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Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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  1. Accommodating Ambiguity Within Aquinas’ Philosophy Of Truth.Catherine Nancekievill - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
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  2. Re-Thinking Truth: Assessing Heidegger's Critique of Aquinas in Light of Vallicella's Critique of Heidegger.Jonathan Lyonhart - 2020 - New Blackfriars.
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  3. Aquinas on the Nature of Christ's Punishment and its Role in His Work of Satisfaction.Daniel Waldow - 2020 - New Blackfriars 103 (1103):7-28.
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  4. A Thomistic Reflection on Philippa Foot's Corrective Theory of Virtue.Nathan Luis Cartagena - 2020 - Heythrop Journal.
    In her influential essay ‘Virtues and Vices,’ Philippa Foot argues that virtues are essentially corrective, moderating between two vicious extremes. She also contends that Aquinas champions this view, too. In contrast, I argue that Foot misreads Aquinas; that Aquinas's actual theory of virtue is incompatible with the corrective theory Foot defends; and that those who endorse Aquinas's Augustinian theology should side with his perfective theory of virtue rather than Foot's corrective one.
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  5. Essere e causalità: ontologia tomista.Pasquale Viola - 2021 - Dissertation,
    L'elaborato intende analizzare lo statuto ontologico dell'ente a partire dal binomio esse e id quod est, sviluppato da Tommaso nel commento al De Hebdomadibus di Boezio, specificando i concetti di partecipazione come causalità forte, e di essere come massimo estensivo e più generale.
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  6. Anthony Kenny's Criticism of Aquinas' First Way and the Omne Quod Movetur Ab Alio Movetur Principle.Renato José de Moraes - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):202-223.
    Anthony Kenny criticized the Five Ways, by Thomas Aquinas, in a widespread and influential book. About the First Way, among other critiques, Kenny considers that Thomas Aquinas failed to prove that “whatever is in motion is put in motion by another”. As this principle is central for the argument developed by Aquinas on the “first mover, put in movement by no other”, the First Way is insufficient and grounded on a mistake. In this article, Aristotle’s and Aquinas’s works are analysed (...)
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  7. Virtue and Grace in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas by Justin M. Anderson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2020, Pp.341, £75.00, Hbk. [REVIEW]David Goodill - 2021 - New Blackfriars 102 (1102):1026-1029.
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  8. Aquinas on Evil and the Will: A Response to Mackie.Facundo Rodríguez - 2021 - New Blackfriars 102 (1102):997-1014.
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  9. Creation in Aquinas: Ex Nihilo or Ex Deo?Daniel Soars - 2021 - New Blackfriars 102 (1102):950-966.
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  10. Gerard M. Verschuuren; Aquinas and Modern Science: A New Synthesis of Faith and Reason. [REVIEW]Mariano Vicchi - 2021 - The Incarnate Word 8 (2):196-198.
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  11. Gerard M. Verschuuren; Aquinas and Modern Science: A New Synthesis of Faith and Reason. [REVIEW]Marie Notre Dame de L’Espérance Guilloux - 2021 - The Incarnate Word 8 (2):192-195.
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  12. Henry Carr; The Function of the Phantasm in St. Thomas Aquinas. [REVIEW]Richard A. Yevchak - 2021 - The Incarnate Word 8 (2):175-176.
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  13. Peter Kwasniewski; The Ecstasy of Love in the Thought of Thomas Aquinas. [REVIEW]Salvador Curutchet - 2021 - The Incarnate Word 8 (2):181-182.
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  14. Just Pain: Aquinas on the Necessity of Retribution and the Nature of Obligation.William Matthew Diem - 2022 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):47-79.
    Although it is common in the Catholic moral tradition to hear punishment spoken of as “just” and demanded by reason, it is remarkably difficult to say why reason demands that malefactors suffer or to articulate what is rendered to whom in punishment. The present essay seeks to fill this lacuna by examining Aquinas’s treatment of punishment. After examining several themes found in his work, the paper will conclude that the conceptual key to the reasonableness of punishment is to be found (...)
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  15. Formal Abstraction and its Problems in Aquinas.David Svoboda - 2022 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):1-20.
