: Essays in Honor of Marilyn McCord Adams. pp. 153-174.
    In this chapter I want to focus on what it might mean to speak of the “Trinitarian friendship circle.” There are at least two ways to consider this friendship circle. One way is to consider the Trinity in itself, which is what theologians call the “immanent Trinity.” If we consider a “Trinitarian friendship circle” with regard to the immanent Trinity, then we would be talking about whether before the creation of the world, the three di- vine persons were in some (...)
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  32. The God who is beauty: beauty as a divine name in Thomas Aquinas and Dionysius the Areopagite.Brendan Thomas Sammon - 2013 - Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications.
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  33. Conscience as cognition: phenomenological complementing of Aquinas's theory of conscience.Jan Krokos - 2013 - Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Edition.
    This study analyzes conscience as a specific cognition, as an axiological consciousness of a human act. The doctrine of Thomas Aquinas plays an important role here: He assumes conscience to be a cognition; his concept of conscience is quite significant and had great influence on philosophical thinking. Nevertheless, this doctrine on conscience is not satisfying enough from the viewpoint of epistemology and, therefore, it requires a complement. Such a complement is found in phenomenological analyses, especially in those concerning consciousness. Underlying (...)
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  34. In the light of reason: a brief introduction to St. Thomas Aquinas.Michael T. Ryan - 2011 - Toronto, Ontario: Nelson Education.
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  35. The hermeneutics of knowing and willing in the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas.Kevin E. O'Reilly - 2013 - Walpole, MA: Peeters.
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  36. Aquinas and the cry of Rachel: Thomistic reflections on the problem of evil.John F. X. Knasas - 2013 - Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press.
    Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 The Cry of Rachel -- Maritain's 1942 Marquette Aquinas Lecture -- Maritain's The Person and the Common Good -- Camus's The Plague -- ch. 2 Joy -- Being as the Good and the Eruption of Willing -- Being and Philosophical Psychology -- An Ordinary Knowledge of God and Metaphysics -- Metaphysics as Implicit Knowledge -- Being and the Intellectual Emotions -- ch. 3 Quandoque Evils -- Aquinas's Rationale for the Corruptible Order -- The Corruptible (...)
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  37. Moral science and practical reason in Thomas Aquinas.María Elton - 2013 - Zürich: Lit.
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  38. ch. 14. Aristotle, Aquinas, Anscombe, and the new virtue ethics.Candace Vogler - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
  39. ch. 12. "Philia" and "Caritas" : some aspects of Aquinas's reception of Aristotle's theory of friendship.Mark Fuchs - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  40. ch. 9. Aquinas on Aristotelian justice : defender, destroyer, subverter, or surveyor?Jeffrey Hause - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  41. ch. 11. Aquinas on incontinence and psychological weakness.Martin Pickave - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  42. ch. 7. Aquinas's Aristotelian defense of martyr courage.Jennifer A. Herdt - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  43. ch. 6. Losable virtue : Aquinas on character and will.Bonnie Kent - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  44. ch. 4. "Duplex beatitudo " Aristotle's legacy and Aquinas's conception of human happiness.Jorn Muller - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  45. ch. 5. Aquinas on choice, will, and voluntary action.Matthias Perkams - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  46. ch. 2. Historical accuracy in Aquinas's commentary on the "Ethics".T. H. Irwin - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  47. ch. 3. Structure and method in Aquinas's appropriation of aristotelian ethical theory.Michael Pakaluk - 2013 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  48. On the teacher: Saint Augustine & Saint Thomas Aquinas: a comparison: a dissertation presented in 1935 to the faculty of the Graduate School of St. Louis University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy.William Ligon Wade - 2013 - Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press.
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  49. Aquinas & Maritain on evil: mystery and metaphysics.James G. Hanink (ed.) - 2013 - Washington, DC: American Maritain Association Publications ; Distrubed by The Catholic University of America Press.
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  50. TheLove of Truth & The Truth of Love: Retrieving Saints Augustine & Thomas Aquinas on the Relationship of Understanding & Love.Joseph Christian Collins - 2022 - Dissertation, Boston College
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