    Formal abstraction is a key instrument Aquinas employs to secure the possibility of mathematics conceived as a theoretical Aristotelian science. In this concept, mathematics investigates quantitative beings, which are grasped by means of formal abstraction in their necessary, universal, and changeless properties. Based on this, the paper divides into two main parts. In the first part I explicate Aquinas’s conception of abstraction against the background of the Aristotelian theory of science and mathematics. In the second part I present and critically (...)
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  16. Three Philosophers: Aristotle, Aquinas, and Frege.Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe & Peter Thomas Geach - 1961 - Oxford, England: Blackwell.
  17. Summistae. The Commentary Tradition on Thomas Aquinas’ ‘Summa Theologiae’ From the 15th to the 17th Centuries, Edited by Lidia Lanza & Marco Toste. Leuven University Press: Leuven (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy – Series 1‑ LVIII), 2021, 447 Pp. [REVIEW]Mário Santiago de Carvalho - 2021 - Revista Filosófica de Coimbra 30 (60).
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  18. Aquinas and Soto on Derogatory Judgement and Noncomparative Justice.Andreas Blank - 2012 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (4):411-427.
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  19. How Did Robert Grosseteste and Thomas Aquinas Read Anselm’s Definition of Truth?Christian Brouwer - forthcoming - In Giles Gasper, Margaret Healy-Varley & George Younge (eds.), Anselm of Canterbury: Communities, Contemporaries and Criticism. Leiden: Brill.
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  20. Thomas Aquinas and the Greek Fathers. Edited by Michael Dauphinais, Andrew Hofer, OP, and Roger Nutt. Pp. Xx, 360, Ave Maria, FL, Sapientia Press of Ave Maria University, 2019, $44.95. [REVIEW]Norman Russell - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1116-1117.
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  21. Thomas Aquinas: A Historical and Philosophical Profile. By Pasquale Porro. Translated by Joseph G. Trabbic and Roger W. Nutt. Pp. Xiii, 458, Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2016, $65.00. [REVIEW]Andrew Meszaros - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1115-1116.
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  22. Aristotle in Aquinas’s Theology. Edited by Gilles Emery, OP and Matthew Levering. Pp. Xviii, 261. Oxford University Press, 2015, £65.00/$110.00. [REVIEW]Albert Marie Surmanski - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1118-1119.
  23. Soundings in the History of a Hope: New Studies on Thomas Aquinas. By Richard Schenk, OP. Pp. X, 332, Ave Maria, FL, Sapientia Press, 2016, $168.38. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1127-1128.
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  24. Perfection in Death: The Christological Dimension of Courage in Aquinas. By Patrick M. Clark. Pp Xxi, 317, The Catholic University of America Press, 2015, £60.50/$65.00. [REVIEW]Nathan L. Cartagena - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1126-1127.
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  25. Teaching Bodies: Moral Formation in the Summa of Thomas Aquinas. By Mark D. Jordan. Pp. X, 214, NY, Fordham University Press, 2017, £22.99. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1124-1124.
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  26. Aquinas on Transubstantiation: The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. By Reinhard Hutter. Pp. 133, Washington DC, The Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC, 2019. [REVIEW]Anthony Barratt - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1125-1126.
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  27. Aquinas on Human Self-Knowledge. By Therese Scarpelli Cory. Pp. Xi, 241. Cambridge University Press, 2013, £55.00/$90.00. [REVIEW]Albert Marie Surmanski - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1123-1123.
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  28. Thomas Aquinas and His Predecessors: The Philosophers and the Church Fathers in His Works by Leo Elders. Pp. Xv, 381. The Catholic University of America Press: Washington DC, $75.00. [REVIEW]Louis Groarke - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1120-1120.
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  29. A Gift of Presence: The Theology and Poetry of the Eucharist in Thomas Aquinas. By Jan-Heiner Tück; Translated by Scott G. Hefelfinger. Pp. Xxii, 379, Washington, D.C, The Catholic University of America Press, 2018, $75.00/£76.09. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1124-1125.
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  30. Aquinas’s Way to God: The Proof in De Entre Et Essentia. By Gaven Kerr. Pp. 205, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, £62.00. [REVIEW]Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1122-1123.
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  31. The Discovery of Being and Thomas Aquinas: Philosophical and Theological Perspectives. Edited by Christopher M. Cullen and Franklin T. Harkins. Pp. X, 310. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2019, $75.00. [REVIEW]Jonathon Lookadoo - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (6):1120-1122.
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  32. Augustine and Aquinas on the Demonic.Benjamin McCraw - 2017 - In Benjamin McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.), Philosophical Approaches to Demonology. New York, NY, USA: pp. 23-38.
    My focus in this paper concerns the demonic from the perspective of Augustine and Aquinas. Much of their views on demons coincide with certain elements of the popular view, but a good bit also diverges in some interesting and important ways. In fact, their philosophical theology is essentially bound up with their overall demonology. I show that the aim of the demonic is to bring about conversion through temptation, and this “possession” is nothing but the person coming to be like (...)
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  33. Thomas Aquinas on Virtue.Thomas Osborne - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Aquinas produced a voluminous body of work on moral theory, and much of that work is on virtue, particularly the status and value of the virtues as principles of virtuous acts, and the way in which a moral life can be organized around them schematically. Thomas Osborne presents Aquinas's account of virtue in its historical, philosophical and theological contexts, to show the reader what Aquinas himself wished to teach about virtue. His discussion makes the complexities of Aquinas's moral thought (...)
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  34. The New Cambridge Companion to Aquinas.Eleonore Stump & Thomas Joseph White (eds.) - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
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  35. Readings in Epistemology: From Aquinas, Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant.Vincent G. Potter - 2020 - Fordham University Press.
  36. Contingency, Free Will, and Particular Providence.DAvid Torrijos Castrillejo - 2021 - Religions 12.
    The results from contemporary science, especially the theory of evolution and quantum physics, seem to favor process theology. Moreover, the evil committed by free will leads some theologians to reduce divine action in order to prevent God from being responsible for evil. Thus, among those who defend a particular providence, Molinism finds many followers. This article first argues that contemporary science does not constrain us to deny particular providence. Second, it criticizes the implicitly deterministic character of Molinism. Thirdly, a Thomistic (...)
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  37. Aquinas, Analogy and the Trinity.Reginald Mary Chua - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy.
    In this paper I argue that Aquinas’ account of analogy provides resources for resolving the prima facie conflict between his claims that (1) the divine relations constituting the persons are “one and the same” with the divine essence; (2) the divine persons are really distinct, (3) the divine essence is absolutely simple. Specifically, I argue that Aquinas adopts an analogical understanding of the concepts of being and unity, and that these concepts are implicit in his formulation of claims about substance (...)
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  38. Thomistic Faith Naturalized? The Epistemic Significance of Aquinas’s Appeal to Doxastic Instinct.Mark Boespflug - 2021 - Faith and Philosophy 38 (2):245-261.
    Aquinas’s conception of faith has been taken to involve believing in a way that is expressly out of keeping with the evidence. Rather than being produced by evidence, the confidence involved in faith is a product of the will’s decision. This causes Aquinas’s conception of faith to look flagrantly irrational. Herein, I offer an interpretation of Aquinas’s position on faith that has not been previously proposed. I point out that Aquinas responds to the threat of faith’s irrationality by explicitly maintaining (...)
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  39. Perfect Freedom in The Good Place and St. Thomas’ Commentary on the Gospel of John.Rashad Rehman - 2021 - de Philosophia 1 (I):1-15.
    Mike Shur’s Netflix-aired The Good Place has been a focus of philosophical attention by both popular-culture (written by pop-philosophers) and professional philosophers. This attention is merited. The Good Place is a philosophically rich TV show. The Good Place is based in three places: The Good Place, The Medium Place and The Bad Place. Every human being ends up in one of these places after they die based on their good points (points received for doing good actions e.g., chewing with your (...)
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  40. Survivalism, Suitably Modified.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - The Thomist.
    A well-known problem seems to beset views on which humans are essentially material, but where I can survive my death: they seem incoherent or reducible to substance dualism. Thomas Aquinas held a unique hylomorphic view of the human person as essentially composed of body and soul, but where the human soul can survive the death of the body. ‘Survivalists’ have argued that, post mortem, a human person comes to be composed of their soul alone. ‘Corruptionists’ point to Thomas’ texts, where (...)
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  41. Brief Lives: Thomas Aquinas.Hilarius Bogbinder - 2021 - Philosophy Now 146:62-64.
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  42. Providence and Science in a World of Contingency: Thomas Aquinas' Metaphysics of Divine Action.Ignacio Silva - 2021 - Routledge.
    Providence and Science in a World of Contingency offers a novel assessment of the contemporary debate over divine providential action and the natural sciences, suggesting a re-consideration of Thomas Aquinas' metaphysical doctrine of providence coupled with his account of natural contingency. By looking at the history of debates over providence and nature, the volume provides a set of criteria to evaluate providential divine action models, challenging the underlying theologically contentious assumptions of current discussions on divine providential action. Such assumptions include (...)
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  43. The Focus on Immanent Activity in the Second Way.Joseph Magee - 2021 - Thomistica.Net.
    After presenting the “first and more manifest way” of proving the existence of God by reason alone in Summa Theologiae Ia, 2, 3, Saint Thomas Aquinas continues this project by turning in the “Second Way” to what he somewhat enigmatically calls “the nature of the efficient cause.” The greatest obstacle to understanding his Second Way, though, is determining precisely what Aquinas means by “the nature of the efficient cause” and “an order of efficient causes,” and how the Second Way is (...)
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  44. The Alleged Birthday Fallacy in Aquinas’s Third Way.Joseph Magee - 2017 - In Darci Hill (ed.), Reflections on Medieval and Renaissance Thought. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 166-74.
    In the Third of his celebrated Five Ways in Summa Theologiae Ia, q. 2, a. 3, St. Thomas Aquinas argues for the existence of God from contingency and necessity noting that the world contains possible beings which are able not to be since, being generated and corrupted, they at some time do not exist. He claims to show that there must be some necessary being since it is impossible that all things are possible beings. Scholars have long found this part (...)
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  45. Remarks on the Importance of Albert the Great’s Analyses and Use of the Thought of Avicenna and Averroes in the De Homine for the Development of the Early Natural Epistemology of Thomas Aquinas.Richard C. Taylor - unknown
  46. A Comparison of Beauty Definition in Farabi and Aquinas's Views; with Emphasis on Perfection Concept.Javad Amin Khandaqi - 2019 - Art and Media Studies 2 (1):29-52.
    Farabi in the context of Islamic philosophy and Aquinas in the context of Christian philosophy both use the concept of "perfection" in the definition of "beauty". This research, using by the library collection, and qualitative analysis method, examines the beauty definitions and the concept of perfection in them. The results of this study shows that the two philosophers are similar in their definition of beauty and its grades. Farabi is more concerned with the concept of "perfection" in the definition of (...)
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  47. Incarnating the Impassible God: A Scotistic Transcendental Account of the Passions of the Soul.Liran Shia Gordon - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 2 (62):1081-1098.
    The problem of divine impassibility, i.e., of whether the divine nature in Christ could suffer, stands at the center of a debate regarding the nature of God and his relation to us. Whereas philosophical reasoning regarding the divine nature maintains that the divine is immutable and perfect in every respect, theological needs generated an ever-growing demand for a passionate God truly able to participate in the suffering of his creatures. Correlating with the different approaches of Thomas Aquinas and John Duns (...)
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  48. How to Begin Studying Thomas Aquinas.Thomas Hibbs - unknown
    Thomas Hibbs is the Dean of the Honors College at Baylor University.
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  49. Secondary Substance and Quod Quid Erat Esse: Aquinas on Reconciling the Divisions of "Substance" in the Categories and Metaphysics.Elliot Polsky - 2022 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):21-45.
    Modern commentators recognize the irony of Aristotle’s Categories becoming a central text for Platonic schools. For similar reasons, these commentators would perhaps be surprised to see Aquinas’s In VII Metaphysics, where he apparently identifies the secondary substance of Aristotle’s Categories with a false Platonic sense of “substance” as if, for Aristotle, only Platonists would say secondary substances are substances. This passage in Aquinas’s commentary has led Mgr. Wippel to claim that, for Aquinas, secondary substance and essence are not the same (...)
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  50. Thomas Aquinas on Grace as a Mysterious Kind of Creature.Elliot Polsky - 2021 - Studia Gilsoniana 10 (3):545–578.
    Although the question of whether, in the thought of Thomas Aquinas, sanctifying grace is “created” or “uncreated” has received considerable attention in the last several decades, many of the questions and arguments proposed by those, such as Karl Rahner, Jerome Ebacher, and A.N. Williams, in favor of grace being uncreated have gone unanswered. Among these ancillary questions and arguments are those concerning the proper subject of grace, the categorial classification of grace, and the reason for the mystery and unconsciousness of (...)
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